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289 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
  • Open Access
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research
  • NIH|NATIONAL_INSTITUTE_OF_MENTAL_HEALTH

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: B. Ogan Mancarci; Lilah Toker; Shreejoy J. Tripathy; Brenna Li; +3 Authors

    Establishing the molecular diversity of cell types is crucial for the study of the nervous system. We compiled a cross-laboratory database of mouse brain cell type-specific transcriptomes from 36 major cell types from across the mammalian brain using rigorously curated published data from pooled cell type microarray and single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) studies. We used these data to identify cell type-specific marker genes, discovering a substantial number of novel markers, many of which we validated using computational and experimental approaches. We further demonstrate that summarized expression of marker gene sets (MGSs) in bulk tissue data can be used to estimate the relative cell type abundance across samples. To facilitate use of this expanding resource, we provide a user-friendly web interface at www.neuroexpresso.org. Visual Abstract

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2016
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    eNeuro
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    eNeuro
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2016
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      eNeuro
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      eNeuro
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hatton, Sean N; Huynh, Khoa H; Bonilha, Leonardo; Abela, Eugenio; +70 Authors

    AbstractThe epilepsies are commonly accompanied by widespread abnormalities in cerebral white matter. ENIGMA-Epilepsy is a large quantitative brain imaging consortium, aggregating data to investigate patterns of neuroimaging abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, including temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal epilepsy, and genetic generalized epilepsy. Our goal was to rank the most robust white matter microstructural differences across and within syndromes in a multicentre sample of adult epilepsy patients. Diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed from 1,069 non-epileptic controls and 1,249 patients: temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (N=599), temporal lobe epilepsy with normal MRI (N=275), genetic generalized epilepsy (N=182) and nonlesional extratemporal epilepsy (N=193). A harmonized protocol using tract-based spatial statistics was used to derive skeletonized maps of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity for each participant, and fiber tracts were segmented using a diffusion MRI atlas. Data were harmonized to correct for scanner-specific variations in diffusion measures using a batch-effect correction tool (ComBat). Analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and sex, examined differences between each epilepsy syndrome and controls for each white matter tract (Bonferroni corrected at p<0.001). Across “all epilepsies” lower fractional anisotropy was observed in most fiber tracts with small to medium effect sizes, especially in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule. Less robust effects were seen with mean diffusivity. Syndrome-specific fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differences were most pronounced in patients with hippocampal sclerosis in the ipsilateral parahippocampal cingulum and external capsule, with smaller effects across most other tracts. Those with temporal lobe epilepsy and normal MRI showed a similar pattern of greater ipsilateral than contralateral abnormalities, but less marked than those in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Patients with generalized and extratemporal epilepsies had pronounced differences in fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and external capsule, and in mean diffusivity of the anterior corona radiata. Earlier age of seizure onset and longer disease duration were associated with a greater extent of microstructural abnormalities in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. We demonstrate microstructural abnormalities across major association, commissural, and projection fibers in a large multicentre study of epilepsy. Overall, epilepsy patients showed white matter abnormalities in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule, with differing severity across epilepsy syndromes. These data further define the spectrum of white matter abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, yielding new insights into pathological substrates that may be used to guide future therapeutic and genetic studies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; McIntosh, Andrew M; Eichhammer, Peter; +289 Authors

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. peerReviewed final draft Article

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UEF eRepository
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: UEF eRepository
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: UEF eRepository
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Sierra L. Alban; Kirsten M. Lynch; John M. Ringman; Arthur W. Toga; +3 Authors

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) frequently occur in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and have a contribution from ischemia, though their relationship with β-amyloid and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is not completely understood. We used AT classification to categorize individuals based on their β-amyloid and tau pathologies, then assessed the effects of β-amyloid and tau on WMH volume and number. We then determined regions in which β-amyloid and WMH accumulation were related. Last, we analyzed the effects of various CVRFs on WMHs. As secondary analyses, we observed effects of age and sex differences, atrophy, cognitive scores, and APOE genotype. PET, MRI, FLAIR, demographic, and cardiovascular health data was collected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-3) (N = 287, 48 % male). Participants were categorized as A + and T + if their Florbetapir SUVR and Flortaucipir SUVR were above 0.79 and 1.25, respectively. WMHs were mapped on MRI using a deep convolutional neural network (Sepehrband et al., 2020). CVRF scores were based on history of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, BMI, and a cumulative score with 6 being the maximum score. Regression models and Pearson correlations were used to test associations and correlations between variables, respectively, with age, sex, years of education, and scanner manufacturer as covariates of no interest. WMH volume percent was significantly associated with global β-amyloid (r = 0.28, p < 0.001), but not tau (r = 0.05, p = 0.25). WMH volume percent was higher in individuals with either A + or T + pathology compared to controls, particularly within in the A+/T + group (p = 0.007, Cohen’s d = 0.4, t = -2.5). Individual CVRFs nor cumulative CVRF scores were associated with increased WMH volume. Finally, the regions where β-amyloid and WMH count were most positively associated were the middle temporal region in the right hemisphere (r = 0.18, p = 0.002) and the fusiform region in the left hemisphere (r = 0.017, p = 0.005). β-amyloid and WMH have a clear association, though the mechanism facilitating this association is still not fully understood. The associations found between β-amyloid and WMH burden emphasizes the relationship between β-amyloid and vascular lesion formation while factors like CVRFs, age, and sex affect AD development through various mechanisms. These findings highlight potential causes and mechanisms of AD as targets for future preventions and treatments. Going forward, a larger emphasis may be placed on β-amyloid’s vascular effects and the implications of impaired brain clearance in AD.

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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Prabhjot Dhami; Sravya Atluri; Jonathan C. Lee; Yuliya Knyahnytska; +4 Authors

    Background Theta burst stimulation (TBS) has recently been proposed as a novel treatment for youth depression. However, the impact of TBS on the youth brain and neurophysiological predictors of response to TBS in this population have not been investigated. Methods Cortical reactivity was assessed at baseline and following 2 weeks of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) TBS treatment in 16 youth with depression (aged 16-24 years old). In 16 age-matched health youths, cortical reactivity was assessed twice, 2 weeks apart. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography was used to assess TMS-evoked potentials in bilateral DLPFC, motor cortices, and intraparietal lobules (IPL). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was also collected at baseline. Results Left DLPFC pretreatment cortical reactivity, specifically the negativity at 45 ms (i.e., N45), which is related to GABAA neurotransmission, was associated with changes in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, TBS treatment was found to alter the N45 in the right IPL, a site distal to the treatment sites. The magnitude of the right IPL N45 modulation was correlated with the baseline fMRI connectivity between the right IPL and right DLPFC. Conclusions TMS-probed cortical inhibition at the site of TBS application may have potential as a predictor of treatment response in youth depression. Furthermore, pre-treatment functional connectivity may predict the impact of TBS on the neurophysiology of regions distal to the stimulation site. Collectively, these results offer novel neurophysiological insights into the application of TBS for youth depression, which may facilitate its wider use in the youth population.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Depression and Anxiety
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Depression and Anxiety
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    Authors: Yashar Zeighami; Miguel Ulla; Yasser Iturria-Medina; Mahsa Dadar; +6 Authors

    eLife digest Although Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, its cause is not known and there is no cure. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease, which include tremor and slowing of voluntary movements, get progressively worse over time. The numbers of neurons in certain brain regions also decrease, causing those parts of the brain to shrink; this is known as ‘atrophy’. However, no conclusive signs of atrophy have been found in the brains of people in the early stages of the disease. One theory suggests that Parkinson's disease is caused by a toxic protein that is able to spread from neuron to neuron. Recent advances in brain imaging have made it possible to map networks in the living human brain—the so-called brain connectome. These networks could form the ‘highways’ through which a disease-causing agent might spread. The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) is a large study that collects data from hundreds of people in an effort to identify the causes of Parkinson's disease. Zeighami et al. have now analyzed MRI scans that were collected as part of this initiative, which show the structure of the brains of 230 people in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. Comparing these scans to those from age-matched healthy individuals allowed Zeighami et al. to identify the set of brain regions that show atrophy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. These regions correspond to a normal brain network, and the relative extent of atrophy in each brain region supports the theory that the disease spreads through the connectome. The patients who were enrolled in this study will continue to be evaluated on a yearly basis. Zeighami et al. plan to continue mapping how the disease progresses throughout the brain and to relate this to the development of new symptoms of Parkinson's disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08440.002 We mapped the distribution of atrophy in Parkinson's disease (PD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data from 232 PD patients and 117 controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Deformation-based morphometry and independent component analysis identified PD-specific atrophy in the midbrain, basal ganglia, basal forebrain, medial temporal lobe, and discrete cortical regions. The degree of atrophy reflected clinical measures of disease severity. The spatial pattern of atrophy demonstrated overlap with intrinsic networks present in healthy brain, as derived from functional MRI. Moreover, the degree of atrophy in each brain region reflected its functional and anatomical proximity to a presumed disease epicenter in the substantia nigra, compatible with a trans-neuronal spread of the disease. These results support a network-spread mechanism in PD. Finally, the atrophy pattern in PD was also seen in healthy aging, where it also correlated with the loss of striatal dopaminergic innervation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08440.001

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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    eLife
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Matthias Kirschner; Golia Shafiei; Ross D. Markello; Carolina Makowski; +9 Authors

    Abstract Widespread structural brain abnormalities have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but their relation to the heterogeneous clinical manifestations remains unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether anatomical abnormalities in discrete regions give rise to discrete symptoms or whether distributed abnormalities give rise to the broad clinical profile associated with schizophrenia. Here, we apply a multivariate data-driven approach to investigate covariance patterns between multiple-symptom domains and distributed brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data were derived from one discovery sample (133 patients and 113 controls) and one independent validation sample (108 patients and 69 controls). Disease-related voxel-wise brain abnormalities were estimated using deformation-based morphometry. Partial least-squares analysis was used to comprehensively map clinical, neuropsychological, and demographic data onto distributed deformation in a single multivariate model. The analysis identified 3 latent clinical-anatomical dimensions that collectively accounted for 55% of the covariance between clinical data and brain deformation. The first latent clinical-anatomical dimension was replicated in an independent sample, encompassing cognitive impairments, negative symptom severity, and brain abnormalities within the default mode and visual networks. This cognitive-negative dimension was associated with low socioeconomic status and was represented across multiple races. Altogether, we identified a continuous cognitive-negative dimension of schizophrenia, centered on 2 intrinsic networks. By simultaneously taking into account both clinical manifestations and neuroanatomical abnormalities, the present results open new avenues for multi-omic stratification and biotyping of individuals with schizophrenia.

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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    Authors: Lauren E. Salminen; Philipp G. Sämann; Yuanchao Zheng; Emily L. Dennis; +114 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundPTSD and depression commonly co-occur and have been associated with smaller hippocampal volumes compared to healthy and trauma-exposed controls. However, the hippocampus is heterogeneous, with subregions that may be uniquely affected in individuals with PTSD and depression.MethodsWe used random effects regressions and a harmonized neuroimaging protocol based on FreeSurfer (v6.0) to identify sub-structural hippocampal markers of current PTSD (C-PTSD), depression, and the interaction of these conditions across 31 cohorts worldwide (N=3,115;Mage=38.9±13.9 years). Secondary analyses tested these associations by sex and after modeling the simultaneous effects of remitted PTSD, childhood trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, and alcohol use disorder.ResultsA significant negative main effect of depression (n=800, vs. no depression, n=1456) was observed in the hippocampal tail (ß=−0.13) and CA1 (ß=−0.09) after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing (adjusted p’s (q)=0.028). A main effect of C-PTSD (n=1042 vs. control, n=1359) was not significant, but an interaction between C-PTSD and depression was significant in the CA1 (ß=−0.24, q=0.044). Pairwise comparisons revealed significantly smaller CA1 volumes in individuals with C-PTSD+Depression than controls (ß=−0.12, q=0.012), C-PTSD-only (ß=−0.17, q=0.001), and Depression-only (ß=−0.18, q=0.023). Follow-up analyses revealed sex effects in the hippocampal tail of depressed females, and an interaction effect of C-PTSD and depression in the fimbria of males.ConclusionsCollectively our results suggest that depression is a stronger predictor of hippocampal volumetry than PTSD, particularly in the CA1, and provide compelling evidence of more pronounced hippocampal phenotypes in comorbid PTSD and depression compared to either condition alone.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    Authors: Lamers, Susanna L.; Poon, Art F. Y.; McGrath, Michael S.;

    The difference between regional rates of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in patients infected with different subtypes of HIV suggests that genetic determinants exist within HIV that influence the ability of the virus to replicate in the central nervous system (in Uganda, Africa, subtype D HAD rate is 89%, while subtype A HAD rate is 24%). HIV-1 nef is a multifunctional protein with known toxic effects in the brain compartment. The goal of the current study was to identify if specific three-dimensional nef structures may be linked to patients who developed HAD. HIV-1 nef structures were computationally derived for consensus brain and non-brain sequences from a panel of patients infected with subtype B who died due to varied disease pathologies and consensus subtype A and subtype D sequences from Uganda. Site directed mutation analysis identified signatures in brain structures that appear to change binding potentials and could affect folding conformations of brain-associated structures. Despite the large sequence variation between HIV subtypes, structural alignments confirmed that viral structures derived from patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than to structures derived from patient sequences without HAD. Furthermore, structures derived from brain sequences of patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than they were to their own non-brain structures. The potential finding of a brain-specific nef structure indicates that HAD may result from genetic alterations that alter the folding or binding potential of the protein.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Christian P. Schaaf; Catalina Betancur; Ryan K. C. Yuen; Jeremy R. Parr; +21 Authors

    International audience; Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often grouped with other brain-related phenotypes into a broader category of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In clinical practice, providers need to decide which genes to test in individuals with ASD phenotypes, which requires an understanding of the level of evidence for individual NDD genes that supports an association with ASD. Consensus is currently lacking about which NDD genes have sufficient evidence to support a relationship to ASD. Estimates of the number of genes relevant to ASD differ greatly among research groups and clinical sequencing panels, varying from a few to several hundred. This Roadmap discusses important considerations necessary to provide an evidence-based framework for the curation of NDD genes based on the level of information supporting a clinically relevant relationship between a given gene and ASD.

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    Other literature type . 2020
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