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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cavedo, Enrica; Tran, Philippe; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; +10 Authors

    Abstract Objectives QyScore® is an imaging analysis tool certified in Europe (CE marked) and the US (FDA cleared) for the automatic volumetry of grey and white matter (GM and WM respectively), hippocampus (HP), amygdala (AM), and white matter hyperintensity (WMH). Here we compare QyScore® performances with the consensus of expert neuroradiologists. Methods Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the relative volume difference (RVD) for GM, WM volumes were calculated on 50 3DT1 images. DSC and the F1 metrics were calculated for WMH on 130 3DT1 and FLAIR images. For each index, we identified thresholds of reliability based on current literature review results. We hypothesized that DSC/F1 scores obtained using QyScore® markers would be higher than the threshold. In contrast, RVD scores would be lower. Regression analysis and Bland–Altman plots were obtained to evaluate QyScore® performance in comparison to the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists. Results The lower bound of the DSC/F1 confidence intervals was higher than the threshold for the GM, WM, HP, AM, and WMH, and the higher bounds of the RVD confidence interval were below the threshold for the WM, GM, HP, and AM. QyScore®, compared with the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists, provides reliable performance for the automatic segmentation of the GM and WM volumes, and HP and AM volumes, as well as WMH volumes. Conclusions QyScore® represents a reliable medical device in comparison with the consensus of expert neuroradiologists. Therefore, QyScore® could be implemented in clinical trials and clinical routine to support the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of neurological diseases. Key Points • QyScore® provides reliable automatic segmentation of brain structures in comparison with the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists. • QyScore® automatic segmentation could be performed on MRI images using different vendors and protocols of acquisition. In addition, the fast segmentation process saves time over manual and semi-automatic methods. • QyScore® could be implemented in clinical trials and clinical routine to support the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of neurological diseases.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ INRIA a CCSD electro...arrow_drop_down
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    European Radiology
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    European Radiology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ INRIA a CCSD electro...arrow_drop_down
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      European Radiology
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      European Radiology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cassidy M. Fiford; Jennifer M. Nicholas; Geert Jan Biessels; Christopher A. Lane; +2 Authors

    Abstract Introduction Understanding relationships among blood pressure (BP), cognition, and brain volume could inform Alzheimer's disease (AD) management. Methods We investigated Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants: 200 controls, 346 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 154 AD. National Alzheimer's Co‐ordinating Center (NACC) participants were separately analyzed: 1098 controls, 2297 MCI, and 4845 AD. Relationships between cognition and BP were assessed in both cohorts and BP and atrophy rates in ADNI. Multivariate mixed linear‐regression models were fitted with joint outcomes of BP (systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure), cognition (Mini‐Mental State Examination, Logical Memory, and Digit Symbol) and atrophy rate (whole‐brain, hippocampus). Results ADNI MCI and AD patients with greater baseline systolic BP had higher hippocampal atrophy rates ([r, P value]; 0.2, 0.005 and 0.2, 0.04, respectively). NACC AD patients with lower systolic BP had lower cognitive scores (0.1, 0.0003). Discussion Higher late‐life BP may be associated with faster decline in cognitively impaired elders.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: A, Tam; C, Laurent; S, Gauthier; C, Dansereau;

    A key issue to Alzheimer's disease clinical trial failures is poor participant selection. Participants have heterogeneous cognitive trajectories and many do not decline during trials, which reduces a study's power to detect treatment effects. Trials need enrichment strategies to enroll individuals who will decline. We developed machine learning models to predict cognitive trajectories in participants with early Alzheimer's disease (n=1342) and presymptomatic individuals (n=756) over 24 and 48 months respectively. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive tests, demographics, and APOE genotype were used to classify decliners, measured by an increase in CDR-Sum of Boxes, and non-decliners with up to 79% area under the curve (cross-validated and out-of-sample). Using these prognostic models to recruit enriched cohorts of decliners can reduce required sample sizes by as much as 51%, while maintaining the same detection power, and thus may improve trial quality, derisk endpoint failures, and accelerate therapeutic development in Alzheimer's disease. Comment: 11 pages, 3 main figures, 3 main tables, supplementary material (3 tables, 2 figures), incorporated feedback from reviewers in the introduction and discussion

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    The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer s Disease
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
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      The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer s Disease
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Thibeau-Sutre, Elina;

    L’objectif de cette thèse était la validation de l’existence ainsi que la découverte de nouveaux sous-types au sein de la maladie d’Alzheimer, première cause de démence au monde. Afin d’explorer son hétérogénéité, nous avons employé des méthodes d’apprentissage profond appliquées à une modalité de neuroimagerie, l’imagerie par résonance magnétique structurelle.Cependant, la découverte de biais méthodologiques importants dans de nombreuses études de notre domaine, ainsi que l’absence de consensus de la communauté sur la manière d’interpréter les résultats des méthodes d’apprentissage profond a fait en partie dévier la thèse de son objectif principal pour s’orienter d’avantage vers des problématiques de validation, de robustesse et d’interprétabilité de l’apprentissage profond. Ainsi, trois études expérimentales ont été menées pour s’assurer de la capacité des réseaux profonds de correctement détecter la maladie. La première est une étude expérimentale de méthodes d’apprentissage profond pour la classification de la maladie d’Alzheimer et a permis d’établir une juste comparaison des méthodes. La seconde étude a permis de constater un manque de robustesse de la classification avec l’apprentissage profond en termes de motifs d’atrophie découverts à l’aide de méthodes d’interprétabilité. Enfin, la dernière étude propose une méthode de découverte de sous-types aidée par l’augmentation de données. Bien que fonctionnant sur des données synthétiques, celle-ci ne généralise pas aux données réelles.Une contribution majeure de la thèse est la librairie ClinicaDL, grâce à laquelle les résultats expérimentaux de la thèse ont été produits de manière à être reproductibles. The goal of this PhD was the validation of the existence and the discovery of new subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease, the first cause of dementia worldwide. Indeed, despite its discovery more than a century ago, this disease is still not well defined and existing treatments are only weakly effective, possibly because several phenotypes exist within the disease. In order to explore its heterogeneity, we employed deep learning methods applied to a neuroimaging modality, structural magnetic resonance imaging.However, the discovery of important methodological biases in many studies in our field, as well as the lack of consensus regarding deep learning interpretability, partly changed the main objective of the PhD to focus more on issues of validation, robustness and interpretability of deep learning. Then, to correctly assess the ability of deep learning to detect Alzheimer’s disease, three experimental studies were conducted. The first one is a study of deep learning methods for Alzheimer’s classification and allowed a fair comparison of the methods. The second study found a lack of robustness of classification with deep learning in terms of atrophy patterns discovered using interpretability methods. Finally, the last study proposed a subtype discovery method aided by data augmentation. Although it works on synthetic data, it does not generalize to real data.Experimental results of this PhD were obtained thanks to ClinicaDL, one major contribution of this PhD. It is an open source Python library that was used to improve the reproducibility of deep learning experiments.

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    Authors: Staley, Lyndsay; Ebbert, Mark; Bunker, Daniel; Bailey, Matthew; +3 Authors

    File contains a Q-Q plot of the CSF in the Knight ADRC samples. (DOCX 52Â kb)

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    Authors: Staley, Lyndsay; Ebbert, Mark; Bunker, Daniel; Bailey, Matthew; +3 Authors

    File contains the PLINK script used to clean data and find associations between SNPs and prolactin levels in the samples. (DOCX 101Â kb)

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    Authors: Ebbert, Mark; Staley, Lyndsay; Parker, Joshua; Sheradyn Parker; +4 Authors

    File contains a Q-Q plot of the CSF data used in this study. (DOCX 82Â kb)

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    Authors: Leonardino A Digma; John R Madsen; Robert A Rissman; Diane M Jacobs; +196 Authors

    Abstract In this study, we aimed to assess whether women are able to withstand more tau before exhibiting verbal memory impairment. Using data from 121 amyloid-β-positive Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants, we fit a linear model with Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test score as the response variable and tau-PET standard uptake value ratio as the predictor and took the residuals as an estimate of verbal memory reserve for each subject. Women demonstrated higher reserve (i.e. residuals), whether the Learning (t = 2.78, P = 0.006) or Delay (t = 2.14, P = 0.03) score from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used as a measure of verbal memory ability. To validate these findings, we examined 662 National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center participants with a C2/C3 score (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease) at autopsy. We stratified our National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center sample into Braak 1/2, Braak 3/4 and Braak 5/6 subgroups. Within each subgroup, we compared Logical Memory scores between men and women. Men had worse verbal memory scores within the Braak 1/2 (Logical Memory Immediate: β = −5.960 ± 1.517, P < 0.001, Logical Memory Delay: β = −5.703 ± 1.677, P = 0.002) and Braak 3/4 (Logical Memory Immediate: β = −2.900 ± 0.938, P = 0.002, Logical Memory Delay: β = −2.672 ± 0.955, P = 0.006) subgroups. There were no sex differences in Logical Memory performance within the Braak 5/6 subgroup (Logical Memory Immediate: β = −0.314 ± 0.328, P = 0.34, Logical Memory Delay: β = −0.195 ± 0.287, P = 0.50). Taken together, our results point to a sex-related verbal memory reserve. In this study, we demonstrated in two independent cohorts that, for a given level of tau pathology, women perform better than men on verbal memory tests. Our findings suggest that women exhibit cognitive reserve, such that they are able to tolerate more tau before showing verbal memory impairment. Graphical Abstract Graphical Abstract

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Brain Communications
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    Brain Communications
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Brain Communications
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Christian Wachinger; Anna Rieckmann; Sebastian Pölsterl;

    The desire to train complex machine learning algorithms and to increase the statistical power in association studies drives neuroimaging research to use ever-larger datasets. The most obvious way to increase sample size is by pooling scans from independent studies. However, simple pooling is often ill-advised as selection, measurement, and confounding biases may creep in and yield spurious correlations. In this work, we combine 35,320 magnetic resonance images of the brain from 17 studies to examine bias in neuroimaging. In the first experiment, Name That Dataset, we provide empirical evidence for the presence of bias by showing that scans can be correctly assigned to their respective dataset with 71.5% accuracy. Given such evidence, we take a closer look at confounding bias, which is often viewed as the main shortcoming in observational studies. In practice, we neither know all potential confounders nor do we have data on them. Hence, we model confounders as unknown, latent variables. Kolmogorov complexity is then used to decide whether the confounded or the causal model provides the simplest factorization of the graphical model. Finally, we present methods for dataset harmonization and study their ability to remove bias in imaging features. In particular, we propose an extension of the recently introduced ComBat algorithm to control for global variation across image features, inspired by adjusting for unknown population stratification in genetics. Our results demonstrate that harmonization can reduce dataset-specific information in image features. Further, confounding bias can be reduced and even turned into a causal relationship. However, harmonization also requires caution as it can easily remove relevant subject-specific information. Code is available at https://github.com/ai-med/Dataset-Bias.

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    Medical Image Analysis
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Medical Image Analysis
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mostafa Mehdipour Ghazi; Mads Nielsen; Akshay Pai; Marc Modat; +3 Authors

    Quantitative characterization of disease progression using longitudinal data can provide long-term predictions for the pathological stages of individuals. This work studies the robust modeling of Alzheimer's disease progression using parametric methods. The proposed method linearly maps the individual's age to a disease progression score (DPS) and jointly fits constrained generalized logistic functions to the longitudinal dynamics of biomarkers as functions of the DPS using M-estimation. Robustness of the estimates is quantified using bootstrapping via Monte Carlo resampling, and the estimated inflection points of the fitted functions are used to temporally order the modeled biomarkers in the disease course. Kernel density estimation is applied to the obtained DPSs for clinical status classification using a Bayesian classifier. Different M-estimators and logistic functions, including a novel type proposed in this study, called modified Stannard, are evaluated on the data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) for robust modeling of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measurements, as well as cognitive tests. The results show that the modified Stannard function fitted using the logistic loss achieves the best modeling performance with an average normalized mean absolute error (NMAE) of 0.991 across all biomarkers and bootstraps. Applied to the ADNI test set, this model achieves a multiclass area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.934 in clinical status classification. The obtained results for the proposed model outperform almost all state-of-the-art results in predicting biomarker values and classifying clinical status. Finally, the experiments show that the proposed model, trained using abundant ADNI data, generalizes well to data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) with an average NMAE of 1.182 and a multiclass AUC of 0.929.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2021
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    NeuroImage
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
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      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cavedo, Enrica; Tran, Philippe; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; +10 Authors

    Abstract Objectives QyScore® is an imaging analysis tool certified in Europe (CE marked) and the US (FDA cleared) for the automatic volumetry of grey and white matter (GM and WM respectively), hippocampus (HP), amygdala (AM), and white matter hyperintensity (WMH). Here we compare QyScore® performances with the consensus of expert neuroradiologists. Methods Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the relative volume difference (RVD) for GM, WM volumes were calculated on 50 3DT1 images. DSC and the F1 metrics were calculated for WMH on 130 3DT1 and FLAIR images. For each index, we identified thresholds of reliability based on current literature review results. We hypothesized that DSC/F1 scores obtained using QyScore® markers would be higher than the threshold. In contrast, RVD scores would be lower. Regression analysis and Bland–Altman plots were obtained to evaluate QyScore® performance in comparison to the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists. Results The lower bound of the DSC/F1 confidence intervals was higher than the threshold for the GM, WM, HP, AM, and WMH, and the higher bounds of the RVD confidence interval were below the threshold for the WM, GM, HP, and AM. QyScore®, compared with the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists, provides reliable performance for the automatic segmentation of the GM and WM volumes, and HP and AM volumes, as well as WMH volumes. Conclusions QyScore® represents a reliable medical device in comparison with the consensus of expert neuroradiologists. Therefore, QyScore® could be implemented in clinical trials and clinical routine to support the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of neurological diseases. Key Points • QyScore® provides reliable automatic segmentation of brain structures in comparison with the consensus of three expert neuroradiologists. • QyScore® automatic segmentation could be performed on MRI images using different vendors and protocols of acquisition. In addition, the fast segmentation process saves time over manual and semi-automatic methods. • QyScore® could be implemented in clinical trials and clinical routine to support the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of neurological diseases.

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    European Radiology
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      European Radiology
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