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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elena, Choleris; Liisa A M, Galea; Farida, Sohrabji; Karyn M, Frick;

    Abstract Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them. This information may provide readers with useful experimental tools to successfully address recently introduced regulations by granting agencies that either require (e.g. the National Institutes of Health in the United States and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in Canada) or recommend (e.g. Horizon 2020 in Europe) the inclusion of both sexes in biomedical research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience & Biobe...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience & Biobe...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Liang Wang; Yanfang Li; Paul D. Metzak; Yong He; +1 Authors

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related changes in large-scale brain functional networks during memory encoding and recognition in 12 younger and 16 older adults. For each participant, functional brain networks were constructed by computing temporal correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found the age-related changes mainly in the long-range connections with widespread reductions associated with aging in the fronto-temporal and temporo-parietal regions, and a few age-related increases in the posterior parietal regions. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that the older adults had longer path lengths linking different regions in the functional brain networks as compared to the younger adults. Further analysis indicated that the increases in shortest path length in the networks were combined with the loss of long-range connections. Finally, we showed that for older adults, frontal areas played reduced roles in the network (reduced regional centrality), whereas several default-mode regions played increased roles relative to younger subjects (increased regional centrality). Together, our results suggest that normal aging is associated with disruption of large-scale brain systems during the performance of memory tasks, which provides novel insights into the understanding of age-related decline in multiple cognitive functions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2009
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yasuyuki Taki; Benjamin Thyreau; Shigeo Kinomura; Kazunori Sato; +3 Authors

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2011
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2011
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2011
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chris B. Martin; Rosemary A. Cowell; Paul L. Gribble; Jessey Wright; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACTEvidence from a large body of research suggests that perirhinal cortex (PrC), which interfaces the medial temporal lobe with the ventral visual pathway for object identification, plays a critical role in item‐based recognition memory. The precise manner in which PrC codes for the prior occurrence of objects, however, remains poorly understood. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used multivoxel pattern analyses to examine whether the prior occurrence of faces is coded by distributed patterns of PrC activity that consist of voxels with decreases as well as increases in signal. We also investigated whether pertinent voxels are preferentially tuned to the specific object category to which judged stimuli belong. We found that, when no a priori constraints were imposed on the direction of signal change, activity patterns that allowed for successful classification of recognition‐memory decisions included some voxels with decreases and others with increases in signal in association with perceived prior occurrence. Moreover, successful classification was obtained in the absence of a mean difference in activity across the set of voxels in these patterns. Critically, we observed a positive relationship between classifier accuracy and behavioral performance across participants. Additional analyses revealed that voxels carrying diagnostic information for classification of memory decisions showed category specificity in their tuning for faces when probed with an independent functional localizer in a nonmnemonic task context. These voxels were spatially distributed in PrC, and extended beyond the contiguous voxel clusters previously described as the anterior temporal face patch. Our findings provide support for proposals, recently raised in the neurophysiological literature, that the prior occurrence of objects is coded by distributed PrC representations. They also suggest that the stimulus category to which an item belongs shapes the organization of these distributed representations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship@Westernarrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hippocampus
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    Hippocampus
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship@Westernarrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Hippocampus
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hippocampus
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Hellen Weinschutz Mendes; Mariam Taktek; Thomas Duret; Marc Ekker;

    AbstractDysfunctions in the GABAergic system lead to various pathological conditions and impaired inhibitory function is one of the causes behind neuropathies characterized by neuronal hyper excitability. TheDlxhomeobox genes are involved in the development of nervous system, neural crest, brachial arches and developing appendages.Dlxgenes also take part in neuronal migration and differentiation during development, more precisely, in the migration and differentiation of GABAergic neurons. Functional analysis ofdlxgenes has mainly been carried out in developing zebrafish embryos and larvae; however information regarding the expression and roles of these genes in the adult zebrafish brain is still lacking. The extensive neurogenesis that takes place in the brain of adult zebrafish makes them a good model for the visualization of mechanisms involvingdlxgenes during adulthood in physiological conditions and during regeneration of the nervous system. We have identified the adult brain regions where transcripts ofdlx1a, dlx2a, dlx5aanddlx6agenes are normally found and have confirmed that within telencephalic domains, there is high overlapping expression of the fourdlxparalogs with a marker for GABAergic neurons. Co-localization analyses carried with the Tg(dlx6a-1.4kbdlx5a/dlx6a:GFP) reporter line have also shown that in some areas of the diencephalon, cells expressing thedlx5a/6abigene may have a neural stem cell identity by co-localizing with a Sox2 antibody. Furthermore, investigations in a response to stab wound lesions, have demonstrated a possible participation of thedlx5a/6abigene, most likely, ofdlx5aduring the regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain. These data suggest a possible participation ofdlx-expressing cells during brain regeneration in adult zebrafish and also provide information on the role ofdlxgenes under normal physiological conditions in adults.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . Preprint
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2020
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Maxime Montembeault; Sven Joubert; Julien Doyon; Julie Carrier; +5 Authors

    Previous anatomical volumetric studies have shown that healthy aging is associated with gray matter tissue loss in specific cerebral regions. However, these studies may have potentially missed critical elements of age-related brain changes, which largely exist within interrelationships among brain regions. This magnetic resonance imaging research aims to assess the effects of aging on the organization of gray matter structural covariance networks. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry on high-definition brain scans to compare the patterns of gray matter structural covariance networks that sustain different sensorimotor and high-order cognitive functions among young (n=88, mean age=23.5±3.1 years, female/male=55/33) and older (n=88, mean age=67.3±5.9 years, female/male=55/33) participants. This approach relies on the assumption that functionally correlated brain regions show correlations in gray matter volume as a result of mutually trophic influences or common experience-related plasticity. We found reduced structural association in older adults compared with younger adults, specifically in high-order cognitive networks. Major differences were observed in the structural covariance networks that subserve the following: a) the language-related semantic network, b) the executive control network, and c) the default-mode network. Moreover, these cognitive functions are typically altered in the older population. Our results indicate that healthy aging alters the structural organization of cognitive networks, shifting from a more distributed (in young adulthood) to a more localized topological organization in older individuals.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2011
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2011
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    Authors: Nataliia Kozhemiako; Adonay S. Nunes; Vasily A. Vakorin; Grace Iarocci; +2 Authors

    AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more often in males with a ratio of 1:4 females/males. This bias is even stronger in neuroimaging studies. There is a growing evidence suggesting that local connectivity and its developmental trajectory is altered in ASD. Here, we aim to investigate how local connectivity and its age-related trajectories vary with ASD in both males and females. We used resting-state fMRI data from the ABIDE I and II repository: males (n = 102) and females (n = 92) with ASD, and typically developing males (n = 104) and females (n = 92) aged between 6 and 26. Local connectivity was quantified as regional homogeneity. We found increases in local connectivity in participants with ASD in the somatomotor and limbic networks and decreased local connectivity within the default mode network. These alterations were more pronounced in females with ASD. In addition, the association between local connectivity and ASD symptoms was more robust in females. Females with ASD had the most distinct developmental trajectories of local connectivity compared with other groups. Overall, our findings of more pronounced local connectivity alterations in females with ASD could indicate a greater etiological load for an ASD diagnosis in this group congruent with the female protective effect hypothesis.

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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
    Data sources: Crossref
    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2020
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Zhang, Si; Zhao, Jiehao; Zhang, Yuhu; Zhang, Yun; +3 Authors

    Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Chronic inflammation induced by amyloid β proteins (Aβ) is one prominent neuropathological feature in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Methods: Elisa, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining analysis were performed to examine the level of MIF protein in CSF and brain tissues. MTT and LDH assays were used to examine the neurotoxicity, and the Morris Water Maze test was performed to examine the cognitive function in the MIF+/−/APP23 transgenic mice. Results: MIF expression was upregulated in the brain of AD patients and AD model mice. Elevated MIF concentration was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients but not in that of the patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. Reduced MIF expression impaired learning and memory in the AD model mice. MIF expression largely associates with Aβ deposits and microglia. The binding assay revealed a direct association between MIF and Aβ oligomers. Neurons instead of glial cells were responsible for the secretion of MIF upon stimulation by Aβ oligomers. In addition, overexpression of MIF significantly protected neuronal cells from Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Our study suggests that neuronal secretion of MIF may serve as a defense mechanism to compensate for declined cognitive function in AD, and increased MIF level could be a potential AD biomarker.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.14288/1.037...
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.14288/1.037...
      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Arnaud Charil; Alex P. Zijdenbos; Jonathan Taylor; Cyrus Boelman; +3 Authors

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), the correlation between disability and the volume of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually weak. This may be because lesion location also influences the extent and type of functional disability. We applied an automatic lesion-detection algorithm to 452 MRI scans of patients with relapsing-remitting MS to identify the regions preferentially responsible for different types of clinical deficits. Statistical parametric maps were generated by performing voxel-wise linear regressions between lesion probability and different clinical disability scores. There was a clear distinction between lesion locations causing physical and cognitive disability. Lesion likelihood correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) in the left internal capsule and in periventricular white matter mostly in the left hemisphere. Pyramidal deficits correlated with only one area in the left internal capsule that was also present in the EDSS correlation. Cognitive dysfunction correlated with lesion location at the grey-white junction of associative, limbic, and prefrontal cortex. Coordination impairment correlated with areas in interhemispheric and pyramidal periventricular white matter tracts, and in the inferior and superior longitudinal fascicles. Bowel and bladder scores correlated with lesions in the medial frontal lobes, cerebellum, insula, dorsal midbrain, and pons, areas known to be involved in the control of micturition. This study demonstrates for the first time a relationship between the site of lesions and the type of disability in large scale MRI data set in MS.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2003
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2003
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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    Authors: David F, Nichols; Lisa R, Betts; Hugh R, Wilson;

    AbstractBackgroundEvidence for position sensitivity in object‐selective visual areas has been building. On one hand, most of the relevant studies have utilized stimuli for which the areas are optimally selective and examine small sections of cortex. On the other hand, visual field maps established with nonspecific stimuli have been found in increasingly large areas of visual cortex, though generally not in areas primarily responsive to faces.MethodsfMRI was used to study the position sensitivity of the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA) to both standard rotating wedge retinotopic mapping stimuli and quadrant presentations of synthetic facial stimuli. Analysis methods utilized were both typical, that is, mean univariate BOLD signals and multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), and novel, that is, distribution of voxels to pattern classifiers and use of responses to nonfacial retinotopic mapping stimuli to classify responses to facial stimuli.ResultsPolar angle sensitivity was exhibited to standard retinotopic mapping stimuli with a stronger contralateral bias in OFA than in FFA, a stronger bias toward the vertical meridian in FFA than in OFA, and a bias across both areas toward the inferior visual field. Contralateral hemispheric lateralization of both areas was again shown using synthetic face stimuli based on univariate BOLD signals, MVPA, and the biased contribution of voxels toward multivariate classifiers discriminating the contralateral visual field. Classifiers based on polar angle responsivity were used to classify the patterns of activation above chance levels to face stimuli in the OFA but not in the FFA.ConclusionsBoth the OFA and FFA exhibit quadrant sensitivity to face stimuli, though the OFA exhibits greater position responsivity across stimuli than the FFA and includes overlap in the response pattern to the disparate stimulus types. Such biases are consistent with varying position sensitivity along different surfaces of occipito‐temporal cortex.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Brain and Behavior
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      Article . 2016
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      Brain and Behavior
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Elena, Choleris; Liisa A M, Galea; Farida, Sohrabji; Karyn M, Frick;

    Abstract Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them. This information may provide readers with useful experimental tools to successfully address recently introduced regulations by granting agencies that either require (e.g. the National Institutes of Health in the United States and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in Canada) or recommend (e.g. Horizon 2020 in Europe) the inclusion of both sexes in biomedical research.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
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    Authors: Liang Wang; Yanfang Li; Paul D. Metzak; Yong He; +1 Authors

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related changes in large-scale brain functional networks during memory encoding and recognition in 12 younger and 16 older adults. For each participant, functional brain networks were constructed by computing temporal correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found the age-related changes mainly in the long-range connections with widespread reductions associated with aging in the fronto-temporal and temporo-parietal regions, and a few age-related increases in the posterior parietal regions. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that the older adults had longer path lengths linking different regions in the functional brain networks as compared to the younger adults. Further analysis indicated that the increases in shortest path length in the networks were combined with the loss of long-range connections. Finally, we showed that for older adults, frontal areas played reduced roles in the network (reduced regional centrality), whereas several default-mode regions played increased roles relative to younger subjects (increased regional centrality). Together, our results suggest that normal aging is associated with disruption of large-scale brain systems during the performance of memory tasks, which provides novel insights into the understanding of age-related decline in multiple cognitive functions.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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      NeuroImage
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2009
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    Authors: Yasuyuki Taki; Benjamin Thyreau; Shigeo Kinomura; Kazunori Sato; +3 Authors

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

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