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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: N C, Rowland; J A, Goldberg; D, Jaeger;

    Cerebral cortical slow-wave activity (SWA) is prominent during sleep and also during ketamine-induced anesthesia. SWA in electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is closely linked to prominent fluctuations between up- and down-states in the membrane potential of pyramidal neurons. However, little is known about how the cerebellum is linked into SWA and whether slow cortical oscillations influence sensory cerebellar responses. To examine these issues, we simultaneously recorded EEG activity from the cerebral cortex (SI, MI, and supplementary motor area (SMA)), local field potentials at the input stage of cerebellar processing in the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) and inferior olive (IO), and single unit activity at the output stage of the cerebellum in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We found that in ketamine-anesthetized rats, SWA was synchronized between all recorded cortical areas and was phase locked with local field potentials of the GCL, IO and single unit activity in the DCN. We also found that cortical up-states are linked to activation of GCL neurons but to inhibition of cerebellar output from the DCN, with the latter an effect likely mediated by Purkinje cells. A partial coherence analysis showed further that a large portion of SWA shared between GCL and DCN was transmitted from the cortex, since the coherence shared between GCL and DCN was diminished when the effect of cortical activity was subtracted. To determine the causal flow of information between structures, a directed transfer function was calculated between the simultaneous activities of SI, MI, SMA, GCL and DCN. This analysis demonstrated that the primary direction of information flow was from cortex to the cerebellum and that SI had a stronger influence than other cortical areas on DCN activity. The strong functional connectivity with SI in particular is in agreement with previous findings of a strong cortical component in cerebellar sensory responses.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2009
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Neuroscience
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neuroscience
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2009
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Neuroscience
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jing Xiang; Qian Luo; Rupesh Kotecha; Abraham M. Korman; +5 Authors

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation’s memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 hours by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2-3 days and used 1-2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lucy K. Bicks; Lucy K. Bicks; Lucy K. Bicks; Lucy K. Bicks; +19 Authors

    Social dominance hierarchies are a common adaptation to group living and exist across a broad range of the animal kingdom. Social dominance is known to rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region that shows a protracted developmental trajectory in mice. However, it is unknown to what extent the social dominance hierarchy is plastic across postnatal development and how it is regulated. Here we identified a sensitive period for experience-dependent social dominance plasticity in adolescent male mice, which is regulated by mechanisms that affect cortical plasticity. We show that social dominance hierarchies in male mice are already formed at weaning and are highly stable into adulthood. However, one experience of forced losing significantly reduces social dominance during the adolescent period but not in adulthood, suggesting adolescence as a sensitive period for experience-dependent social dominance plasticity. Notably, robust adolescent plasticity can be prolonged into adulthood by genetic deletion of Lynx1, a molecular brake that normally limits cortical plasticity through modulation of cortical nicotinic signaling. This plasticity is associated with increased activation of established nodes of the social dominance network including dorsal medial PFC and medial dorsal thalamus evidenced by increased c-Fos. Pharmacologically mediated elevation of cortical plasticity by valproic acid rapidly destabilizes the hierarchy of adult wildtype animals. These findings provide insight into mechanisms through which increased behavioral plasticity may be achieved to improve therapeutic recovery from psychiatric disorders that are associated with social deficits.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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      Frontiers in Neural Circuits
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Liying Peng; Liying Peng; Lanfen Lin; Yusen Lin; +26 Authors

    The infant brain undergoes a remarkable period of neural development that is crucial for the development of cognitive and behavioral capacities (Hasegawa et al., 2018). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to characterize the developmental trajectories and is critical in neuroimaging studies of early brain development. However, missing data at different time points is an unavoidable occurrence in longitudinal studies owing to participant attrition and scan failure. Compared to dropping incomplete data, data imputation is considered a better solution to address such missing data in order to preserve all available samples. In this paper, we adapt generative adversarial networks (GAN) to a new application: longitudinal image prediction of structural MRI in the first year of life. In contrast to existing medical image-to-image translation applications of GANs, where inputs and outputs share a very close anatomical structure, our task is more challenging as brain size, shape and tissue contrast vary significantly between the input data and the predicted data. Several improvements over existing GAN approaches are proposed to address these challenges in our task. To enhance the realism, crispness, and accuracy of the predicted images, we incorporate both a traditional voxel-wise reconstruction loss as well as a perceptual loss term into the adversarial learning scheme. As the differing contrast changes in T1w and T2w MR images in the first year of life, we incorporate multi-contrast images leading to our proposed 3D multi-contrast perceptual adversarial network (MPGAN). Extensive evaluations are performed to assess the qualityand fidelity of the predicted images, including qualitative and quantitative assessments of the image appearance, as well as quantitative assessment on two segmentation tasks. Our experimental results show that our MPGAN is an effective solution for longitudinal MR image data imputation in the infant brain. We further apply our predicted/imputed images to two practical tasks, a regression task and a classification task, in order to highlight the enhanced task-related performance following image imputation. The results show that the model performance in both tasks is improved by including the additional imputed data, demonstrating the usability of the predicted images generated from our approach.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Pan, Xinlei; Qian, Tianyi; Fernandez-Seara, Maria A; Smith, Robert X; +4 Authors

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Quantification of Liver Perfusion Using Multidelay Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling Xinlei Pan, BS, 1 Tianyi Qian, PhD, 2 Maria A. Fernandez-Seara, PhD, 3 Robert X. Smith, PhD, 4 Kuncheng Li, MD, PhD, 5 Kui Ying, PhD, 6 Kyunghyun Sung, PhD, 7 and Danny J.J. Wang, PhD, MSCE 4,7 * Purpose: To develop a free-breathing multidelay pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) technique for quanti- tative measurement of liver perfusion of the hepatic artery and portal vein, respectively. Materials and Methods: A navigator-gated pCASL sequence with balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) read- out was developed and applied on five healthy young volunteers at 3T. Two labeling schemes were performed with the labeling plane applied on the descending aorta above the liver, and perpendicular to the portal vein before its entry to liver to label the hepatic artery and portal vein, respectively. For each labeling scheme, pCASL scans were performed at five or six postlabeling delays between 200 and 2000 msec or 2500 msec with an interval of 400 or 500 msec. Multide- lay pCASL images were processed offline with nonrigid motion correction, outlier removal, and fitted for estimation of liver perfusion and transit time. Results: Estimated liver perfusion of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein were 21.8 6 1.9 and 95.1 6 8.9 mL/100g/ min, with the corresponding transit time of 1227.3 6 355.5 and 667.2 6 85.0 msec, respectively. The estimated liver per- fusion and transit time without motion correction were less reliable with greater residual variance compared to those processed with motion correction (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The liver perfusion measurement using multidelay pCASL showed good correspondence with values noted in the literature. The capability to noninvasively and selectively label the hepatic artery and portal vein is a unique strength of pCASL as compared to other liver perfusion imaging techniques, such as computed tomography perfusion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2015;00:000–000. L iver diseases afflict more than 30 million people in the US, or 1 in 10 Americans. 1 The number of people diag- nosed with liver diseases such as hepatitis C, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver cancer are on the rise both in the US and worldwide. 2 Liver ultrasonography and magnetic res- onance imaging (MRI) are the two main imaging modalities for detecting, characterizing, and monitoring treatment responses of focal and diffuse liver diseases. 3–5 Ultrasonogra- phy remains the first-line imaging modality for examining liver morphology and blood flow; these are accentuated through the recent development of elastography. MRI offers multiparametric examinations of the morphology, perfusion, and diffusion of the liver. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and MR elastography (MRE) are two emerging tech- nologies capable of quantitative assessments of liver perfu- sion/permeability and viscoelasticity, respectively. Liver perfusion imaging is useful in detecting regional and global alterations in liver blood flow caused by a range View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.25070 Received Jul 4, 2015, Accepted for publication Sep 24, 2015. *Address reprint requests to: D.J.J.W., Laboratory of Functional MRI Technology (LOFT), Department of Neurology, UCLA, 660 Charles E Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. E-mail: jwang71@gmail.com From the 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 2 Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaboration NE Asia, Beijing, China; Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Spain; 4 Laboratory of Functional MRI Technology (LOFT), Department of Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA; 5 Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 6 Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; and 7 Department of Radiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. C 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. V

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    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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      Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    Authors: Prado, Jérôme; Lu, Jiayan; Liu, Li; Dong, Qi; +2 Authors

    International audience; Multiplication problems involving large numbers (e.g., 9 × 8) are more difficult to solve than problems involving small numbers (e.g., 2 × 3). Behavioral research indicates that this problem-size effect might be due to different factors across countries and educational systems. However, there is no neuroimaging evidence supporting this hypothesis. Here, we compared the neural correlates of the multiplication problem-size effect in adults educated in China and the United States. We found a greater neural problem-size effect in Chinese than American participants in bilateral superior temporal regions associated with phonological processing. However, we found a greater neural problem-size effect in American than Chinese participants in right intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) associated with calculation procedures. Therefore, while the multiplication problem-size effect might be a verbal retrieval effect in Chinese as compared to American participants, it may instead stem from the use of calculation procedures in American as compared to Chinese participants. Our results indicate that differences in educational practices might affect the neural bases of symbolic arithmetic.

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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    Authors: Ping He; Xiaohua Xu; Han Zhang; Gang Li; +4 Authors

    Recent advances in MRI have made it easier to collect data for studying human structural and functional connectivity networks. Computational methods can reveal complex spatiotemporal dynamics of the human developing brain. In this paper, we propose a Developmental Meta-network Decomposition (DMD) method to decompose a series of longitudinal networks into a set of Developmental Meta-networks (DMs), which reveal the underlying changes in connectivity over development. DMD circumvents the limitations of traditional static network decomposition methods by providing a novel exploratory approach to capture the spatiotemporal dynamics of longitudinal networks. We apply this method to longitudinal structural correlation networks of cortical thickness across subjects at 3-20 years of age, and identify four DMs that smoothly evolve over three stages, i.e., 3-6, 7-12, and 13-20 years of age. We analyze and highlight the characteristic connections of each DM in relation to brain development.

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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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    Authors: Wei Li; Ronald E. Maloney; Tak Yee Aw;

    We previously demonstrated that in normal glucose (5 mM), methylglyoxal (MG, a model of carbonyl stress) induced brain microvascular endothelial cell (IHEC) dysfunction that was associated with occludin glycation and prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Herein, we investigated the impact of high glucose and low GSH, conditions that mimicked the diabetic state, on MG-induced IHEC dysfunction. MG-induced loss of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) was potentiated in IHECs cultured for 7 or 12 days in 25 mM glucose (hyperglycemia); moreover, barrier function remained disrupted 6 h after cell transfer to normal glucose media (acute glycemic fluctuation). Notably, basal occludin glycation was elevated under these glycemic states. TEER loss was exaggerated by inhibition of glutathione (GSH) synthesis and abrogated by NAC, which corresponded to GSH decreases and increases, respectively. Significantly, glyoxalase II activity was attenuated in hyperglycemic cells. Moreover, hyperglycemia and GSH inhibition increased MG accumulation, consistent with a compromised capacity for MG elimination. α-Oxoaldehydes (MG plus glyoxal) levels were elevated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat plasma. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prevalence of MG-positive, but fewer occludin-positive microvessels in the diabetic brain in vivo, and Western analysis confirmed an increase in MG–occludin adducts. These results provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia and acute glucose fluctuation promote MG–occludin formation and exacerbate brain microvascular endothelial dysfunction. Low occludin expression and high glycated-occludin contents in diabetic brain in vivo are factors that would contribute to the dysfunction of the cerebral microvasculature during diabetes. Highlights • Methylglyoxal (MG) induced electrical resistance (TEER)loss in brain microvascular endothelial cells. • TEER loss was potentiated by hyperglycemia, and low glutathione. • TEER loss was correlated with occludin-glycation and was attenuated and exacerbated by NAC and BSO, respectively. • Hyperglycemia decreased glyoxalase II activity and promoted free MG accumulation. • Diabetic brain in vivo exhibiteda prevalence of MG-positive microvessels and increased occludin–MG adducts. Graphical abstract

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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    Redox Biology
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    Authors: Suping Cai; Liyu Huang; Jia Zou; Longlong Jing; +6 Authors

    We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate changes in the thalamus functional connectivity in early and late stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Data of 25 late stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (LMCI) patients, 30 early stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) patients and 30 well-matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the thalamus and those in all other brain regions. Compared to healthy controls, we found functional connectivity between the left/right thalamus and a set of brain areas was decreased in LMCI and/or EMCI including right fusiform gyrus (FG), left and right superior temporal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus extending into supplementary motor area, right insula, left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) extending into middle occipital gyrus (MOG). We also observed increased functional connectivity between the left/right thalamus and several regions in LMCI and/or EMCI including left FG, right MOG, left and right precuneus, right MTG and left inferior temporal gyrus. In the direct comparison between the LMCI and EMCI groups, we obtained several brain regions showed thalamus-seeded functional connectivity differences such as the precentral gyrus, hippocampus, FG and MTG. Briefly, these brain regions mentioned above were mainly located in the thalamo-related networks including thalamo-hippocampus, thalamo-temporal, thalamo-visual, and thalamo-default mode network. The decreased functional connectivity of the thalamus might suggest reduced functional integrity of thalamo-related networks and increased functional connectivity indicated that aMCI patients could use additional brain resources to compensate for the loss of cognitive function. Our study provided a new sight to understand the two important states of aMCI and revealed resting-state fMRI is an appropriate method for exploring pathophysiological changes in aMCI.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Zhang, N.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.;

    Background: Several structural brain changes have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the prediction of AD by combining multiple brain changes with the hallmark medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). Methods: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of people with mild AD (n = 39), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 82), and of healthy controls (HC; n = 58) were obtained at baseline. Among these people, 26 AD, 53 MCI, and 46 HC subjects had 24-month follow-up MRI scans. Bilateral MTA was evaluated using a medial temporal lobe atrophy scale (MTAS). Common changes in the aging brain were summarized using a brain atrophy and lesion index (BALI). The performance of the MTAS, BALI, and a score combining both, using a logistic regression model, were assessed. Results: The MTAS and BALI scores were closely correlated (r2 > 0.56); each differed between the diagnostic groups. Having an unfavorable MTAS score was associated with an increased risk of MCI-AD conversion (OR = 3.71, p = 0.039), adjusted for age, sex, and education; having an unfavorable BALI score marginally contributed to such risks (OR = 4.08, p = 0.080). Combining MTAS and BALI components resulted in a greater OR (8.99, p = 0.007) and an improved predictive accuracy (75.9%, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Multiple structural changes have an additive effect on AD. The data support potential future roles of combining multiple coexisting structural changes to benefit AD diagnosis, progression monitoring, and/or treatment effect evaluation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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    Other literature type . 2012
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    Other literature type . 2012
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    Authors: N C, Rowland; J A, Goldberg; D, Jaeger;

    Cerebral cortical slow-wave activity (SWA) is prominent during sleep and also during ketamine-induced anesthesia. SWA in electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is closely linked to prominent fluctuations between up- and down-states in the membrane potential of pyramidal neurons. However, little is known about how the cerebellum is linked into SWA and whether slow cortical oscillations influence sensory cerebellar responses. To examine these issues, we simultaneously recorded EEG activity from the cerebral cortex (SI, MI, and supplementary motor area (SMA)), local field potentials at the input stage of cerebellar processing in the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) and inferior olive (IO), and single unit activity at the output stage of the cerebellum in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We found that in ketamine-anesthetized rats, SWA was synchronized between all recorded cortical areas and was phase locked with local field potentials of the GCL, IO and single unit activity in the DCN. We also found that cortical up-states are linked to activation of GCL neurons but to inhibition of cerebellar output from the DCN, with the latter an effect likely mediated by Purkinje cells. A partial coherence analysis showed further that a large portion of SWA shared between GCL and DCN was transmitted from the cortex, since the coherence shared between GCL and DCN was diminished when the effect of cortical activity was subtracted. To determine the causal flow of information between structures, a directed transfer function was calculated between the simultaneous activities of SI, MI, SMA, GCL and DCN. This analysis demonstrated that the primary direction of information flow was from cortex to the cerebellum and that SI had a stronger influence than other cortical areas on DCN activity. The strong functional connectivity with SI in particular is in agreement with previous findings of a strong cortical component in cerebellar sensory responses.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Neuroscience
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    Neuroscience
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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