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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu, Sundaram; Gwang-Woo, Jeong; Tae-Hoon, Kim; Gwang-Won, Kim; +2 Authors

    Objective: To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. Results: For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2010
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Korean Journal of Radiology
    Article
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Korean Journal of Radiology
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2010
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
      Article
      License: CC BY NC
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Blaya , Catherine; Alava , Seraphin;

    This report refers to findings for all 25 countries in the European survey; This report presents the Findings for France for the EU Kids Online project (see www.eukidsonline.net). Specifically, it includes selected findings, calculated and interpreted for the UK only, of the survey data and analysis reported in Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., and Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings. LSE, London: EU Kids Online.

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    Authors: Vaillant, Alain;

    International audience; La poétique du banal : de l'indicible au risible L'indicible insignifiance du quotidien. Pour un humoriste de spectacle, c'est un numéro classique, qui fait toujours son effet au lever de rideau. Il entre en scène et commence à se livrer à des actions totalement banales ; par exemple, il classe des papiers, s'assoit et se met à lire le journal, fait un peu de ménage, etc. Le public est d'abord un peu interloqué, puis il se met très vite à rire. S'il rit, c'est bien sûr qu'il est venu pour cela, puisqu'il a payé pour voir un humoriste. Mais s'il ne s'agissait pas d'un spectacle comique et qu'il était dans un théâtre plus sérieux, il imaginerait alors que ces gestes ordinaires cachent une philosophie profonde, un message existentiel : c'était le principe même du théâtre de l'absurde, dans les années cinquante. Dans les deux cas, le public est face à un problème qui exige de lui une solution immédiate : comment réagir face à une situation insignifiante, à laquelle il se sent provisoirement incapable d'accorder une valeur quelconque ? Il lui faut, toute affaire cessante, donner un sens à ce qui en paraît totalement dépourvu : ici, une leçon métaphysique ; là, une portée comique. L'ordre normal des choses est rétabli : il peut à nouveau se désoler ou s'amuser en paix. En effet, c'est une donnée que l'anthropologie et les sciences cognitives ont maintenant solidement établie 1. L'être humain, parmi les espèces vivantes, a ce pouvoir singulier de jouir du monde en spectateur. Il le fait parce qu'il a la capacité neuronale de reproduire en esprit cette réalité qu'il observe (c'est le principe des neurones miroirs 2) et qu'il ne cesse de fabriquer des scénarios imaginaires pour se l'expliquer à lui-même. Cette fictionalisation permanente et inconsciente (le « cinéma mental ») lui permet de faire face à toutes les interactions auxquelles il est confronté. Mais c'est elle aussi qui permet de comprendre la jouissance éprouvée face à toutes les fictions culturelles (théâtre, roman, films, fictions audio-visuelles). Platon et Aristote s'en étonnaient dans l'Antiquité et l'expliquaient par le plaisir suscité par le fait même d'imiter (quelles que soient les situations imitées, bonnes ou mauvaises) 3 : de fait, cette intuition philosophique préfigurait déjà les acquis les plus récents de la science. Mais cette capacité psychique a son corollaire : l'être humain, confronté à une situation quelconque, est pour ainsi dire naturellement contraint de l'intégrer à un système explicatif, de lui donner un sens, de la valoriser. Cette survalorisation du réel, c'est le principe même de la poétique de Balzac, dans La Comédie humaine. Balzac est en effet le contemporain d'un événement majeur de la littérature française (et

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    Authors: Bouchet, Julien;

    International audience; En 2015, près de 200 Auvergnats ont reçu le titre de Juste parmi les nations. Décerné par l'État d'Israël à l'issue d'une enquête menée par le Comité français pour Yad Vashem, ce titre tend à honorer l'action individuelle et périlleuse de sauveteurs d'un ou de plusieurs juifs, sans demande de contrepartie. Cet ouvrage a pour ambition d'écrire l'histoire des Justes d'Auvergne. Qui sont-ils ? Quelles sont les formes de sauvetage qu'ils ont mises en oeuvre ? L'objectif est aussi de revenir sur le parcours de vie de plusieurs acteurs en résistance à la Shoah, spécialement l'évêque de Clermont, Gabriel Piguet, déporté en 1944.

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    Authors: Dumont, Gérard-François;

    International audience; In the "Olympics" of the world's most populous countries, the 21st century could see the rankings reversed between first place, currently China, and second place, currently the Indian Union. The real demographic derby of the 21st century therefore concerns China and the Indian Union. And the latter country deserves particular attention because, having passed the one billion mark at the turn of the 21st century, it could take first place, not least because it does not suffer the perverse effects of China's coercive population policies. Analysis of the Indian Union raises questions about at least three laws of population geopolitics: the "law of numbers", the "law of human groups" and the "law of differentials".; Dans les " Jeux olympiques " des pays les plus peuplés, le XXIe siècle pourrait inverser le classement entre le premier, actuellement la Chine, et le deuxième, actuellement l'Union indienne. Le véritable derby démographique du XXIe siècle concerne donc la Chine et l'Union indienne. Et ce dernier pays mérite une attention particulière car, après avoir dépassé le milliard d'habitants au tournant du XXIe siècle, il pourrait prendre la première place, notamment parce qu'il ne subit pas les effets pervers des politiques coercitives de population de la Chine. L'analyse de l'Union indienne conduit à s'interroger sur au moins trois lois de la géopolitique des populations : la " loi du nombre ", la " loi des groupes humains " et " la loi du différentiel ".

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    Other literature type . 2006
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    Authors: Chadelat, Jean-Marc;

    L'objet de cet article est de proposer une interprétation cohérente de l'une des pièces shakespeariennes les plus problématiques et déroutantes pour la plupart des critiques contemporains. Si la pièce est généralement estimée sur le plan artistique, certains la considérant même comme la plus grande réussite artistique de Shakespeare, les thématiques politiques et idéologiques qu'elle aborde paraissent trop partisanes et polémiques pour valider une approche critique dépassionnée et objective. Cet article s'efforce de montrer qu'au-delà du conflit politique et idéologique sur lequel repose l'intrigue, la construction antithétique du drame et son arrière-plan romain permettent à Shakespeare de mettre en lumière un conflit historique propre à l'époque de sa composition et relatif aux fondements de la politique moderne. Dans la perspective trifonctionnelle mise au jour par George Dumézil pour l'aire culturelle indo-européenne, Shakespeare propose une interprétation de l'histoire de l'Angleterre depuis le Moyen Age jusqu'à l'aube de la modernité au début du XVIIe siècle faisant se succéder un âge théocratique - marqué par la supériorité de l'autorité spirituelle sur le pouvoir temporel et illustré par les pièces historiques anglaises depuis le Roi Jean jusqu'à Richard II - , un âge politique - marqué par une collaboration intéressée du temporel et du spirituel et aboutissant logiquement, dans Henri VIII, à une mise sous tutelle de la fonction religieuse absorbée par le pouvoir monarchique - et, pour finir, un âge économique se caractérisant par une montée en puissance des représentants de la fonction productrice qui revendiquent à leur profit la souveraineté politique et font de la société le moteur du changement. En tant que couronnement dramatique de cette évolution historique, Coriolan illustre la substitution de la fonction productrice à la fonction guerrière au fondement des révolutions modernes et soulève la question particulièrement difficile du sens moral qu'il convient de donner à ces transformations de grande ampleur.

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    Book . 2013
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    https://doi.org/10.4000/books....
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      Book . 2013
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      https://doi.org/10.4000/books....
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Maillet, A.;

    International audience; Il y a une énorme différence entre l'Office national des forêts d'aujourd'hui et l'ancienne administration forestière. Cet article retrace l'évolution de cet établissement : comment les personnels ont évolué, dans les fonctions qu'ils occupent, mais aussi comment les politiques forestières en général et l'institution, en particulier, se sont adaptées aux changements.

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    Authors: Guan, Qianwen;

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception of L2 phonotactics relates to the perception of tones. Some studies of loanwords showed that speakers of languages preferring simple CV syllable structure insert an illusory vowel as well as an illusory tone inside illegal consonant clusters [5], [6]. Our study investigates experimentally the interaction of phonotactic and prosodic adaptation for Mandarin L1. For this purpose we tested the perception of non-native clusters by monolingual Mandarin speakers. The experiment was conducted in Beijing, with 24 participants especially recruited from among monolingual speakers with minimal exposure to a foreign language. The stimuli were non-words produced by a Russian native speaker, containing CC sequences and controls (see table 1). The participants were asked to transcribe each stimulus they heard in Pinyin, including tones. Different types of transcription errors (e.g. epenthesis, metathesis) were observed and analyzed statistically. In this abstract I report only the general result, and I focus on the transcription of tones. The most frequent transcription included vowel epenthesis in the clusters. The illusory vowel is always perceived as short central [ɤ] (akta->akɤta), except after a labial (ipta->iputa). In the controls, the vowel /a/ between clusters is perceived as /a/ when it precedes a stressed syllable (katápa). When it follows a stressed syllable (ákata), it is perceived as central /ɤ/. This response reflects the fact that in Russian, an unstressed vowel preceding stress is less reduced than an unstressed vowel elsewhere in the word [3]. Thus, Mandarin listeners can still perceive a moderately reduced [a] in pre-tonic position, but report a fully reduced vowel in post-tonic position. Of the 24 participants, only 8 could transcribe tones. This is because Pinyin transcription, though commonly used, rarely includes tones. Moreover, the participants do not have more than high school education and do not write regularly. The results of the 8 speakers are summarized and discussed below. Word position and position with respect to stress. In the Russian stimuli, the stressed syllable is realized with an F0 peak. The listeners' responses thus correspond to the low F0 in the pre-stressed syllable, and to the falling F0 on the post-stressed syllable, respectively (fig. 1). Vowel quality. Overall, vowel quality, whether of illusory vowels or of real vowels, does not influence the perception of illusory tones (p>0.05). Consonant type. There is a significant difference of tone perception in relation to phonotactics in initial, pre-stressed clusters. Listeners reported high tone on the illusory vowel significantly more often in stop-stop (e.g., ktápa) than in stop-nasal clusters (p0.05), on a real vowel. In the clusters, where no vowel is actually produced, the audible F0 movement is very fast, rising toward the peak of the stressed vowel. The start of the F0 rise is influenced by the consonant type [4]: after a voiceless stop F0 rises in the following vowel, while after a sonorant stop F0 falls. In the controls (katápa), F0 starts low on the unstressed vowel, and rises into the following stressed syllable. The participants seem to respond to this systematic rise, rather than to the subtler effects of consonant-type.

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    Authors: Moulin, Aimie;

    Cette thèse concerne l'étude de l'interaction air-mer, due aux échanges de mouvements, avec un modèle idéalisé mais consistant. Les études sont réalisées à partir d'un modèle shallow-water bicouches (une pour l'océan et une pour l'atmosphère), avec une fine résolution spatiale et temporelle. L'interaction est uniquement due à la friction de surface entre les deux couches.Elle est implémentée par une loi de friction quadratique. La force appliquée à l'océan est calculée en utilisant la différence de vitesse entre les vents et les courants. Pour la force appliquée à l'atmosphère on distingue deux cas l'interaction ``1way'' et ``2way''. Pour la première, la friction appliquée à l'atmosphère néglige la dynamique de l'océan; elle est calculée en utilisant uniquement les vents. Pour l'interaction ``2W'', la friction appliquée à l'atmosphère est l'opposée de celle appliquée à l'océan.Trois configurations idéalisées sont explorées ici.La première configuration explique la génération d'une instabilité barotrope dans l'océan due à la force de friction quadratique et la dissipation visqueuse horizontale de l'atmosphère. Dans le cas 1W le cisaillement entraîne une instabilité barotrope dans l'océan. Dans le cas 2W, l'instabilité est amplifiée en amplitude et en dimension et est transférée à l'atmosphère. L'échelle principale de cette instabilité correspond à celle du rayon de Rossby dans l'océan. Elle est uniquement visible dans les modèles numériques, lorsque la dynamique est résolue à cette échelle à la fois dans l'océan mais aussi dans l'atmosphère.Dans la deuxième configuration, des expériences pour différentes valeurs du coefficient de traînée de surface sont réalisées. Le forçage diffère de la première configuration, et permet d'avoir une dynamique turbulente dans l'océan et l'atmosphère. L'énergie perdue par l'atmosphère et gagnée par l'océan par cisaillement à l'interface sont déterminées et comparées aux estimations basées sur les vitesses moyennes. La corrélations entre la vorticité océanique et atmosphérique est déterminée à l'échelle synoptique et méso-échelle de l'atmosphère. L'océan a un rôle passif, et absorbe l'énergie cinétique à quasiment tout les instants et tous les lieux. Les résultats différent des études réalisées à l'échelle du bassin. De par les faibles vitesses de l'océan, le transfert d'énergie dépend que faiblement des courants. La dynamique de l'océan laisse cependant son empreinte dans la dynamique de l'atmosphère conduisant à un état `quenched disorder' du système océan-atmosphère, pour le plus fort coefficient de friction utilisé.La dernière configuration, considère l'échange de mouvements entre l'océan et l'atmosphère autour d'une île circulaire. Dans les simulations actuelles de la dynamique océanique, le champs du forçage atmosphérique est généralement trop grossier pour inclure la présence de petites îles (<100km). Dans les calculs présentés ici, l'île est représenté dans la couche atmosphérique par un coefficient de traînée cent fois plus fort au dessus de l'île que l'océan. Cela engendre de la vorticité dans l'atmosphère , autour et près du sillage de l'île. L'influence de la vorticité atmosphérique sur la vorticité de l'océan, l'upwelling, la turbulence et le transfert d'énergieest considéré en utilisant des simulations couplées océan-atmosphère.Les résultats sont comparés avec des simulations ayant un forçage atmosphérique constant dans le temps et l'espace (pas de sillage) et des simulations "1W" (pour lesquelles les courants n'ont pas d'influence sur l'atmosphère).Les résultats des simulations sont en accords avec les travaux et les observations précédemment réalisés, et confirment que le sillage atmosphérique est le principal processus générant des tourbillons océanique dans le lit de l'île. Il est aussi montré que la vorticité est injectée directement par le rotationel du vent, mais aussi par la force du vent perpendiculaireau gradient d'épaisseur de la couche de surface océanique. This thesis considers air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, in an idealized but consistent model. Two superposed one-layer fine-resolution shallow-water models are numerically integrated. The upper layer represents the atmosphere and the lower layer the ocean. The interaction is only due to the shear between the two layers. The shear applied to the ocean is calculated using the velocity difference between the ocean and the atmosphere.The frictional force between the two-layers is implemented using the quadratic drag law. Three idealized configurations are explored.First, a new mechanism that induces barotropic instability in the ocean is discussed. It is due to air-sea interaction with a quadratic drag law and horizontal viscous dissipation in the atmosphere. I show that the instability spreads to the atmosphere. The preferred spatial scale of the instability is that of the oceanic baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation.It can only be represented in numerical models, when the dynamics at this scale is resolved in the atmosphere and the ocean.In one-way interaction the shear applied to the atmosphere neglectsthe ocean dynamics, it is calculated using the atmospheric wind, only. In two-way interaction it is opposite to the shear applied to the ocean.In the one-way interaction the atmospheric shear leads to a barotropic instability in the ocean. The instability in the ocean is amplified, in amplitude and scale, in two-way interaction and also triggers an instability in the atmosphere.Second, the air-sea interaction at the atmospheric synoptic and mesoscale due to momentum transfer, only, is considered. Experiments with different values of the surface friction drag coefficient are performed, with a different atmospheric forcing from the first configuration, that leads to a turbulent dynamics in the atmosphere and the ocean. The actual energy loss of the atmosphere and the energy gain by the ocean, due to the inter-facial shear,is determined and compared to the estimates based on average speeds.The correlation between the vorticity in the atmosphere and the ocean is determined. Results differ from previous investigations where the exchange of momentum was considered at basin scale. It is shown that the ocean has a passive role, absorbing kinetic energy at nearly all times and locations.Due to the feeble velocities in the ocean, the energy transfer depends only weakly on the ocean velocity. The ocean dynamics leaves nevertheless its imprint in the atmospheric dynamics leading to a quenched disordered state of the atmosphere-ocean system, for the highest value of the friction coefficient considered. This finding questions the ergodic hypothesis, which is at the basis of a large number of experimental, observational and numericalresults in ocean, atmosphere and climate dynamics.The last configuration considers the air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, around a circular island. In todays simulations of the ocean dynamics, the atmospheric forcing fields are usually too coarse to include the presence of smaller islands (typically < 100km).In the calculations presented here, the island is represented in the atmospheric layer by a hundred fold increased drag coefficient above the island as compared to the ocean. It leads to an increased atmospheric vorticity in the vicinity and in the wake of the island. The influence of the atmospheric vorticity on the ocean vorticity, upwelling, turbulence and energy transfer is considered by performing fully coupled simulations of the atmosphere-oceandynamics. The results are compared to simulations with a constant, in space and time, atmospheric forcing (no wake) and simulations with one-waycoupling only (where the ocean velocity has no influence on the atmosphere).Results of our simulations agree with previous published work and observations, and confirm that the wind-wake is the main process leading to mesoscale oceanic eddies in the lee of an island.

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    Authors: Boltzmann, Melanie; Rüsseler, Jascha;

    Background Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated. Results Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills.

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    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu, Sundaram; Gwang-Woo, Jeong; Tae-Hoon, Kim; Gwang-Won, Kim; +2 Authors

    Objective: To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. Results: For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

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    Korean Journal of Radiology
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    Authors: Blaya , Catherine; Alava , Seraphin;

    This report refers to findings for all 25 countries in the European survey; This report presents the Findings for France for the EU Kids Online project (see www.eukidsonline.net). Specifically, it includes selected findings, calculated and interpreted for the UK only, of the survey data and analysis reported in Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., and Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings. LSE, London: EU Kids Online.

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    Authors: Vaillant, Alain;

    International audience; La poétique du banal : de l'indicible au risible L'indicible insignifiance du quotidien. Pour un humoriste de spectacle, c'est un numéro classique, qui fait toujours son effet au lever de rideau. Il entre en scène et commence à se livrer à des actions totalement banales ; par exemple, il classe des papiers, s'assoit et se met à lire le journal, fait un peu de ménage, etc. Le public est d'abord un peu interloqué, puis il se met très vite à rire. S'il rit, c'est bien sûr qu'il est venu pour cela, puisqu'il a payé pour voir un humoriste. Mais s'il ne s'agissait pas d'un spectacle comique et qu'il était dans un théâtre plus sérieux, il imaginerait alors que ces gestes ordinaires cachent une philosophie profonde, un message existentiel : c'était le principe même du théâtre de l'absurde, dans les années cinquante. Dans les deux cas, le public est face à un problème qui exige de lui une solution immédiate : comment réagir face à une situation insignifiante, à laquelle il se sent provisoirement incapable d'accorder une valeur quelconque ? Il lui faut, toute affaire cessante, donner un sens à ce qui en paraît totalement dépourvu : ici, une leçon métaphysique ; là, une portée comique. L'ordre normal des choses est rétabli : il peut à nouveau se désoler ou s'amuser en paix. En effet, c'est une donnée que l'anthropologie et les sciences cognitives ont maintenant solidement établie 1. L'être humain, parmi les espèces vivantes, a ce pouvoir singulier de jouir du monde en spectateur. Il le fait parce qu'il a la capacité neuronale de reproduire en esprit cette réalité qu'il observe (c'est le principe des neurones miroirs 2) et qu'il ne cesse de fabriquer des scénarios imaginaires pour se l'expliquer à lui-même. Cette fictionalisation permanente et inconsciente (le « cinéma mental ») lui permet de faire face à toutes les interactions auxquelles il est confronté. Mais c'est elle aussi qui permet de comprendre la jouissance éprouvée face à toutes les fictions culturelles (théâtre, roman, films, fictions audio-visuelles). Platon et Aristote s'en étonnaient dans l'Antiquité et l'expliquaient par le plaisir suscité par le fait même d'imiter (quelles que soient les situations imitées, bonnes ou mauvaises) 3 : de fait, cette intuition philosophique préfigurait déjà les acquis les plus récents de la science. Mais cette capacité psychique a son corollaire : l'être humain, confronté à une situation quelconque, est pour ainsi dire naturellement contraint de l'intégrer à un système explicatif, de lui donner un sens, de la valoriser. Cette survalorisation du réel, c'est le principe même de la poétique de Balzac, dans La Comédie humaine. Balzac est en effet le contemporain d'un événement majeur de la littérature française (et

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    Authors: Bouchet, Julien;

    International audience; En 2015, près de 200 Auvergnats ont reçu le titre de Juste parmi les nations. Décerné par l'État d'Israël à l'issue d'une enquête menée par le Comité français pour Yad Vashem, ce titre tend à honorer l'action individuelle et périlleuse de sauveteurs d'un ou de plusieurs juifs, sans demande de contrepartie. Cet ouvrage a pour ambition d'écrire l'histoire des Justes d'Auvergne. Qui sont-ils ? Quelles sont les formes de sauvetage qu'ils ont mises en oeuvre ? L'objectif est aussi de revenir sur le parcours de vie de plusieurs acteurs en résistance à la Shoah, spécialement l'évêque de Clermont, Gabriel Piguet, déporté en 1944.

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    Authors: Dumont, Gérard-François;

    International audience; In the "Olympics" of the world's most populous countries, the 21st century could see the rankings reversed between first place, currently China, and second place, currently the Indian Union. The real demographic derby of the 21st century therefore concerns China and the Indian Union. And the latter country deserves particular attention because, having passed the one billion mark at the turn of the 21st century, it could take first place, not least because it does not suffer the perverse effects of China's coercive population policies. Analysis of the Indian Union raises questions about at least three laws of population geopolitics: the "law of numbers", the "law of human groups" and the "law of differentials".; Dans les " Jeux olympiques " des pays les plus peuplés, le XXIe siècle pourrait inverser le classement entre le premier, actuellement la Chine, et le deuxième, actuellement l'Union indienne. Le véritable derby démographique du XXIe siècle concerne donc la Chine et l'Union indienne. Et ce dernier pays mérite une attention particulière car, après avoir dépassé le milliard d'habitants au tournant du XXIe siècle, il pourrait prendre la première place, notamment parce qu'il ne subit pas les effets pervers des politiques coercitives de population de la Chine. L'analyse de l'Union indienne conduit à s'interroger sur au moins trois lois de la géopolitique des populations : la " loi du nombre ", la " loi des groupes humains " et " la loi du différentiel ".

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2006
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    Authors: Chadelat, Jean-Marc;

    L'objet de cet article est de proposer une interprétation cohérente de l'une des pièces shakespeariennes les plus problématiques et déroutantes pour la plupart des critiques contemporains. Si la pièce est généralement estimée sur le plan artistique, certains la considérant même comme la plus grande réussite artistique de Shakespeare, les thématiques politiques et idéologiques qu'elle aborde paraissent trop partisanes et polémiques pour valider une approche critique dépassionnée et objective. Cet article s'efforce de montrer qu'au-delà du conflit politique et idéologique sur lequel repose l'intrigue, la construction antithétique du drame et son arrière-plan romain permettent à Shakespeare de mettre en lumière un conflit historique propre à l'époque de sa composition et relatif aux fondements de la politique moderne. Dans la perspective trifonctionnelle mise au jour par George Dumézil pour l'aire culturelle indo-européenne, Shakespeare propose une interprétation de l'histoire de l'Angleterre depuis le Moyen Age jusqu'à l'aube de la modernité au début du XVIIe siècle faisant se succéder un âge théocratique - marqué par la supériorité de l'autorité spirituelle sur le pouvoir temporel et illustré par les pièces historiques anglaises depuis le Roi Jean jusqu'à Richard II - , un âge politique - marqué par une collaboration intéressée du temporel et du spirituel et aboutissant logiquement, dans Henri VIII, à une mise sous tutelle de la fonction religieuse absorbée par le pouvoir monarchique - et, pour finir, un âge économique se caractérisant par une montée en puissance des représentants de la fonction productrice qui revendiquent à leur profit la souveraineté politique et font de la société le moteur du changement. En tant que couronnement dramatique de cette évolution historique, Coriolan illustre la substitution de la fonction productrice à la fonction guerrière au fondement des révolutions modernes et soulève la question particulièrement difficile du sens moral qu'il convient de donner à ces transformations de grande ampleur.

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    OpenEdition
    Book . 2013
    Data sources: OpenEdition
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    https://doi.org/10.4000/books....
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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