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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dupeyrat, Maud; Aubry, Sèbastien; Hesselink, Henk; Loth, Steffen; +4 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents an innovative concept for airport operations in the long-term future, based on a radically new airport design encompassing a circular circumventing runway. The Endless Runway project, mostly funded by the European Commission during the Framework Programme 7 (FP7), aims at evaluating the benefits and identifying the constraints associated to this kind of airport. The possibility to operate the airport whatever the wind direction and for every aircraft type, the optimization of air and ground aircraft trajectories through the use of the best runway section, as well as the compact airport footprint are part of the observed gains. Those must be balanced with the high runway construction cost, additional safety issues in gusty winds and the impossibility to extend the runway system if additional capacity is desired. A foreseen application could be a small airport dedicated to unmanned aircraft operations or a large hub airport with limited traffic mix and high reliability of operations.

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    Other literature type . 2014
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Melgosa, Marc; Zerrouki, Leila; Terzioski, Predrag; Olivella, Pol; +1 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents a new capacity management concept where Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) and Flight Centric ATC (FCA) are dynamically applied together during the Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM) pretactical phase. An airspace delineation methodology is also introduced aiming at identifying when and where DAC or FCA can perform better. This methodology entails the establishment of a dynamic vertical boundary that divides the airspace in two different parts where DAC and FCA are deployed. In addition, the geometrical complexity metric has been considered to measure the traffic demand and the sector capacity as an evolution of the current use of entry counts or occupancy counts.Three 24 hours scenarios over the Hungarian airspace have been simulated in order to validate the improvements, in terms of capacity and cost-effectiveness, that the dynamic integration of both capacity management solutions may provide in comparison with the two solutions deployed separately. Results shows that when DAC and FCA are dynamically applied, a significant reduction in the number of overloads and underloads detected is achieved, what might lead to a higher capacity since more aircraft can be handled. Furthermore, a reduction in the controlling hours is also registered in this situation, what it is translated into a better cost-effectiveness solution

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    Other literature type . 2020
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    Conference object . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gribonval, Rémi;

    International audience; In the past decade there has been a great interest in a synthesis-based model for signals, based on sparse and redundant representations. Such a model assumes that the signal of interest can be composed as a linear combination of few columns from a given matrix (the dictionary). An alternative analysis-based model can be envisioned, where an analysis operator multiplies the signal, leading to a cosparse outcome. How similar are the two signal models ? The answer obviously depends on the dictionary/operator pair, and on the measure of (co)sparsity. For dictionaries in Hilbert spaces that are frames, the canonical dual is arguably the most natural associated analysis operator. When the frame is localized, the canonical frame coefficients provide a near sparsest expansion for several lp sparseness measures, p ≤ 1. However, for frames which are not localized, this no longer holds true: the sparsest synthesis coefficients may differ significantly from the canonical coefficients. In general the sparsest synthesis coefficients may also depend strongly on the choice of the sparseness measure, but this dependency vanishes for dictionaries with a null space property and signals that are combinations of sufficiently few columns from the dictionary. This uniqueness result, together with algorithmic guarantees, is at the basis of a number of signal reconstruction approaches for generic linear inverse problems (e.g., compressed sensing, inpainting, source separation, etc.). Is there a similar uniqueness property when the data to be recon- structed is cosparse rather than sparse ? Can one derive cosparse regu- larization algorithms with performance guarantees ? Existing empirical evidence in the litterature suggests that a positive answer is likely. In recent work we propose a uniqueness result for the solution of linear inverse problems under a cosparse hypothesis, based on properties of the analysis operator and the measurement matrix. Unlike with the synthesis model, where recovery guarantees usually require the linear independence of sets of few columns from the dictionary, our results suggest that linear dependencies between rows of the analysis operators may be desirable.

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    Authors: Lim, Soon Hoe; Wan, Yijun; Şimşekli, Umut;

    Recent studies have shown that gradient descent (GD) can achieve improved generalization when its dynamics exhibits a chaotic behavior. However, to obtain the desired effect, the step-size should be chosen sufficiently large, a task which is problem dependent and can be difficult in practice. In this study, we incorporate a chaotic component to GD in a controlled manner, and introduce multiscale perturbed GD (MPGD), a novel optimization framework where the GD recursion is augmented with chaotic perturbations that evolve via an independent dynamical system. We analyze MPGD from three different angles: (i) By building up on recent advances in rough paths theory, we show that, under appropriate assumptions, as the step-size decreases, the MPGD recursion converges weakly to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) driven by a heavy-tailed L\'evy-stable process. (ii) By making connections to recently developed generalization bounds for heavy-tailed processes, we derive a generalization bound for the limiting SDE and relate the worst-case generalization error over the trajectories of the process to the parameters of MPGD. (iii) We analyze the implicit regularization effect brought by the dynamical regularization and show that, in the weak perturbation regime, MPGD introduces terms that penalize the Hessian of the loss function. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate the advantages of MPGD. Comment: 24 pages, accepted at NeurIPS 2022

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Other literature type . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Srinivasan, Bhuvanesh;

    With the performance of direct conversion between thermal and electrical energy, thermoelectric materials, which are crucial in the renewable energy conversion roadmap, provide an alternative for power generation and refrigeration to solve the global energy crisis. But the low efficiency of the current materials, their usual costs, availability, and limited working temperatures, drastically constrain their application. Hence, the search for new and more efficient thermoelectric materials is one of the most dynamic objectives of this thesis. The key milestones achieved from this thesis work includes: (i) elucidating the mechanism for hole conductivity in Cu-As-Te glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and quantum simulations; (ii) formulating a novel approach to achieve phonon-glass electron-crystal mechanism by crystallizing the Ge20Te77Se3 glasses by excess doping with metals or semi-metals (glass-ceramics); (iii) demonstrating the effect of processing route on the thermoelectric performance of CuPb18SbTe20 and highlighting the advantage of hybrid-flash spark plasma sintering technique, i.e., better optimization of electrical and thermal transport properties and achieving multi-scale hierarchical architectures; (iv) improving the thermoelectric performance of Pb-Sb-Te alloys (enhancement by 170%) by tuning their cation vacancies (Pb deficiencies); (v) understating the impact of doping just a group-11 coinage metal, or group-13 element on GeTe solid-state solution and recapitulating the need for pair substitution; (vi) substantially enhancing the average zT of In-Bi codoped GeTe; (vii) achieving a remarkably high and stable zT of close to 2 over a wide temperature range (600 – 773 K) by manipulating the electronic bands in Ga-Sb codoped GeTe, which has been processed by hybrid flash-spark plasma sintering, thus making it a serious candidate for energy harvesting systems. L'intérêt porté au développement de matériaux thermoélectriques est grandissant car ils permettent de créer des sources d'énergie renouvelable, dites « vertes », ce qui s'inscrit pleinement dans la stratégie de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. A ce jour le rendement de tels systèmes reste faible, le coût de développement élevé, et les plages de températures d'utilisation sont limitées. Dans ces travaux de thèse différentes pistes sont explorées pour développer des matériaux innovants à base de chalcogènes, principalement le tellure. Les principaux résultats portent sur les points suivants. (i) Une étude par spectroscopies couplée à des calculs théoriques a permis de mieux comprendre les phénomènes de conduction dans les verres du système Cu-As-Te. (ii) La recristallisation complète de verres de formulation Ge20Te77Se3 dopés a été réalisée pour pousser à son terme la logique dite du Phonon Glass Electron Crystal (PGEC).(iii) Différents modes de synthèses ont été mis en œuvre pour suivre les propriétés thermoélectriques de matériaux de formulation CuPb18SbTe20 (frittage, SPS, flash-SPS, hybrid flash-SPS). (iv) Accroissement de 170% des performances d'alliage du système Pb-Sb-Te en générant des vacances de sites (composés non-stœchiométriques). (v) Le suivi des conséquences du dopage de GeTe par un seul élément a montré la nécessité d'un co-dopage pour simultanément accroître la conductivité électronique et le Seebeck. (vi) Le co-dopage In-Bi de GeTe a permis de créer des niveaux résonants (In) et d'accroitre la diffusion thermique (Bi). (vii) Enfin, le résultat le plus remarquable porte sur le co-dopage Ga-Sb de GeTe qui permet d'effectuer de l'ingénierie de structure de bandes. Couplé à une synthèse par hybrid flash SPS ces matériaux prometteurs permettent d'obtenir un zT 2 sur une large gamme de température (600–773 K).

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    Authors: Blankena, R.; Kleinloog, R.; Verweij, B.H.; van Ooij, P.; +4 Authors

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both hemodynamics and aneurysm wall thickness are important parameters in aneurysm pathophysiology. Our aim was to develop a method for semi-quantitative wall thickness assessment on in vivo 7T MR images of intracranial aneurysms for studying the relation between apparent aneurysm wall thickness and wall shear stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wall thickness was analyzed in 11 unruptured aneurysms in 9 patients who underwent 7T MR imaging with a TSE-based vessel wall sequence (0.8-mm isotropic resolution). A custom analysis program determined the in vivo aneurysm wall intensities, which were normalized to the signal of nearby brain tissue and were used as measures of apparent wall thickness. Spatial wall thickness variation was determined as the interquartile range in apparent wall thickness (the middle 50% of the apparent wall thickness range). Wall shear stress was determined by using phase-contrast MR imaging (0.5-mm isotropic resolution). We performed visual and statistical comparisons (Pearson correlation) to study the relation between wall thickness and wall shear stress. RESULTS: 3D colored apparent wall thickness maps of the aneurysms showed spatial apparent wall thickness variation, which ranged from 0.07 to 0.53, with a mean variation of 0.22 (a variation of 1.0 roughly means a wall thickness variation of 1 voxel [0.8 mm]). In all aneurysms, apparent wall thickness was inversely related to wall shear stress (mean correlation coefficient, −0.35; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: A method was developed to measure the wall thickness semi-quantitatively, by using 7T MR imaging. An inverse correlation between wall shear stress and apparent wall thickness was determined. In future studies, this noninvasive method can be used to assess spatial wall thickness variation in relation to pathophysiologic processes such as aneurysm growth and rupture.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    American Journal of Neuroradiology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2016
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      American Journal of Neuroradiology
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      American Journal of Neuroradiology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Bosc, Romain; Tijou, Antoine; Rosi, Giuseppe; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; +4 Authors

    International audience; Background: The acetabular cup (AC) implant primary stability is an important determinant for the success of cementless hip surgery but it remains difficult to assess the AC implant fixation in the clinic. A method based on the analysis of the impact produced by an instrumented hammer on the ancillary has been developed by our group (Michel et al., 2016a). However, the soft tissue thickness present around the acetabulum may affect the impact response, which may hamper the robustness of the method. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the soft tissue thickness (STT) on the acetabular cup implant primary fixation evaluation using impact analyses.Methods: To do so, different AC implants were inserted in five bovine bone samples. For each sample, different stability conditions were obtained by changing the cavity diameter. For each configuration, the AC implant was impacted 25 times with 10 and 30 mm of soft tissues positioned underneath the sample. The averaged indicator Im was determined based on the amplitude of the signal for each configuration and each STT and the pull-out force was measured.Findings: The results show that the resonance frequency of the system increases when the value of the soft tissue thickness decreases. Moreover, an ANOVA analysis shows that there was no significant effect of the value of soft tissue thickness on the values of the indicator Im (F = 2.33; p-value = 0.13).Interpretation: This study shows that soft tissue thickness does not appear to alter the prediction of the acetabular cup implant primary fixation obtained using the impact analysis approach, opening the path towards future clinical trials.

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    Other literature type . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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    Authors: Francisco Gómez; Christophe Phillips; Andrea Soddu; Melanie Boly; +7 Authors

    Mechanisms of propofol-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Recent fMRI studies have shown decreases in functional connectivity during unconsciousness induced by this anesthetic agent. Functional connectivity does not provide information of directional changes in the dynamics observed during unconsciousness. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in healthy humans during an auditory task, the changes in effective connectivity resulting from propofol induced loss of consciousness. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI (fMRI-DCM) to assess how causal connectivity is influenced by the anesthetic agent in the auditory system. Our results suggest that the dynamic observed in the auditory system during unconsciousness induced by propofol, can result in a mixture of two effects: a local inhibitory connectivity increase and a decrease in the effective connectivity in sensory cortices.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2013
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Carolien G.F. de Kovel; Lyubomir I. Aftanas; André Aleman; Aaron Alexander-Bloch; +74 Authors

    Objective: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects.Methods: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T-1-weighted MRI data were processedwith a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1.Results: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset.Conclusions: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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    Article . 2019
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    DZNE Pub
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Feldotto, Benedikt; Eppler, Jochen Martin; Jimenez-Romero, Cristian; Bignamini, Christopher; +18 Authors

    Simulating the brain-body-environment trinity in closed loop is an attractive proposal to investigate how perception, motor activity and interactions with the environment shape brain activity, and vice versa. The relevance of this embodied approach, however, hinges entirely on the modeled complexity of the various simulated phenomena. In this article, we introduce a software framework that is capable of simulating large-scale, biologically realistic networks of spiking neurons embodied in a biomechanically accurate musculoskeletal system that interacts with a physically realistic virtual environment. We deploy this framework on the high performance computing resources of the EBRAINS research infrastructure and we investigate the scaling performance by distributing computation across an increasing number of interconnected compute nodes. Our architecture is based on requested compute nodes as well as persistent virtualmachines; this provides a high-performance simulation environment that is accessible to multidomain users without expert knowledge, with a view to enable users to instantiate and control simulations at custom scale via a web-based graphical user interface. Our simulation environment, entirely open source, is based on the Neurorobotics Platform developed in the context of the Human Brain Project, and the NEST simulator. We characterize the capabilities of our parallelized architecture for large-scale embodied brain simulations through two benchmark experiments, by investigating the effects of scaling compute resources on performance defined in terms of experiment runtime, brain instantiation and simulation time. The first benchmark is based on a largescale balanced network, while the second one is a multi-region embodied brain simulation consisting of more than a million neurons and a billion synapses. Both benchmarks clearly show how scaling compute resources improves the aforementioned performance metrics in a near-linear fashion. The second benchmark in particular is indicative of both the potential and limitations of a highly distributed simulation in terms of a trade-off between computation speed and resource cost. Our simulation architecture is being prepared to be accessible for everyone as an EBRAINS service, thereby offering a community-wide tool with a unique workflow that should provide momentum to the investigation of closed-loop embodiment within the computational neuroscience community. European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme 785907 945539 MEXT (hp200139, hp210169) MEXT KAKENHI grant no. 17H06310. European Union’s Horizon 2020 800858

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    MediaTUM
    Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dupeyrat, Maud; Aubry, Sèbastien; Hesselink, Henk; Loth, Steffen; +4 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents an innovative concept for airport operations in the long-term future, based on a radically new airport design encompassing a circular circumventing runway. The Endless Runway project, mostly funded by the European Commission during the Framework Programme 7 (FP7), aims at evaluating the benefits and identifying the constraints associated to this kind of airport. The possibility to operate the airport whatever the wind direction and for every aircraft type, the optimization of air and ground aircraft trajectories through the use of the best runway section, as well as the compact airport footprint are part of the observed gains. Those must be balanced with the high runway construction cost, additional safety issues in gusty winds and the impossibility to extend the runway system if additional capacity is desired. A foreseen application could be a small airport dedicated to unmanned aircraft operations or a large hub airport with limited traffic mix and high reliability of operations.

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    Other literature type . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Melgosa, Marc; Zerrouki, Leila; Terzioski, Predrag; Olivella, Pol; +1 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents a new capacity management concept where Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) and Flight Centric ATC (FCA) are dynamically applied together during the Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM) pretactical phase. An airspace delineation methodology is also introduced aiming at identifying when and where DAC or FCA can perform better. This methodology entails the establishment of a dynamic vertical boundary that divides the airspace in two different parts where DAC and FCA are deployed. In addition, the geometrical complexity metric has been considered to measure the traffic demand and the sector capacity as an evolution of the current use of entry counts or occupancy counts.Three 24 hours scenarios over the Hungarian airspace have been simulated in order to validate the improvements, in terms of capacity and cost-effectiveness, that the dynamic integration of both capacity management solutions may provide in comparison with the two solutions deployed separately. Results shows that when DAC and FCA are dynamically applied, a significant reduction in the number of overloads and underloads detected is achieved, what might lead to a higher capacity since more aircraft can be handled. Furthermore, a reduction in the controlling hours is also registered in this situation, what it is translated into a better cost-effectiveness solution

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    Other literature type . 2020
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    Conference object . 2020
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