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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dupeyrat, Maud; Aubry, Sèbastien; Hesselink, Henk; Loth, Steffen; +4 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents an innovative concept for airport operations in the long-term future, based on a radically new airport design encompassing a circular circumventing runway. The Endless Runway project, mostly funded by the European Commission during the Framework Programme 7 (FP7), aims at evaluating the benefits and identifying the constraints associated to this kind of airport. The possibility to operate the airport whatever the wind direction and for every aircraft type, the optimization of air and ground aircraft trajectories through the use of the best runway section, as well as the compact airport footprint are part of the observed gains. Those must be balanced with the high runway construction cost, additional safety issues in gusty winds and the impossibility to extend the runway system if additional capacity is desired. A foreseen application could be a small airport dedicated to unmanned aircraft operations or a large hub airport with limited traffic mix and high reliability of operations.

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    Other literature type . 2014
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Melgosa, Marc; Zerrouki, Leila; Terzioski, Predrag; Olivella, Pol; +1 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents a new capacity management concept where Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) and Flight Centric ATC (FCA) are dynamically applied together during the Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM) pretactical phase. An airspace delineation methodology is also introduced aiming at identifying when and where DAC or FCA can perform better. This methodology entails the establishment of a dynamic vertical boundary that divides the airspace in two different parts where DAC and FCA are deployed. In addition, the geometrical complexity metric has been considered to measure the traffic demand and the sector capacity as an evolution of the current use of entry counts or occupancy counts.Three 24 hours scenarios over the Hungarian airspace have been simulated in order to validate the improvements, in terms of capacity and cost-effectiveness, that the dynamic integration of both capacity management solutions may provide in comparison with the two solutions deployed separately. Results shows that when DAC and FCA are dynamically applied, a significant reduction in the number of overloads and underloads detected is achieved, what might lead to a higher capacity since more aircraft can be handled. Furthermore, a reduction in the controlling hours is also registered in this situation, what it is translated into a better cost-effectiveness solution

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    Other literature type . 2020
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    Conference object . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gribonval, Rémi;

    International audience; In the past decade there has been a great interest in a synthesis-based model for signals, based on sparse and redundant representations. Such a model assumes that the signal of interest can be composed as a linear combination of few columns from a given matrix (the dictionary). An alternative analysis-based model can be envisioned, where an analysis operator multiplies the signal, leading to a cosparse outcome. How similar are the two signal models ? The answer obviously depends on the dictionary/operator pair, and on the measure of (co)sparsity. For dictionaries in Hilbert spaces that are frames, the canonical dual is arguably the most natural associated analysis operator. When the frame is localized, the canonical frame coefficients provide a near sparsest expansion for several lp sparseness measures, p ≤ 1. However, for frames which are not localized, this no longer holds true: the sparsest synthesis coefficients may differ significantly from the canonical coefficients. In general the sparsest synthesis coefficients may also depend strongly on the choice of the sparseness measure, but this dependency vanishes for dictionaries with a null space property and signals that are combinations of sufficiently few columns from the dictionary. This uniqueness result, together with algorithmic guarantees, is at the basis of a number of signal reconstruction approaches for generic linear inverse problems (e.g., compressed sensing, inpainting, source separation, etc.). Is there a similar uniqueness property when the data to be recon- structed is cosparse rather than sparse ? Can one derive cosparse regu- larization algorithms with performance guarantees ? Existing empirical evidence in the litterature suggests that a positive answer is likely. In recent work we propose a uniqueness result for the solution of linear inverse problems under a cosparse hypothesis, based on properties of the analysis operator and the measurement matrix. Unlike with the synthesis model, where recovery guarantees usually require the linear independence of sets of few columns from the dictionary, our results suggest that linear dependencies between rows of the analysis operators may be desirable.

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    Authors: Srinivasan, Bhuvanesh;

    With the performance of direct conversion between thermal and electrical energy, thermoelectric materials, which are crucial in the renewable energy conversion roadmap, provide an alternative for power generation and refrigeration to solve the global energy crisis. But the low efficiency of the current materials, their usual costs, availability, and limited working temperatures, drastically constrain their application. Hence, the search for new and more efficient thermoelectric materials is one of the most dynamic objectives of this thesis. The key milestones achieved from this thesis work includes: (i) elucidating the mechanism for hole conductivity in Cu-As-Te glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and quantum simulations; (ii) formulating a novel approach to achieve phonon-glass electron-crystal mechanism by crystallizing the Ge20Te77Se3 glasses by excess doping with metals or semi-metals (glass-ceramics); (iii) demonstrating the effect of processing route on the thermoelectric performance of CuPb18SbTe20 and highlighting the advantage of hybrid-flash spark plasma sintering technique, i.e., better optimization of electrical and thermal transport properties and achieving multi-scale hierarchical architectures; (iv) improving the thermoelectric performance of Pb-Sb-Te alloys (enhancement by 170%) by tuning their cation vacancies (Pb deficiencies); (v) understating the impact of doping just a group-11 coinage metal, or group-13 element on GeTe solid-state solution and recapitulating the need for pair substitution; (vi) substantially enhancing the average zT of In-Bi codoped GeTe; (vii) achieving a remarkably high and stable zT of close to 2 over a wide temperature range (600 – 773 K) by manipulating the electronic bands in Ga-Sb codoped GeTe, which has been processed by hybrid flash-spark plasma sintering, thus making it a serious candidate for energy harvesting systems. L'intérêt porté au développement de matériaux thermoélectriques est grandissant car ils permettent de créer des sources d'énergie renouvelable, dites « vertes », ce qui s'inscrit pleinement dans la stratégie de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. A ce jour le rendement de tels systèmes reste faible, le coût de développement élevé, et les plages de températures d'utilisation sont limitées. Dans ces travaux de thèse différentes pistes sont explorées pour développer des matériaux innovants à base de chalcogènes, principalement le tellure. Les principaux résultats portent sur les points suivants. (i) Une étude par spectroscopies couplée à des calculs théoriques a permis de mieux comprendre les phénomènes de conduction dans les verres du système Cu-As-Te. (ii) La recristallisation complète de verres de formulation Ge20Te77Se3 dopés a été réalisée pour pousser à son terme la logique dite du Phonon Glass Electron Crystal (PGEC).(iii) Différents modes de synthèses ont été mis en œuvre pour suivre les propriétés thermoélectriques de matériaux de formulation CuPb18SbTe20 (frittage, SPS, flash-SPS, hybrid flash-SPS). (iv) Accroissement de 170% des performances d'alliage du système Pb-Sb-Te en générant des vacances de sites (composés non-stœchiométriques). (v) Le suivi des conséquences du dopage de GeTe par un seul élément a montré la nécessité d'un co-dopage pour simultanément accroître la conductivité électronique et le Seebeck. (vi) Le co-dopage In-Bi de GeTe a permis de créer des niveaux résonants (In) et d'accroitre la diffusion thermique (Bi). (vii) Enfin, le résultat le plus remarquable porte sur le co-dopage Ga-Sb de GeTe qui permet d'effectuer de l'ingénierie de structure de bandes. Couplé à une synthèse par hybrid flash SPS ces matériaux prometteurs permettent d'obtenir un zT 2 sur une large gamme de température (600–773 K).

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    Authors: Bosc, Romain; Tijou, Antoine; Rosi, Giuseppe; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; +4 Authors

    International audience; Background: The acetabular cup (AC) implant primary stability is an important determinant for the success of cementless hip surgery but it remains difficult to assess the AC implant fixation in the clinic. A method based on the analysis of the impact produced by an instrumented hammer on the ancillary has been developed by our group (Michel et al., 2016a). However, the soft tissue thickness present around the acetabulum may affect the impact response, which may hamper the robustness of the method. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the soft tissue thickness (STT) on the acetabular cup implant primary fixation evaluation using impact analyses.Methods: To do so, different AC implants were inserted in five bovine bone samples. For each sample, different stability conditions were obtained by changing the cavity diameter. For each configuration, the AC implant was impacted 25 times with 10 and 30 mm of soft tissues positioned underneath the sample. The averaged indicator Im was determined based on the amplitude of the signal for each configuration and each STT and the pull-out force was measured.Findings: The results show that the resonance frequency of the system increases when the value of the soft tissue thickness decreases. Moreover, an ANOVA analysis shows that there was no significant effect of the value of soft tissue thickness on the values of the indicator Im (F = 2.33; p-value = 0.13).Interpretation: This study shows that soft tissue thickness does not appear to alter the prediction of the acetabular cup implant primary fixation obtained using the impact analysis approach, opening the path towards future clinical trials.

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    Authors: Savary, Agata;

    In my habilitation dissertation, meant to validate my capacity of and maturity for directingresearch activities, I present a panorama of several topics in computational linguistics, linguisticsand computer science.Over the past decade, I was notably concerned with the phenomena of compositionalityand variability of linguistic objects. I illustrate the advantages of a compositional approachto the language in the domain of emotion detection and I explain how some linguistic objects,most prominently multi-word expressions, defy the compositionality principles. I demonstratethat the complex properties of MWEs, notably variability, are partially regular and partiallyidiosyncratic. This fact places the MWEs on the frontiers between different levels of linguisticprocessing, such as lexicon and syntax.I show the highly heterogeneous nature of MWEs by citing their two existing taxonomies.After an extensive state-of-the art study of MWE description and processing, I summarizeMultiflex, a formalism and a tool for lexical high-quality morphosyntactic description of MWUs.It uses a graph-based approach in which the inflection of a MWU is expressed in function ofthe morphology of its components, and of morphosyntactic transformation patterns. Due tounification the inflection paradigms are represented compactly. Orthographic, inflectional andsyntactic variants are treated within the same framework. The proposal is multilingual: it hasbeen tested on six European languages of three different origins (Germanic, Romance and Slavic),I believe that many others can also be successfully covered. Multiflex proves interoperable. Itadapts to different morphological language models, token boundary definitions, and underlyingmodules for the morphology of single words. It has been applied to the creation and enrichmentof linguistic resources, as well as to morphosyntactic analysis and generation. It can be integratedinto other NLP applications requiring the conflation of different surface realizations of the sameconcept.Another chapter of my activity concerns named entities, most of which are particular types ofMWEs. Their rich semantic load turned them into a hot topic in the NLP community, which isdocumented in my state-of-the art survey. I present the main assumptions, processes and resultsissued from large annotation tasks at two levels (for named entities and for coreference), parts ofthe National Corpus of Polish construction. I have also contributed to the development of bothrule-based and probabilistic named entity recognition tools, and to an automated enrichment ofProlexbase, a large multilingual database of proper names, from open sources.With respect to multi-word expressions, named entities and coreference mentions, I pay aspecial attention to nested structures. This problem sheds new light on the treatment of complexlinguistic units in NLP. When these units start being modeled as trees (or, more generally, asacyclic graphs) rather than as flat sequences of tokens, long-distance dependencies, discontinu-ities, overlapping and other frequent linguistic properties become easier to represent. This callsfor more complex processing methods which control larger contexts than what usually happensin sequential processing. Thus, both named entity recognition and coreference resolution comesvery close to parsing, and named entities or mentions with their nested structures are analogous3to multi-word expressions with embedded complements.My parallel activity concerns finite-state methods for natural language and XML processing.My main contribution in this field, co-authored with 2 colleagues, is the first full-fledged methodfor tree-to-language correction, and more precisely for correcting XML documents with respectto a DTD. We have also produced interesting results in incremental finite-state algorithmics,particularly relevant to data evolution contexts such as dynamic vocabularies or user updates.Multilingualism is the leitmotif of my research. I have applied my methods to several naturallanguages, most importantly to Polish, Serbian, English and French. I have been among theinitiators of a highly multilingual European scientific network dedicated to parsing and multi-word expressions. I have used multilingual linguistic data in experimental studies. I believethat it is particularly worthwhile to design NLP solutions taking declension-rich (e.g. Slavic)languages into account, since this leads to more universal solutions, at least as far as nominalconstructions (MWUs, NEs, mentions) are concerned. For instance, when Multiflex had beendeveloped with Polish in mind it could be applied as such to French, English, Serbian and Greek.Also, a French-Serbian collaboration led to substantial modifications in morphological modelingin Prolexbase in its early development stages. This allowed for its later application to Polishwith very few adaptations of the existing model. Other researchers also stress the advantages ofNLP studies on highly inflected languages since their morphology encodes much more syntacticinformation than is the case e.g. in English.In this dissertation I am also supposed to demonstrate my ability of playing an active rolein shaping the scientific landscape, on a local, national and international scale. I describemy: (i) various scientific collaborations and supervision activities, (ii) roles in over 10 regional,national and international projects, (iii) responsibilities in collective bodies such as program andorganizing committees of conferences and workshops, PhD juries, and the National UniversityCouncil (CNU), (iv) activity as an evaluator and a reviewer of European collaborative projects.The issues addressed in this dissertation open interesting scientific perspectives, in whicha special impact is put on links among various domains and communities. These perspectivesinclude: (i) integrating fine-grained language data into the linked open data, (ii) deep parsingof multi-word expressions, (iii) modeling multi-word expression identification in a treebank as atree-to-language correction problem, and (iv) a taxonomy and an experimental benchmark fortree-to-language correction approaches.

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    Authors: Bouayad Agha, Salima; Turpin, Nadine; Vedrine, Lionel;

    In this paper, we use a conditional-convergence econometric model to investigate whether the Cohesion Policy and the structural funds this policy mobilises, affect the European economies in such a way that the poorer regions catch up with the rich ones. In this model, regional convergence depends on policy treatment and regional economic structure, proxied by investment per capita and the demographic growth rate. The main originality of the model is its specification, dealing with temporal and spatial issues at the same time. Econometric estimations rely on a dataset of 143 EU14-NUTS1/NUTS2 regions observed over more than 25 years (from 1980 to 2005). Generalized Method of Moment estimation enables us to obtain consistent estimates of the beta-parameter along with estimates of the impact of regional policies and regional economic structure on regional growth. Our results suggest that Objective 1 programmes have a direct effect on regional GDP p.c. growth rates, whereas total structural funds do not. We interpret this result as an Objective 1 programme added-value, compared to total structural funds. However, these results do not mean that the non-Objective 1 structural funds have no impact on overall growth in the EU (e.g. through a technology diffusion effect) but they do not allow additional growth specifically in these regions, when we consider the spatial dependences. Moreover, consideration of the spatial dimension of the panel brings to light a still significant, but less important, impact of structural funds on convergence.

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    Authors: Masurier, Jean-Baptiste;

    To reduce the fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions while keep improving thermal efficiency of engines, alternative combustion modes are being investigated as good candidates to replace spark-ignited and diesel engines. In particular, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have proven their potential to meet these requirements. However, despite of these advantages, several challenges remain to be addressed prior to the widespread implementation of HCCI engines. Among them, the control of the overall combustion process in such an engine over the full operating range is still considered as the main challenge to overcome. The present work introduces the use of oxidizing chemical species seeded in the intake system as a robust control technique for HCCI combustion process. In particular, ozone was examined due to its strong oxidizing characteristics. Moreover, ozone can be easily produced on-board a real vehicle from the intake oxygen thanks to small ozone generators, but can also lead to the production of NOx. Investigations were carried out using a single-cylinder HCCI engine and kinetics computation analysis. The two main objectives of this work are: (1) Evaluate the potential of using ozone generator to control the HCCI combustion. Along these lines, the interaction between NOx and ozone was investigated for isooctane as fuel and a real time control of the HCCI combustion was implemented and successfully tested. (2) Compare the influence of ozone on the combustion of isooctane and alternative fuels. Methane-based fuels (methane/propane and methane/hydrogen mixtures) and alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-butanol) were selected due to their higher resistance to autoignition and their different chemical structure. Dans le but de réduire la consommation en carburant, les émissions de CO2 et les polluants tout en maintenant le haut rendement des moteurs, de nouveaux modes de combustions ont été étudiés et sont d’excellents candidats pour remplacer les moteurs conventionnels. En particulier, le mode HCCI a montré une excellente aptitude pour répondre à ces objectifs. Néanmoins, en dépit de ses avantages, de nombreux challenges sont à surmonter avant de permettre le développement de tels moteurs. Parmi eux, obtenir un contrôle efficace de la totalité de ce processus de combustion sur un large domaine d’utilisation demeure le principal défi. Ces travaux de thèse s’intéressent à l’utilisation des espèces chimiques oxydantes comme un moyen robuste de contrôle de la combustion HCCI. En raison de ces fortes propriétés oxydantes, l’ozone a été la principale molécule étudié. De plus, son intérêt est renforcé par le fait que l’ozone peut être produit au sein d’un véhicule au moyen de petits générateurs, mais cela peut aussi produire des oxydes d’azote. Ces recherches ont été effectuées au moyen d’un banc moteur monocylindre HCCI et couplées avec des simulations de cinétique chimique. Les deux principaux objectifs ont été : (1) Evaluer le potentiel d’utilisation d’un générateur d’ozone pour contrôler la combustion HCCI. L’impact de plusieurs espèces chimiques oxydantes, ozone and NOx, a été étudié sur la combustion de l’isooctane. De plus, un contrôle dynamique a été mis en place avec succès. (2) Comparer l’influence de l’ozone sur la combustion de l’isooctane et de carburants alternatifs. Des carburants à forte teneur en méthane et des alcools ont été étudiés en raison de leur forte résistance à l’autoinflammation et de leur structure chimique.

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    Authors: Charni, Kadija; Greenan, Nathalie; Besamusca, Janna;

    Dans ce rapport, nous explorons la faisabilité d'une base de données européenne relative aux clauses concernant les conditions de travail dans les conventions collectives des pays de l'UE. Notre proposition s'appuie sur la méthodologie développée par l'Université d'Amsterdam (UvA) et la Fondation WageIndicator pour construire une base de données internationale de conventions collectives et dans les projets BARCOM (VS/2016/0106) et COLBAR Europe (VS/2019/0077) pour collecter et coder les conventions collectives européennes. Il s'appuie également sur le projet CAGE du CNAM-CEET qui a développé une infrastructure de recherche en France pour étudier les résultats des négociations sur l'égalité professionnelle femmes-hommes et le comportement des employeurs. L'idée est de combiner des informations structurées provenant d'une enquête auprès des employeurs avec des informations codées provenant d'une base de données de conventions collectives et des données non structurées provenant d'une archive enregistrant le contenu intégral des textes océrisé des conventions collectives. Une telle infrastructure permettrait une meilleure analyse du processus de négociation, des résultats de la négociation et du comportement des employeurs. En utilisant l'exemple des clauses d'égalité professionelle femmes-hommes, nous démontrons la faisabilité de la construction d'une telle infrastructure et la valeur ajoutée de l'utilisation des informations codées et des méthodes d'exploration de texte pour l'analyse comparative. Deux enquêtes européennes, l'ECS et l'ESES, peuvent être combinées avec la base de données des conventions collectives au niveau individuel et/ou sectoriel. Nous étudions comment les conventions collectives au niveau du secteur et de l'entreprise devraient être collectées pour atteindre une certaine forme de représentativité. In this report, we explore the feasibility of a European database of working conditions clauses in collective agreements in EU countries. Our proposal builds on the methodology developed by the University of Amsterdam (UvA) and the WageIndicator Foundation to build an international database of collective agreements and in the BARCOM (VS/2016/0106) and COLBAR Europe (VS/2019/0077) projects to collect and code European collective agreements. It also builds on the CNAM-CEET CAGE project which has developed a research infrastructure in France to study the outcomes of negotiations on gender professional equality and employer behaviour. The idea is to combine structured information from an employer-level survey with coded information from a database of collective agreements and unstructured data from an archive recording the full content of the OCR processed texts of collective agreements. Such an infrastructure would allow better analysis of the bargaining process, bargaining outcomes and employer behaviour. Using the example of gender equality clauses, we demonstrate the feasibility of building such an infrastructure and the added value of using coded information and text mining methods for comparative analysis. Two European surveys, the ECS and ESES, can be combined with the database of collective agreements at individual and/or sectoral level. We explore how collective agreements at sector and company level should be collected to achieve some form of representativity.

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    Authors: Pousse, Alexandre; Niederman, Laurent; Robutel, Philippe;

    Popular science article associated with the work `On the co-orbital motion in the three-body problem: existence of quasi-periodic horseshoe-shaped orbits" (arXiv:1806.07262) from the same authors. Janus and Epimetheus are two moons of Saturn which exhibit a really peculiar dynamics. As they orbit on circular trajectories whose radii are only 50 km apart (less than their respective diameters), every four (terrestrial) years the bodies are getting closer and their mutual gravitational influence leads to a swapping of the orbits: the outer moon becoming the inner one and vice-versa. In this article, we describe how, from this specific astronomical problem to the KAM theory, we came to prove the existence of perpetually stable trajectories associated with the Janus and Epimetheus orbits. Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, article de vulgarisation scientifique

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    Authors: Dupeyrat, Maud; Aubry, Sèbastien; Hesselink, Henk; Loth, Steffen; +4 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents an innovative concept for airport operations in the long-term future, based on a radically new airport design encompassing a circular circumventing runway. The Endless Runway project, mostly funded by the European Commission during the Framework Programme 7 (FP7), aims at evaluating the benefits and identifying the constraints associated to this kind of airport. The possibility to operate the airport whatever the wind direction and for every aircraft type, the optimization of air and ground aircraft trajectories through the use of the best runway section, as well as the compact airport footprint are part of the observed gains. Those must be balanced with the high runway construction cost, additional safety issues in gusty winds and the impossibility to extend the runway system if additional capacity is desired. A foreseen application could be a small airport dedicated to unmanned aircraft operations or a large hub airport with limited traffic mix and high reliability of operations.

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    Authors: Melgosa, Marc; Zerrouki, Leila; Terzioski, Predrag; Olivella, Pol; +1 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents a new capacity management concept where Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) and Flight Centric ATC (FCA) are dynamically applied together during the Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM) pretactical phase. An airspace delineation methodology is also introduced aiming at identifying when and where DAC or FCA can perform better. This methodology entails the establishment of a dynamic vertical boundary that divides the airspace in two different parts where DAC and FCA are deployed. In addition, the geometrical complexity metric has been considered to measure the traffic demand and the sector capacity as an evolution of the current use of entry counts or occupancy counts.Three 24 hours scenarios over the Hungarian airspace have been simulated in order to validate the improvements, in terms of capacity and cost-effectiveness, that the dynamic integration of both capacity management solutions may provide in comparison with the two solutions deployed separately. Results shows that when DAC and FCA are dynamically applied, a significant reduction in the number of overloads and underloads detected is achieved, what might lead to a higher capacity since more aircraft can be handled. Furthermore, a reduction in the controlling hours is also registered in this situation, what it is translated into a better cost-effectiveness solution

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    Authors: Gribonval, Rémi;

    International audience; In the past decade there has been a great interest in a synthesis-based model for signals, based on sparse and redundant representations. Such a model assumes that the signal of interest can be composed as a linear combination of few columns from a given matrix (the dictionary). An alternative analysis-based model can be envisioned, where an analysis operator multiplies the signal, leading to a cosparse outcome. How similar are the two signal models ? The answer obviously depends on the dictionary/operator pair, and on the measure of (co)sparsity. For dictionaries in Hilbert spaces that are frames, the canonical dual is arguably the most natural associated analysis operator. When the frame is localized, the canonical frame coefficients provide a near sparsest expansion for several lp sparseness measures, p ≤ 1. However, for frames which are not localized, this no longer holds true: the sparsest synthesis coefficients may differ significantly from the canonical coefficients. In general the sparsest synthesis coefficients may also depend strongly on the choice of the sparseness measure, but this dependency vanishes for dictionaries with a null space property and signals that are combinations of sufficiently few columns from the dictionary. This uniqueness result, together with algorithmic guarantees, is at the basis of a number of signal reconstruction approaches for generic linear inverse problems (e.g., compressed sensing, inpainting, source separation, etc.). Is there a similar uniqueness property when the data to be recon- structed is cosparse rather than sparse ? Can one derive cosparse regu- larization algorithms with performance guarantees ? Existing empirical evidence in the litterature suggests that a positive answer is likely. In recent work we propose a uniqueness result for the solution of linear inverse problems under a cosparse hypothesis, based on properties of the analysis operator and the measurement matrix. Unlike with the synthesis model, where recovery guarantees usually require the linear independence of sets of few columns from the dictionary, our results suggest that linear dependencies between rows of the analysis operators may be desirable.

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    Authors: Srinivasan, Bhuvanesh;

    With the performance of direct conversion between thermal and electrical energy, thermoelectric materials, which are crucial in the renewable energy conversion roadmap, provide an alternative for power generation and refrigeration to solve the global energy crisis. But the low efficiency of the current materials, their usual costs, availability, and limited working temperatures, drastically constrain their application. Hence, the search for new and more efficient thermoelectric materials is one of the most dynamic objectives of this thesis. The key milestones achieved from this thesis work includes: (i) elucidating the mechanism for hole conductivity in Cu-As-Te glasses by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and quantum simulations; (ii) formulating a novel approach to achieve phonon-glass electron-crystal mechanism by crystallizing the Ge20Te77Se3 glasses by excess doping with metals or semi-metals (glass-ceramics); (iii) demonstrating the effect of processing route on the thermoelectric performance of CuPb18SbTe20 and highlighting the advantage of hybrid-flash spark plasma sintering technique, i.e., better optimization of electrical and thermal transport properties and achieving multi-scale hierarchical architectures; (iv) improving the thermoelectric performance of Pb-Sb-Te alloys (enhancement by 170%) by tuning their cation vacancies (Pb deficiencies); (v) understating the impact of doping just a group-11 coinage metal, or group-13 element on GeTe solid-state solution and recapitulating the need for pair substitution; (vi) substantially enhancing the average zT of In-Bi codoped GeTe; (vii) achieving a remarkably high and stable zT of close to 2 over a wide temperature range (600 – 773 K) by manipulating the electronic bands in Ga-Sb codoped GeTe, which has been processed by hybrid flash-spark plasma sintering, thus making it a serious candidate for energy harvesting systems. L'intérêt porté au développement de matériaux thermoélectriques est grandissant car ils permettent de créer des sources d'énergie renouvelable, dites « vertes », ce qui s'inscrit pleinement dans la stratégie de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. A ce jour le rendement de tels systèmes reste faible, le coût de développement élevé, et les plages de températures d'utilisation sont limitées. Dans ces travaux de thèse différentes pistes sont explorées pour développer des matériaux innovants à base de chalcogènes, principalement le tellure. Les principaux résultats portent sur les points suivants. (i) Une étude par spectroscopies couplée à des calculs théoriques a permis de mieux comprendre les phénomènes de conduction dans les verres du système Cu-As-Te. (ii) La recristallisation complète de verres de formulation Ge20Te77Se3 dopés a été réalisée pour pousser à son terme la logique dite du Phonon Glass Electron Crystal (PGEC).(iii) Différents modes de synthèses ont été mis en œuvre pour suivre les propriétés thermoélectriques de matériaux de formulation CuPb18SbTe20 (frittage, SPS, flash-SPS, hybrid flash-SPS). (iv) Accroissement de 170% des performances d'alliage du système Pb-Sb-Te en générant des vacances de sites (composés non-stœchiométriques). (v) Le suivi des conséquences du dopage de GeTe par un seul élément a montré la nécessité d'un co-dopage pour simultanément accroître la conductivité électronique et le Seebeck. (vi) Le co-dopage In-Bi de GeTe a permis de créer des niveaux résonants (In) et d'accroitre la diffusion thermique (Bi). (vii) Enfin, le résultat le plus remarquable porte sur le co-dopage Ga-Sb de GeTe qui permet d'effectuer de l'ingénierie de structure de bandes. Couplé à une synthèse par hybrid flash SPS ces matériaux prometteurs permettent d'obtenir un zT 2 sur une large gamme de température (600–773 K).

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    Other literature type . 2018
    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2018
      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2018
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Bosc, Romain; Tijou, Antoine; Rosi, Giuseppe; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; +4 Authors

    International audience; Background: The acetabular cup (AC) implant primary stability is an important determinant for the success of cementless hip surgery but it remains difficult to assess the AC implant fixation in the clinic. A method based on the analysis of the impact produced by an instrumented hammer on the ancillary has been developed by our group (Michel et al., 2016a). However, the soft tissue thickness present around the acetabulum may affect the impact response, which may hamper the robustness of the method. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the soft tissue thickness (STT) on the acetabular cup implant primary fixation evaluation using impact analyses.Methods: To do so, different AC implants were inserted in five bovine bone samples. For each sample, different stability conditions were obtained by changing the cavity diameter. For each configuration, the AC implant was impacted 25 times with 10 and 30 mm of soft tissues positioned underneath the sample. The averaged indicator Im was determined based on the amplitude of the signal for each configuration and each STT and the pull-out force was measured.Findings: The results show that the resonance frequency of the system increases when the value of the soft tissue thickness decreases. Moreover, an ANOVA analysis shows that there was no significant effect of the value of soft tissue thickness on the values of the indicator Im (F = 2.33; p-value = 0.13).Interpretation: This study shows that soft tissue thickness does not appear to alter the prediction of the acetabular cup implant primary fixation obtained using the impact analysis approach, opening the path towards future clinical trials.

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    Other literature type . 2018
    HAL - UPEC / UPEM
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: HAL - UPEC / UPEM
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    Authors: Savary, Agata;

    In my habilitation dissertation, meant to validate my capacity of and maturity for directingresearch activities, I present a panorama of several topics in computational linguistics, linguisticsand computer science.Over the past decade, I was notably concerned with the phenomena of compositionalityand variability of linguistic objects. I illustrate the advantages of a compositional approachto the language in the domain of emotion detection and I explain how some linguistic objects,most prominently multi-word expressions, defy the compositionality principles. I demonstratethat the complex properties of MWEs, notably variability, are partially regular and partiallyidiosyncratic. This fact places the MWEs on the frontiers between different levels of linguisticprocessing, such as lexicon and syntax.I show the highly heterogeneous nature of MWEs by citing their two existing taxonomies.After an extensive state-of-the art study of MWE description and processing, I summarizeMultiflex, a formalism and a tool for lexical high-quality morphosyntactic description of MWUs.It uses a graph-based approach in which the inflection of a MWU is expressed in function ofthe morphology of its components, and of morphosyntactic transformation patterns. Due tounification the inflection paradigms are represented compactly. Orthographic, inflectional andsyntactic variants are treated within the same framework. The proposal is multilingual: it hasbeen tested on six European languages of three different origins (Germanic, Romance and Slavic),I believe that many others can also be successfully covered. Multiflex proves interoperable. Itadapts to different morphological language models, token boundary definitions, and underlyingmodules for the morphology of single words. It has been applied to the creation and enrichmentof linguistic resources, as well as to morphosyntactic analysis and generation. It can be integratedinto other NLP applications requiring the conflation of different surface realizations of the sameconcept.Another chapter of my activity concerns named entities, most of which are particular types ofMWEs. Their rich semantic load turned them into a hot topic in the NLP community, which isdocumented in my state-of-the art survey. I present the main assumptions, processes and resultsissued from large annotation tasks at two levels (for named entities and for coreference), parts ofthe National Corpus of Polish construction. I have also contributed to the development of bothrule-based and probabilistic named entity recognition tools, and to an automated enrichment ofProlexbase, a large multilingual database of proper names, from open sources.With respect to multi-word expressions, named entities and coreference mentions, I pay aspecial attention to nested structures. This problem sheds new light on the treatment of complexlinguistic units in NLP. When these units start being modeled as trees (or, more generally, asacyclic graphs) rather than as flat sequences of tokens, long-distance dependencies, discontinu-ities, overlapping and other frequent linguistic properties become easier to represent. This callsfor more complex processing methods which control larger contexts than what usually happensin sequential processing. Thus, both named entity recognition and coreference resolution comesvery close to parsing, and named entities or mentions with their nested structures are analogous3to multi-word expressions with embedded complements.My parallel activity concerns finite-state methods for natural language and XML processing.My main contribution in this field, co-authored with 2 colleagues, is the first full-fledged methodfor tree-to-language correction, and more precisely for correcting XML documents with respectto a DTD. We have also produced interesting results in incremental finite-state algorithmics,particularly relevant to data evolution contexts such as dynamic vocabularies or user updates.Multilingualism is the leitmotif of my research. I have applied my methods to several naturallanguages, most importantly to Polish, Serbian, English and French. I have been among theinitiators of a highly multilingual European scientific network dedicated to parsing and multi-word expressions. I have used multilingual linguistic data in experimental studies. I believethat it is particularly worthwhile to design NLP solutions taking declension-rich (e.g. Slavic)languages into account, since this leads to more universal solutions, at least as far as nominalconstructions (MWUs, NEs, mentions) are concerned. For instance, when Multiflex had beendeveloped with Polish in mind it could be applied as such to French, English, Serbian and Greek.Also, a French-Serbian collaboration led to substantial modifications in morphological modelingin Prolexbase in its early development stages. This allowed for its later application to Polishwith very few adaptations of the existing model. Other researchers also stress the advantages ofNLP studies on highly inflected languages since their morphology encodes much more syntacticinformation than is the case e.g. in English.In this dissertation I am also supposed to demonstrate my ability of playing an active rolein shaping the scientific landscape, on a local, national and international scale. I describemy: (i) various scientific collaborations and supervision activities, (ii) roles in over 10 regional,national and international projects, (iii) responsibilities in collective bodies such as program andorganizing committees of conferences and workshops, PhD juries, and the National UniversityCouncil (CNU), (iv) activity as an evaluator and a reviewer of European collaborative projects.The issues addressed in this dissertation open interesting scientific perspectives, in whicha special impact is put on links among various domains and communities. These perspectivesinclude: (i) integrating fine-grained language data into the linked open data, (ii) deep parsingof multi-word expressions, (iii) modeling multi-word expression identification in a treebank as atree-to-language correction problem, and (iv) a taxonomy and an experimental benchmark fortree-to-language correction approaches.

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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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