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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xia, Frances; Kheirbek, Mazen A.;

    Mood and anxiety disorders are complex heterogeneous syndromes that manifest in dysfunctions across multiple brain regions, cell types, and circuits. Biomarkers using brain-wide activity patterns in humans have proven useful in distinguishing between disorder subtypes and identifying effective treatments. In order to improve biomarker identification, it is crucial to understand the basic circuitry underpinning brain-wide activity patterns. Leveraging a large repertoire of techniques, animal studies have examined roles of specific cell types and circuits in driving maladaptive behavior. Recent advances in multiregion recording techniques, data-driven analysis approaches, and machine-learning-based behavioral analysis tools can further push the boundary of animal studies and bridge the gap with human studies, to assess how brain-wide activity patterns encode and drive emotional behavior. Together, these efforts will allow identifying more precise biomarkers to enhance diagnosis and treatment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Trends in Neurosciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Trends in Neurosciences
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eskildsen, S.F.; Coupe, P.; Fonov, V.; Manjon, J.V.; +8 Authors

    Brain extraction is an important step in the analysis of brain images. The variability in brain morphology and the difference in intensity characteristics due to imaging sequences make the development of a general purpose brain extraction algorithm challenging. To address this issue, we propose a new robust method (BEaST) dedicated to produce consistent and accurate brain extraction. This method is based on nonlocal segmentation embedded in a multi-resolution framework. A library of 80 priors is semi-automatically constructed from the NIH-sponsored MRI study of normal brain development, the International Consortium for Brain Mapping, and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases. In testing, a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.9834 ± 0.0053 was obtained when performing leave-one-out cross validation selecting only 20 priors from the library. Validation using the online Segmentation Validation Engine resulted in a top ranking position with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.9781 ± 0.0047. Robustness of BEaST is demonstrated on all baseline ADNI data, resulting in a very low failure rate. The segmentation accuracy of the method is better than two widely used publicly available methods and recent state-of-the-art hybrid approaches. BEaST provides results comparable to a recent label fusion approach, while being 40 times faster and requiring a much smaller library of priors. Data collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904). ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through generous contributions from the following: Abbott, AstraZeneca AB, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai Global Clinical Development, Elan Corporation, Genentech, GE Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline, Innogenetics, Johnson and Johnson, Eli Lilly and Co., Medpace, Inc., Merck and Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc, F. Hoffman-La Roche, Schering-Plough, Synarc, Inc., as well as non-profit partners the Alzheimer's Association and Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, with participation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Private sector contributions to ADNI are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (www.fnih.org). The grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study at the University of California, San Diego. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of California, Los Angeles. This research was also supported by NIH grants P30AG010129, K01 AG030514, and the Dana Foundation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Hal-Dide...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 2012
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    NeuroImage
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2011
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2012
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Hal-Dide...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . Article . 2012
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      NeuroImage
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2011
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir, S.;

    International audience; Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but the issue of causality remains unresolved. Definitive evidence would include the visualization of brain lesions resulting from hypovitaminosis D. The aim of the present article is to determine, through a literature review, the location and nature of possible brain disorders in hypovitaminosis D. We found limited brain-imaging data, which reported ischemic infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in hypovitaminosis D, though did not provide their specific location or report any focal atrophy. Based on the finding of executive dysfunctions (i.e., mental shifting and information updating impairments) in the presence of hypovitaminosis D, we suggest that hypovitaminosis D is associated with a dysfunction of the frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, particularly the dorsolateral circuit. Further imaging studies are required to corroborate this assumption and to determine whether hypovitaminosis D results in degenerative and / or vascular lesions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
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    Open Neuroimaging Journal
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    Open Neuroimaging Journal
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Open Neuroimaging Journal
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      Open Neuroimaging Journal
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Purenne, A.;

    International audience; Anaïk Purenne propose dans sa contribution un détour par le Canada, un pays où l’idéal de relations plus symétriques entre la puissance publique et les citoyens a constitué un horizon d’action important pour les mouvements citoyens qui se sont développés dans le sillage de la Révolution tranquille autour de valeurs comme l’égalité de droits, la liberté et la solidarité. Dans les grandes villes du pays, ces aspirations sont aujourd’hui reprises par des mouvements de défense des exclus. Pour ces groupes qui rassemblent des activistes, des « experts » et des exclus, il s’agit de déconstruire l’image de dangerosité associée à certains problèmes ou comportements sociaux tels que l’itinérance, la toxicomanie ou les troubles mentaux (une représentation ordinaire qui, au-delà de sa dimension stigmatisante, ouvre sur la criminalisation de ces personnes) et de promouvoir les droits et la citoyenneté de ces personnes à travers des formes d’action publique davantage co-construites et inclusives. Interrogeant le rôle de ces mouvements dans l’émergence et la diffusion de nouveaux imaginaires sociaux, elle montre que ces luttes produisent des effets bien réels en contribuant en particulier à réorienter les termes du débat public dans le sens d’une moindre stigmatisation. Par la participation de ces groupes de défense à des instances de concertation ou le recours à la désobéissance civile, le nouvel imaginaire parvient aussi dans une certaine mesure à « contaminer » l’action publique et les pratiques professionnelles à travers une myriade de chartes, guidelines, documents de planification, et autres expérimentations mettant en avant l’égalité formelle de droits, sans cependant parvenir à ébranler les fondements structurellement dissymétriques des politiques sécuritaires.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Wasim Khan; Eric Westman; Nigel C. Jones; Lars-Olof Wahlund; +9 Authors

    Previous studies have shown that hippocampal subfields may be differentially affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study used an automated analysis technique and two large cohorts to (1) investigate patterns of subfield volume loss in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, (2) determine the pattern of subfield volume loss due to age, gender, education, APOE ε4 genotype, and neuropsychological test scores, (3) compare combined subfield volumes to hippocampal volume alone at discriminating between AD and healthy controls (HC), and predicting future MCI conversion to AD at 12 months. 1,069 subjects were selected from the AddNeuroMed and Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) cohorts. Freesurfer was used for automated segmentation of the hippocampus and hippocampal subfields. Orthogonal partial least squares to latent structures (OPLS) was used to train models on AD and HC subjects using one cohort for training and the other for testing and the combined cohort was used to predict MCI conversion. MANCOVA and linear regression analyses showed multiple subfield volumes including Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1), subiculum and presubiculum were atrophied in AD and MCI and were related to age, gender, education, APOE ε4 genotype, and neuropsychological test scores. For classifying AD from HC, combined subfield volumes achieved comparable classification accuracy (81.7 %) to total hippocampal (80.7 %), subiculum (81.2 %) and presubiculum (80.6 %) volume. For predicting MCI conversion to AD combined subfield volumes and presubiculum volume were more accurate (81.1 %) than total hippocampal volume. (76.7 %).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain Topography
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain Topography
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      Brain Topography
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Brain Topography
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    Authors: Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; McIntosh, Andrew M; Eichhammer, Peter; +289 Authors

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. peerReviewed final draft Article

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UEF eRepository
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: UEF eRepository
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    UNC Dataverse
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      UNC Dataverse
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Naïl Benallegue; Hania Kebir; Richa Kapoor; Alexis M. Crockett; +9 Authors

    Abstract The concerted actions of the CNS and the immune system are essential to coordinating the outcome of neuroinflammatory responses. Yet, the precise mechanisms involved in this crosstalk and their contribution to the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory diseases largely elude us. Here, we show that the CNS-endogenous hedgehog pathway, a signal triggered as part of the host response during the inflammatory phase of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, attenuates the pathogenicity of human and mouse effector CD4 T cells by regulating their production of inflammatory cytokines. Using a murine genetic model, in which the hedgehog signalling is compromised in CD4 T cells, we show that the hedgehog pathway acts on CD4 T cells to suppress the pathogenic hallmarks of autoimmune neuroinflammation, including demyelination and axonal damage, and thus mitigates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Impairment of hedgehog signalling in CD4 T cells exacerbates brain-brainstem-cerebellum inflammation and leads to the development of atypical disease. Moreover, we present evidence that hedgehog signalling regulates the pathogenic profile of CD4 T cells by limiting their production of the inflammatory cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interferon-γ and by antagonizing their inflammatory program at the transcriptome level. Likewise, hedgehog signalling attenuates the inflammatory phenotype of human CD4 memory T cells. From a therapeutic point of view, our study underlines the potential of harnessing the hedgehog pathway to counteract ongoing excessive CNS inflammation, as systemic administration of a hedgehog agonist after disease onset effectively halts disease progression and significantly reduces neuroinflammation and the underlying neuropathology. We thus unveil a previously unrecognized role for the hedgehog pathway in regulating pathogenic inflammation within the CNS and propose to exploit its ability to modulate this neuroimmune network as a strategy to limit the progression of ongoing neuroinflammation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brainarrow_drop_down
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    Brain
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Brain
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Matthew D Taves; Kim L Schmidt; Ilan M Ruhr; Katarzyna Kapusta; +2 Authors

    The brain and other organs locally synthesize steroids. Local synthesis is suggested when steroid levels are higher in tissue than in the circulation. However, measurement of both circulating and tissue steroid levels are subject to methodological considerations. For example, plasma samples are commonly used to estimate circulating steroid levels in whole blood, but steroid levels in plasma and whole blood could differ. In addition, tissue steroid measurements might be affected by blood contamination, which can be addressed experimentally by using saline perfusion to remove blood. In Study 1, we measured corticosterone and testosterone (T) levels in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) plasma, whole blood, and red blood cells (RBC). We also compared corticosterone in plasma, whole blood, and RBC at baseline and after 60 min restraint stress. In Study 2, we quantified corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), T, and 17β-estradiol (E₂) levels in the brains of sham-perfused or saline-perfused subjects. In Study 1, corticosterone and T concentrations were highest in plasma, significantly lower in whole blood, and lowest in RBC. In Study 2, saline perfusion unexpectedly increased corticosterone levels in the rostral telencephalon but not other regions. In contrast, saline perfusion decreased DHEA levels in caudal telencephalon and diencephalon. Saline perfusion also increased E₂ levels in caudal telencephalon. In summary, when comparing local and systemic steroid levels, the inclusion of whole blood samples should prove useful. Moreover, blood contamination has little or no effect on measurement of brain steroid levels, suggesting that saline perfusion is not necessary prior to brain collection. Indeed, saline perfusion itself may elevate and lower steroid concentrations in a rapid, region-specific manner.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2010
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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2010
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Catharine A. Mielnik; Mary A. Binko; Yuxiao Chen; Adam J. Funk; +13 Authors

    AbstractN-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are required to shape activity-dependent connections in the developing and adult brain. Impaired NMDAR signalling through genetic or environmental insults causes a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest as intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism, or schizophrenia. It is not clear whether the developmental impacts of NMDAR dysfunction can be overcome by interventions in adulthood. This question is paramount for neurodevelopmental disorders arising from mutations that occur in the GRIN genes, which encode NMDAR subunits, and the broader set of mutations that disrupt NMDAR function. We developed a mouse model where a congenital loss-of-function allele of Grin1 can be restored to wild type by gene editing with Cre recombinase. Rescue of NMDARs in adult mice yields surprisingly robust improvements in cognitive functions, including those that are refractory to treatment with current medications. These results suggest that neurodevelopmental disorders arising from NMDAR deficiency can be effectively treated in adults.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Molecular Psychiatry
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    Molecular Psychiatry
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020
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      Molecular Psychiatry
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      Molecular Psychiatry
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cavedo, Enrica; Tran, Philippe; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; +10 Authors

    Abstract Objectives QyScore® is an imaging analysis tool certified in Europe (CE marked) and the US (FDA cleared) for the automatic volumetry of grey and white matter (GM and WM respectively), hippocampus (HP), amygdala (AM), and white matter hyperintensity (WMH). Here we compare QyScore® performances with the consensus of expert neuroradiologists. Methods Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the relative volume difference (RVD) for GM, WM volumes were calculated on 50 3DT1 images. DSC and the F1 metrics were calculated for WMH on 130 3DT1 and FLAIR images. For each index, we identified thresholds of reliability based on current literature review results. We hypothesized that DSC/F1 scores obtained using QyScore® markers would be higher than the threshold. In contrast, RVD scores would be lower. Regression analysis and Bland–Altman plots were obtained to evaluate QyScore® performance in comparison to the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists. Results The lower bound of the DSC/F1 confidence intervals was higher than the threshold for the GM, WM, HP, AM, and WMH, and the higher bounds of the RVD confidence interval were below the threshold for the WM, GM, HP, and AM. QyScore®, compared with the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists, provides reliable performance for the automatic segmentation of the GM and WM volumes, and HP and AM volumes, as well as WMH volumes. Conclusions QyScore® represents a reliable medical device in comparison with the consensus of expert neuroradiologists. Therefore, QyScore® could be implemented in clinical trials and clinical routine to support the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of neurological diseases. Key Points • QyScore® provides reliable automatic segmentation of brain structures in comparison with the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists. • QyScore® automatic segmentation could be performed on MRI images using different vendors and protocols of acquisition. In addition, the fast segmentation process saves time over manual and semi-automatic methods. • QyScore® could be implemented in clinical trials and clinical routine to support the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of neurological diseases.

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    European Radiology
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