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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Open Access
  • National Institutes of Health
  • NIH|NATIONAL_INSTITUTE_OF_BIOMEDICAL_IMAGING_AND_BIOENGINEERING

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christopher, Tolleson; Srivatsan, Pallavaram; Chen, Li; John, Fang; +6 Authors

    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus is established as efficacious for dystonia, yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a nonlinear image registration algorithm. Active contact locations were projected onto the atlas and clusters analyzed for the degree of variance in two groups: (1) good and poor responders and (2) cervical (CD) and generalized dystonia (GD). <b><i>Results:</i></b> The average active contact location between CD and GD good responders was distinct but not significantly different. The mean active contact for CD poor responders was significantly different from CD responders and GD poor responders in the dorsoventral direction. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> A normalized imaging space is arguably more accurate in visualizing postoperative leads. Despite some separation between groups, this data suggests there was not an optimal pallidal target for common dystonia patients. Degrees of variance overlapped due to a large degree of individual target variation. Patient selection may ultimately be the key to maximizing patient outcomes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Stereotactic and Fun...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Stereotactic and Fun...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ryan M. Jones; Lulu Deng; Kogee Leung; Dallan McMahon; +2 Authors

    Focused ultrasound (FUS)-mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening recently entered clinical testing for targeted drug delivery to the brain. Sources of variability exist in the current procedures, motivating the development of real-time monitoring and control techniques to improve treatment safety and efficacy. Here we used three-dimensional (3D) transcranial microbubble imaging to calibrate FUS exposure levels for volumetric BBB opening. Methods: Using a sparse hemispherical transmit/receive ultrasound phased array, pulsed ultrasound was focused transcranially into the thalamus of rabbits during microbubble infusion and multi-channel 3D beamforming was performed online with receiver signals captured at the subharmonic frequency. Pressures were increased pulse-by-pulse until subharmonic activity was detected on acoustic imaging (psub), and tissue volumes surrounding the calibration point were exposed at 50-100%psub via rapid electronic beam steering. Results: Spatially-coherent subharmonic microbubble activity was successfully reconstructed transcranially in vivo during calibration sonications. Multi-point exposures induced volumetric regions of elevated BBB permeability assessed via contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At exposure levels ≥75%psub, MRI and histological examination occasionally revealed tissue damage, whereas sonications at 50%psub were performed safely. Substantial intra-grid variability of FUS-induced bioeffects was observed via MRI, prompting future development of multi-point calibration schemes for improved treatment consistency. Receiver array sparsity and sensor configuration had substantial impacts on subharmonic detection sensitivity, and are factors that should be considered when designing next-generation clinical FUS brain therapy systems. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 3D subharmonic imaging can be used to calibrate exposure levels for safe FUS-induced volumetric BBB opening, and should be explored further as a method for cavitation-mediated treatment guidance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Theranostics
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Theranostics
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
      Other literature type . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arvind Balachandrasekaran; Merry Mani; Mathews Jacob;

    We introduce a structured low rank algorithm for the calibration-free compensation of field inhomogeneity artifacts in Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) MRI data. We acquire the data using two EPI readouts that differ in echo-time (TE). Using time segmentation, we reformulate the field inhomogeneity compensation problem as the recovery of an image time series from highly undersampled Fourier measurements. The temporal profile at each pixel is modeled as a single exponential, which is exploited to fill in the missing entries. We show that the exponential behavior at each pixel, along with the spatial smoothness of the exponential parameters, can be exploited to derive a 3D annihilation relation in the Fourier domain. This relation translates to a low rank property on a structured multi-fold Toeplitz matrix, whose entries correspond to the measured k-space samples. We introduce a fast two-step algorithm for the completion of the Toeplitz matrix from the available samples. In the first step, we estimate the null space vectors of the Toeplitz matrix using only its fully sampled rows. The null space is then used to estimate the signal subspace, which facilitates the efficient recovery of the time series of images. We finally demonstrate the proposed approach on spherical MR phantom data and human data and show that the artifacts are significantly reduced. The proposed approach could potentially be used to compensate for time varying field map variations in dynamic applications such as functional MRI.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2018
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: IEEE Copyright
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2018
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carolien G.F. de Kovel; Lyubomir I. Aftanas; André Aleman; Aaron Alexander-Bloch; +74 Authors

    Objective: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects.Methods: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T-1-weighted MRI data were processedwith a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1.Results: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset.Conclusions: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; American Jou...arrow_drop_down
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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2019
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    DZNE Pub
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; American Jou...arrow_drop_down
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      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
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      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Hatton, Sean N; Huynh, Khoa H; Bonilha, Leonardo; Abela, Eugenio; +70 Authors

    AbstractThe epilepsies are commonly accompanied by widespread abnormalities in cerebral white matter. ENIGMA-Epilepsy is a large quantitative brain imaging consortium, aggregating data to investigate patterns of neuroimaging abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, including temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal epilepsy, and genetic generalized epilepsy. Our goal was to rank the most robust white matter microstructural differences across and within syndromes in a multicentre sample of adult epilepsy patients. Diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed from 1,069 non-epileptic controls and 1,249 patients: temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (N=599), temporal lobe epilepsy with normal MRI (N=275), genetic generalized epilepsy (N=182) and nonlesional extratemporal epilepsy (N=193). A harmonized protocol using tract-based spatial statistics was used to derive skeletonized maps of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity for each participant, and fiber tracts were segmented using a diffusion MRI atlas. Data were harmonized to correct for scanner-specific variations in diffusion measures using a batch-effect correction tool (ComBat). Analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and sex, examined differences between each epilepsy syndrome and controls for each white matter tract (Bonferroni corrected at p<0.001). Across “all epilepsies” lower fractional anisotropy was observed in most fiber tracts with small to medium effect sizes, especially in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule. Less robust effects were seen with mean diffusivity. Syndrome-specific fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differences were most pronounced in patients with hippocampal sclerosis in the ipsilateral parahippocampal cingulum and external capsule, with smaller effects across most other tracts. Those with temporal lobe epilepsy and normal MRI showed a similar pattern of greater ipsilateral than contralateral abnormalities, but less marked than those in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Patients with generalized and extratemporal epilepsies had pronounced differences in fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and external capsule, and in mean diffusivity of the anterior corona radiata. Earlier age of seizure onset and longer disease duration were associated with a greater extent of microstructural abnormalities in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. We demonstrate microstructural abnormalities across major association, commissural, and projection fibers in a large multicentre study of epilepsy. Overall, epilepsy patients showed white matter abnormalities in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule, with differing severity across epilepsy syndromes. These data further define the spectrum of white matter abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, yielding new insights into pathological substrates that may be used to guide future therapeutic and genetic studies.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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    Authors: Liying Peng; Liying Peng; Lanfen Lin; Yusen Lin; +26 Authors

    The infant brain undergoes a remarkable period of neural development that is crucial for the development of cognitive and behavioral capacities (Hasegawa et al., 2018). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to characterize the developmental trajectories and is critical in neuroimaging studies of early brain development. However, missing data at different time points is an unavoidable occurrence in longitudinal studies owing to participant attrition and scan failure. Compared to dropping incomplete data, data imputation is considered a better solution to address such missing data in order to preserve all available samples. In this paper, we adapt generative adversarial networks (GAN) to a new application: longitudinal image prediction of structural MRI in the first year of life. In contrast to existing medical image-to-image translation applications of GANs, where inputs and outputs share a very close anatomical structure, our task is more challenging as brain size, shape and tissue contrast vary significantly between the input data and the predicted data. Several improvements over existing GAN approaches are proposed to address these challenges in our task. To enhance the realism, crispness, and accuracy of the predicted images, we incorporate both a traditional voxel-wise reconstruction loss as well as a perceptual loss term into the adversarial learning scheme. As the differing contrast changes in T1w and T2w MR images in the first year of life, we incorporate multi-contrast images leading to our proposed 3D multi-contrast perceptual adversarial network (MPGAN). Extensive evaluations are performed to assess the qualityand fidelity of the predicted images, including qualitative and quantitative assessments of the image appearance, as well as quantitative assessment on two segmentation tasks. Our experimental results show that our MPGAN is an effective solution for longitudinal MR image data imputation in the infant brain. We further apply our predicted/imputed images to two practical tasks, a regression task and a classification task, in order to highlight the enhanced task-related performance following image imputation. The results show that the model performance in both tasks is improved by including the additional imputed data, demonstrating the usability of the predicted images generated from our approach.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2021
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Carsten Stüber; David Pitt; Yi Wang;

    Iron is considered to play a key role in the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In particular, iron that accumulates in myeloid cells after the blood-brain barrier (BBB) seals may contribute to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and eventually neurodegeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established tool for the non-invasive study of MS. In recent years, an advanced MRI method, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), has made it possible to study brain iron through in vivo imaging. Moreover, immunohistochemical investigations have helped defining the lesional and cellular distribution of iron in MS brain tissue. Imaging studies in MS patients and of brain tissue combined with histological studies have provided important insights into the role of iron in inflammation and neurodegeneration in MS.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Alessandro Biffi; Mert R. Sabuncu; Rahul S. Desikan; Nicholas J. Schmansky; +3 Authors

    Previous research implicates alterations in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We sought to test whether genetic variants within OXPHOS genes increase the risk of AD. We first used gene-set enrichment analysis to identify associations, and then applied a previously replicated stroke genetic risk score to determine if OXPHOS genetic overlap exists between stroke and AD. Gene-set enrichment analysis identified associations between variation in OXPHOS genes and AD versus control status (p = 0.012). Conversion from cognitively normal controls to mild cognitive impairment was also associated with the OXPHOS gene-set (p = 0.045). Subset analyses demonstrated association for complex I genes (p < 0.05), but not for complexes II–V. Among neuroimaging measures, hippocampal volume and entorhinal cortex thickness were associated with OXPHOS genes (all p < 0.025). The stroke genetic risk score demonstrated association with clinical status, baseline and longitudinal imaging measures (p < 0.05). OXPHOS genetic variation influences clinical status and neuroimaging intermediates of AD. OXPHOS genetic variants associated with stroke are also linked to AD progression. Further studies are needed to explore functional consequences of these OXPHOS variants.

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    Neurobiology of Aging
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neurobiology of Aging
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    Authors: Andreas Berg Storsve; Anders M. Fjell; Anastasia Yendiki; Kristine B. Walhovd;

    A causal link between decreases in white matter (WM) integrity and cortical degeneration is assumed, but there is scarce knowledge on the relationship between these changes across the adult human lifespan. We investigated changes in thickness throughout the cortical mantle and WM tract integrity derived from T1 and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 201 healthy adults aged 23-87 years over a mean interval of 3.6 years. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity changes were calculated for forceps minor and major and eight major white matter tracts in each hemisphere by use of a novel automated longitudinal tractography constrained by underlying anatomy (TRACULA) approach. We hypothesized that increasing MD and decreasing FA across tracts would relate to cortical thinning, with some anatomical specificity. WM integrity decreased across tracts non-uniformly, with mean annual percentage decreases ranging from 0.20 in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus to 0.65 in the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus. For most tracts, greater MD increases and FA decreases related to more cortical thinning, in areas in part overlapping with but also outside the projected tract endings. The findings indicate a combination of global and tract-specific relationships between WM integrity and cortical thinning.

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    Authors: Eun Young eKim; Hans J Johnson; Hans J Johnson;

    A robust multi-modal tool, for automated registration, bias correction, and tissue classification, has been implemented for large-scale heterogeneous multi-site longitudinal MR data analysis.This work focused on improving the an iterative optimization framework between bias-correction, registration, and tissue classification inspired from previous work.The primary contributions are robustness improvements from incorporation of following four elements: 1) utilize multi-modal and repeated scans, 2) incorporate high-deformable registration, 3) use extended set of tissue definitions, and 4) use of multi-modal aware intensity-context priors.The benefits of these enhancements were investigated by a series of experiments with both simulated brain data set (BrainWeb) and by applying to highly-heterogeneous data from a 32 site imaging study with quality assessments through the expert visual inspection.The implementation of this tool is tailored for, but not limited to, large-scale data processing with great data variation with a flexible interface.In this paper, we describe enhancements to a joint registration, bias correction, and the tissue classification, that improve the generalizability and robustness for processing multi-modal longitudinal MR scans collected at multi-sites.The tool was evaluated by using both simulated and simulated and human subject MRI images.With these enhancements, the results showed dramatic improvement in accuracy and robustness for large-scale heterogeneous MRI processing.

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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Christopher, Tolleson; Srivatsan, Pallavaram; Chen, Li; John, Fang; +6 Authors

    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus is established as efficacious for dystonia, yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a nonlinear image registration algorithm. Active contact locations were projected onto the atlas and clusters analyzed for the degree of variance in two groups: (1) good and poor responders and (2) cervical (CD) and generalized dystonia (GD). <b><i>Results:</i></b> The average active contact location between CD and GD good responders was distinct but not significantly different. The mean active contact for CD poor responders was significantly different from CD responders and GD poor responders in the dorsoventral direction. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> A normalized imaging space is arguably more accurate in visualizing postoperative leads. Despite some separation between groups, this data suggests there was not an optimal pallidal target for common dystonia patients. Degrees of variance overlapped due to a large degree of individual target variation. Patient selection may ultimately be the key to maximizing patient outcomes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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