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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cain, Stuart M.; Tyson, John R.; Choi, Hyun‐Beom; Ko, Rebecca; +10 Authors

    SummaryObjectiveGenetic alterations have been identified in the CACNA1H gene, encoding the CaV3.2 T‐type calcium channel in patients with absence epilepsy, yet the precise mechanisms relating to seizure propagation and spike‐wave‐discharge (SWD) pacemaking remain unknown. Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) express high levels of CaV3.2 calcium channels, and we investigated whether a gain‐of‐function mutation in the Cacna1h gene in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) contributes to seizure propagation and pacemaking in the TRN.MethodsPathophysiological contributions of CaV3.2 calcium channels to burst firing and absence seizures were assessed in vitro using acute brain slice electrophysiology and quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in vivo using free‐moving electrocorticography recordings.ResultsTRN neurons from GAERS display sustained oscillatory burst‐firing that is both age‐ and frequency‐dependent, occurring only in the frequencies overlapping with GAERS SWDs and correlating with the expression of a CaV3.2 mutation‐sensitive splice variant. In vivo knock‐down of CaV3.2 using direct thalamic injection of lipid nanoparticles containing CaV3.2 dicer small interfering (Dsi) RNA normalized TRN burst‐firing, and in free‐moving GAERS significantly shortened seizures.SignificanceThis supports a role for TRN CaV3.2 T‐type channels in propagating thalamocortical network seizures and setting the pacemaking frequency of SWDs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Epilepsia
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
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    Epilepsia
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Epilepsia
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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      Epilepsia
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Purenne, A.;

    International audience; Anaïk Purenne propose dans sa contribution un détour par le Canada, un pays où l’idéal de relations plus symétriques entre la puissance publique et les citoyens a constitué un horizon d’action important pour les mouvements citoyens qui se sont développés dans le sillage de la Révolution tranquille autour de valeurs comme l’égalité de droits, la liberté et la solidarité. Dans les grandes villes du pays, ces aspirations sont aujourd’hui reprises par des mouvements de défense des exclus. Pour ces groupes qui rassemblent des activistes, des « experts » et des exclus, il s’agit de déconstruire l’image de dangerosité associée à certains problèmes ou comportements sociaux tels que l’itinérance, la toxicomanie ou les troubles mentaux (une représentation ordinaire qui, au-delà de sa dimension stigmatisante, ouvre sur la criminalisation de ces personnes) et de promouvoir les droits et la citoyenneté de ces personnes à travers des formes d’action publique davantage co-construites et inclusives. Interrogeant le rôle de ces mouvements dans l’émergence et la diffusion de nouveaux imaginaires sociaux, elle montre que ces luttes produisent des effets bien réels en contribuant en particulier à réorienter les termes du débat public dans le sens d’une moindre stigmatisation. Par la participation de ces groupes de défense à des instances de concertation ou le recours à la désobéissance civile, le nouvel imaginaire parvient aussi dans une certaine mesure à « contaminer » l’action publique et les pratiques professionnelles à travers une myriade de chartes, guidelines, documents de planification, et autres expérimentations mettant en avant l’égalité formelle de droits, sans cependant parvenir à ébranler les fondements structurellement dissymétriques des politiques sécuritaires.

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    Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Wasim Khan; Eric Westman; Nigel C. Jones; Lars-Olof Wahlund; +9 Authors

    Previous studies have shown that hippocampal subfields may be differentially affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study used an automated analysis technique and two large cohorts to (1) investigate patterns of subfield volume loss in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, (2) determine the pattern of subfield volume loss due to age, gender, education, APOE ε4 genotype, and neuropsychological test scores, (3) compare combined subfield volumes to hippocampal volume alone at discriminating between AD and healthy controls (HC), and predicting future MCI conversion to AD at 12 months. 1,069 subjects were selected from the AddNeuroMed and Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) cohorts. Freesurfer was used for automated segmentation of the hippocampus and hippocampal subfields. Orthogonal partial least squares to latent structures (OPLS) was used to train models on AD and HC subjects using one cohort for training and the other for testing and the combined cohort was used to predict MCI conversion. MANCOVA and linear regression analyses showed multiple subfield volumes including Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1), subiculum and presubiculum were atrophied in AD and MCI and were related to age, gender, education, APOE ε4 genotype, and neuropsychological test scores. For classifying AD from HC, combined subfield volumes achieved comparable classification accuracy (81.7 %) to total hippocampal (80.7 %), subiculum (81.2 %) and presubiculum (80.6 %) volume. For predicting MCI conversion to AD combined subfield volumes and presubiculum volume were more accurate (81.1 %) than total hippocampal volume. (76.7 %).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Brain Topography
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Brain Topography
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain Topography
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain Topography
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Imperio, Guinever E.; Lye, Phetcharawan; Mughis, Hafsah; Hamada, Hirotaka; +3 Authors

    The mechanisms by which the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces neurological complications remain to be elucidated. We aimed to identify possible effects of hypoxia on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry mediators, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) protein, in human brain endothelial cells, in vitro. hCMEC/D3 cells were exposed to different oxygen tensions: 20% (Control group), 8% or 2% O2 (Hypoxia groups). Cells were harvested 6-, 24- and 48 h following hypoxic challenge for assessment of mRNA and protein, using qPCR and Western Blot. The response of the brain endothelial cells to hypoxia was replicated using modular incubator chambers. We observed an acute increase (6 h, p < 0.05), followed by a longer-term decrease (48 h, p < 0.05) in ACE2 mRNA and protein expression, accompanied by reduced expression of TMPRSS2 protein levels (48 h, p < 0.05) under the more severe hypoxic condition (2% O2). No changes in levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF – an endothelial cell damage marker) or interleukin 6 (IL-6 – a pro-inflammatory cytokine) mRNA were observed. We conclude that hypoxia regulates brain endothelial cell ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in vitro, which may indicate human brain endothelial susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent brain sequelae.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Microvascular Research
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Microvascular Research
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Steven Woltering; Narges Bazargani; Zhong-Xu Liu;

    Eye blinks are a pervasive problem in electroencephalography research as they contaminate the brain signal. This paper tests the merits of a software tool employing the regression-based Gratton method that claims to remove the detrimental effects of the eye blink and leaves the activity of the brain. The efficacy of the correction tool was tested on five common stimulus-locked Event Related Potential (ERP) components used in a standard Go/Nogo task. Results suggested that the ‘corrected’ data could be predicted from data containing no eye blinks, suggesting the tool does not distort the data to great extent. This effect was found significant for all components, except for the P3. The conclusion is that this tool distorts the data at acceptable levels, yet caution should be taken when interpreting later components, like the P3.

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    Article . 2013
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    Article . 2013
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    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2013
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      Article . 2013
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      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Podhorna, Jana; Krahnke, Tillmann; Shear, Michael; Harrison, John;

    P values for comparison of signal-to-noise ratios of ADAS-Cog 11 and ADAS-Cog 5 vs. other variants. Supplementary table providing p values for comparison of signal-to-noise ratios of ADAS-Cog 11 and ADAS-Cog 5 vs. other variants. (DOCX 16 kb)

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    Research . 2016
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    Research . 2016
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      Research . 2016
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      Research . 2016
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    Authors: Ana L. Manera; Mahsa Dadar; D. Louis Collins; Simon Ducharme; +1 Authors

    Objective To objectively quantify how cerebral volume loss could assist with clinical diagnosis and clinical trial design in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Methods We applied deformation-based morphometric analyses with robust registration to precisely quantify the magnitude and pattern of atrophy in patients with bvFTD as compared to cognitively normal controls (CNCs), to assess the progression of atrophy over one year follow up and to generate clinical trial sample size estimates to detect differences for the structures most sensitive to change. This study included 203 subjects - 70 bvFTD and 133 CNCs - with a total of 482 timepoints from the Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Neuroimaging Initiative. Results Deformation based morphometry (DBM) revealed significant atrophy in the frontal lobes, insula, medial and anterior temporal regions bilaterally in bvFTD subjects compared to controls with outstanding subcortical involvement. We provide detailed information on regional changes per year. In both cross-sectional analysis and over a one-year follow-up period, ventricle expansion was the most prominent differentiator of bvFTD from controls and a sensitive marker of disease progression. Conclusions Automated measurement of ventricular expansion is a sensitive and reliable marker of disease progression in bvFTD to be used in clinical trials for potential disease modifying drugs, as well as possibly to implement in clinical practice. Ventricular expansion measured with DBM provides the lowest published estimated sample size for clinical trial design to detect significant differences over one and two years. Highlights • The expected atrophy was shown in the frontal lobes and anterior temporal regions. • Subcortical structures were notably affected in our bvFTD cohort. • Ventricles and sulci within frontotemporal regions were larger in the bvFTD cohort. • Ventricles and sulci showed significant enlargement and over a one-year period. • Ventricular expansion was the most prominent differentiator of bvFTD from controls.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . Preprint . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . Preprint . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jennifer C. Tomaszczyk; Nathaniel L. Green; Diana Frasca; Brenda Colella; +3 Authors

    Based on growing findings of brain volume loss and deleterious white matter alterations during the chronic stages of injury, researchers posit that moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may act to "age" the brain by reducing reserve capacity and inducing neurodegeneration. Evidence that these changes correlate with poorer cognitive and functional outcomes corroborates this progressive characterization of chronic TBI. Borrowing from a framework developed to explain cognitive aging (Mahncke et al., Progress in Brain Research, 157, 81-109, 2006a; Mahncke et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(33), 12523-12528, 2006b), we suggest here that environmental factors (specifically environmental impoverishment and cognitive disuse) contribute to a downward spiral of negative neuroplastic change that may modulate the brain changes described above. In this context, we review new literature supporting the original aging framework, and its extrapolation to chronic TBI. We conclude that negative neuroplasticity may be one of the mechanisms underlying cognitive and neural decline in chronic TBI, but that there are a number of points of intervention that would permit mitigation of this decline and better long-term clinical outcomes.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    Neuropsychology Review
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Neuropsychology Review
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      Neuropsychology Review
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; McIntosh, Andrew M; Eichhammer, Peter; +289 Authors

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. peerReviewed final draft Article

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    UEF eRepository
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: UEF eRepository
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      UNC Dataverse
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Sierra L. Alban; Kirsten M. Lynch; John M. Ringman; Arthur W. Toga; +3 Authors

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) frequently occur in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and have a contribution from ischemia, though their relationship with β-amyloid and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is not completely understood. We used AT classification to categorize individuals based on their β-amyloid and tau pathologies, then assessed the effects of β-amyloid and tau on WMH volume and number. We then determined regions in which β-amyloid and WMH accumulation were related. Last, we analyzed the effects of various CVRFs on WMHs. As secondary analyses, we observed effects of age and sex differences, atrophy, cognitive scores, and APOE genotype. PET, MRI, FLAIR, demographic, and cardiovascular health data was collected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-3) (N = 287, 48 % male). Participants were categorized as A + and T + if their Florbetapir SUVR and Flortaucipir SUVR were above 0.79 and 1.25, respectively. WMHs were mapped on MRI using a deep convolutional neural network (Sepehrband et al., 2020). CVRF scores were based on history of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, BMI, and a cumulative score with 6 being the maximum score. Regression models and Pearson correlations were used to test associations and correlations between variables, respectively, with age, sex, years of education, and scanner manufacturer as covariates of no interest. WMH volume percent was significantly associated with global β-amyloid (r = 0.28, p < 0.001), but not tau (r = 0.05, p = 0.25). WMH volume percent was higher in individuals with either A + or T + pathology compared to controls, particularly within in the A+/T + group (p = 0.007, Cohen’s d = 0.4, t = -2.5). Individual CVRFs nor cumulative CVRF scores were associated with increased WMH volume. Finally, the regions where β-amyloid and WMH count were most positively associated were the middle temporal region in the right hemisphere (r = 0.18, p = 0.002) and the fusiform region in the left hemisphere (r = 0.017, p = 0.005). β-amyloid and WMH have a clear association, though the mechanism facilitating this association is still not fully understood. The associations found between β-amyloid and WMH burden emphasizes the relationship between β-amyloid and vascular lesion formation while factors like CVRFs, age, and sex affect AD development through various mechanisms. These findings highlight potential causes and mechanisms of AD as targets for future preventions and treatments. Going forward, a larger emphasis may be placed on β-amyloid’s vascular effects and the implications of impaired brain clearance in AD.

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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImage: Clinicalarrow_drop_down
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cain, Stuart M.; Tyson, John R.; Choi, Hyun‐Beom; Ko, Rebecca; +10 Authors