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559 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
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  • National Institutes of Health
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wang, Ze;

    To develop a multivariate machine learning classification-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification method for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI.The label and control images of ASL MRI were separated using a machine-learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM). The perfusion-weighted image was subsequently extracted from the multivariate (all voxels) SVM classifier. Using the same pre-processing steps, the proposed method was compared with standard ASL CBF quantification method using synthetic data and in-vivo ASL images.As compared with the conventional univariate approach, the proposed ASL CBF quantification method significantly improved spatial signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and image appearance of ASL CBF images.the multivariate machine learning-based classification is useful for ASL CBF quantification.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ragan, Timothy; Kadiri, Lolahon R.; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bahlmann, Karsten; +6 Authors

    Here we describe an automated method, named serial two-photon (STP) tomography, that achieves high-throughput fluorescence imaging of mouse brains by integrating two-photon microscopy and tissue sectioning. STP tomography generates high-resolution datasets that are free of distortions and can be readily warped in three dimensions, for example, for comparing multiple anatomical tracings. This method opens the door to routine systematic studies of neuroanatomy in mouse models of human brain disorders.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Feuillastre, Sophie; Pauton, Mathilde; Gao, L.; Desmarchelier, Alaric; +6 Authors

    International audience; Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) based displays have already entered the mass production market thank to their outstanding properties such as light weight, fast response time, low power consumption and wide color gamut. However, the request in the market continues to grow for lower cost and more efficient devices. Direct emission of circularly polarized light from OLEDs can improve the contrast of the OLED display [1] and simplify device architecture [2]. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) emitters represent an important family of molecule, where high syntheses yield, efficient CPL and dissymmetry factors are key challenges [3]. The development of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for optoelectronic applications is an active area of recent research [4]. TADF emitters are a class of fluorophore that enable harvesting triplet states for fluorescent emission by a reverse intersystem-crossing phenomenon. This allows maximal emission efficiencies, especially in organic electroluminescent devices (OLEDs) that generate 75% triplet exciton. We have recently developed a class of purely organic luminophore that combines CPL with TADF in a simple modular design [5]. This presentation will discuss the concept, preparation, and properties of this new class of molecules and present their application in OLED devices. The importance of the structure-property relationships will be also discussed.

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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
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    Authors: Boutet, Stéphanie; Vazquez, Franck; Liu, Jun; Béclin, Christophe; +6 Authors

    AbstractIn animals, double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) and single-stranded microRNA (miRNA) regulate gene expression by targeting homologous mRNA for cleavage or by interfering with their translation, respectively [1–3]. siRNAs are processed from injected or transgene-derived, long, perfect double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), while miRNAs are processed from short, imperfect dsRNA precursors transcribed from endogenous intergenic regions [4–9]. In plants, both siRNAs and miRNAs activate cleavage of homologous RNA targets [10–12], but little is known about the genes controlling their production or action. The SGS2/SDE1 protein contributes to produce transgene siRNA [10], while DCL1 and HEN1 contribute to endogenous miRNA accumulation [8, 9]. Here, we show that: i) SGS2, SGS3 [13], AGO1 [14, 15], and HEN1 contribute to produce transgene siRNA involved in sense posttranscriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS); ii) HEN1, but not SGS2, SGS3, or AGO1, contributes to the accumulation of the endogenous miR171 miRNA and to the cleavage of Scarecrow target mRNA by miR171[11]; iii) SGS2, SGS3, AGO1, and HEN1 contribute to resistance against cucumber mosaic virus [13, 15], but not to siRNA and IR-PTGS triggered by hairpin transgenes directly producing perfect dsRNA [16]; and iv) the actions of HEN1 in miRNA/development and siRNA/S-PTGS can be uncoupled by single-point mutations at different positions in the protein.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2003
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2003
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Redin, Claire;

    Certaines maladies héréditaires monogéniques sont caractérisées par une grande hétérogénéité génétique. Chez des individus présentant un phénotype clinique similaire, les mutations causales peuvent être retrouvées dans un des gènes parmi un sous-ensemble décrits comme impliqués dans la maladie. Cette hétérogénéité génétique limite considérablement les offres diagnostiques pour les patients, et une majorité reste sans diagnostic moléculaire. Nous avons développé une approche diagnostique alternative par séquençage à haut débit ciblé (ciblant spécifiquement les régions codantes des gènes d’intérêt par capture d’exons), au travers de trois pathologies génétiquement hétérogènes : le syndrome de Bardet-Biedl (19 gènes décrits), les leucodystrophies (50 gènes), et la déficience intellectuelle (>400 gènes). Au vu de son efficacité dans le syndrome de Bardet-Biedl et la déficience intellectuelle (80% et 25% de mutations détectées respectivement, soit des taux nettement supérieurs à ceux des méthodes précédentes), elle est depuis appliquée en routine diagnostique. Au-delà du diagnostic, cette approche permet de manière non biaisée de revoir la contribution de chacun des gènes dans la pathologie et donc d’identifier les gènes récurrents, et d’établir de nouvelles corrélations génotype/phénotype. Some monogenic disorders are characterized by a vast genetic heterogeneity. In individuals with similar clinical phenotype, causative mutations can be found in one gene from a subset described as implicated in the disease. Such genetic heterogeneity limits considerably the diagnostic offer for the patients, and a majority is left without molecular diagnosis. We developed an alternative diagnostic approach by targeted high throughput sequencing (specific to the coding regions of genes of interest by a technique of exon capture) through three genetically heterogeneous disorders: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (19 genes reported), leukodystrophies (50 genes), and intellectual disability (>400 genes). In light of its efficiency, this approach has since been implemented in diagnostic routine for Bardet-Biedl syndrome and intellectual disability (80% and 25% of diagnostic yields respectively, significantly higher than those of previous methods). Beyond diagnosis, this approach allows unbiased means to assess the contribution of each gene in the disease and highlight recurrent genes, and establish new correlations genotype to phenotype, overall providing much insight in the genetics of a particular disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2014
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      Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Spina, Salvatore; Schonhaut, Daniel R; Boeve, Bradley F; Seeley, William W; +12 Authors

    © 2017 American Academy of Neurology. Objective: To assess the efficacy of [ 18 F]AV1451 PET in visualizing tau pathology in vivo in a patient with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) associated with the V337M microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutation. Methods: MAPT mutations are associated with the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurons and glia. The PET tracer [ 18 F]AV1451 binds with high affinity to paired helical filaments tau that comprises neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (AD), while postmortem studies suggest lower or absent binding to the tau filaments of the majority of non-AD tauopathies. We describe clinical, structural MRI, and [ 18 F]AV1451 PET findings in a V337M MAPT mutation carrier affected by FTD and pathologic findings in his affected mother and in an unrelated V337M MAPT carrier also affected with FTD. The biochemical similarity between paired helical filament tau in AD and MAPT V337M predicts that the tau pathology associated with this mutation constitutes a compelling target for [ 18 F]AV1451 imaging. Results: We found a strong association between topography and degree of [ 18 F]AV1451 tracer retention in the proband and distribution of tau pathology in the brain of the proband's mother and the unrelated V337M mutation carrier. We also found a significant correlation between the degree of regional MRI brain atrophy and the extent of [ 18 F]AV1451 binding in the proband and a strong association between the proband's clinical presentation and the extent of regional brain atrophy and tau accumulation as assessed by structural brain MRI and [ 18 F]AV1451PET. Conclusion: Our study supports the usefulness of [ 18 F]AV1451 to characterize tau pathology in at least a subset of pathogenic MAPT mutations.

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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Yao, Xiaohui; Yan, Jingwen; Ginda, Michael; Börner, Katy; +2 Authors

    Background Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years. Methods Citation information of ADNI-related publications from 01/01/2003 to 05/12/2015 were downloaded from the Scopus database. Five fields, including authors, years, affiliations, sources (journals), and keywords, were extracted and preprocessed. Statistical analyses were performed on basic publication data as well as journal and citations information. Science mapping workflows were conducted using the Science of Science (Sci2) Tool to generate geospatial, topical, and collaboration visualizations at the micro (individual) to macro (global) levels such as geospatial layouts of institutional collaboration networks, keyword co-occurrence networks, and author collaboration networks evolving over time. Results During the studied period, 996 ADNI manuscripts were published across 233 journals and conference proceedings. The number of publications grew linearly from 2008 to 2015, so did the number of involved institutions. ADNI publications received much more citations than typical papers from the same set of journals. Collaborations were visualized at multiple levels, including authors, institutions, and research areas. The evolution of key ADNI research topics was also plotted over the studied period. Conclusions Both statistical and visualization results demonstrate the increasing attention of ADNI research, strong citation impact of ADNI publications, the expanding collaboration networks among researchers, institutions and ADNI core areas, and the dynamic evolution of ADNI research topics. The visualizations presented here can help improve daily decision making based on a deep understanding of existing patterns and trends using proven and replicable data analysis and visualization methods. They have great potential to provide new insights and actionable knowledge for helping translational research in AD.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Bastiani, M; Cottaar, M; Dikranian, K; Ghosh, A; +5 Authors

    Diffusion MRI allows us to make inferences on the structural organisation of the brain by mapping water diffusion to white matter microstructure. However, such a mapping is generally ill-defined; for instance, diffusion measurements are antipodally symmetric (diffusion along x and –x are equal), whereas the distribution of fibre orientations within a voxel is generally not symmetric. Therefore, different sub-voxel patterns such as crossing, fanning, or sharp bending, cannot be distinguished by fitting a voxel-wise model to the signal. However, asymmetric fibre patterns can potentially be distinguished once spatial information from neighbouring voxels is taken into account. We propose a neighbourhood-constrained spherical deconvolution approach that is capable of inferring asymmetric fibre orientation distributions (A-fods). Importantly, we further design and implement a tractography algorithm that utilises the estimated A-fods, since the commonly used streamline tractography paradigm cannot directly take advantage of the new information. We assess performance using ultra-high resolution histology data where we can compare true orientation distributions against sub-voxel fibre patterns estimated from down-sampled data. Finally, we explore the benefits of A-fods-based tractography using in vivo data by evaluating agreement of tractography predictions with connectivity estimates made using different in-vivo modalities. The proposed approach can reliably estimate complex fibre patterns such as sharp bending and fanning, which voxel-wise approaches cannot estimate. Moreover, histology-based and in-vivo results show that the new framework allows more accurate tractography and reconstruction of maps quantifying (symmetric and asymmetric) fibre complexity. Highlights • A new comprehensive framework for both asymmetric fod estimation and tractography. • Extension of classical CSD approaches applicable to single and multi-shell data. • Validation using anatomically relevant fibre patterns derived from histology. • Correct reconstruction of sub-voxel fanning polarities and sharp bends.

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    Article . 2017
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    Oxford University Research Archive
    Other literature type . 2018
    License: CC BY
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    Authors: Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Marinkovic, Ksenija;

    Alcoholism can affect the brain and behavior in a variety of ways, and multiple factors can influence these effects. A person's susceptibility to alcoholism-related brain damage may be associated with his or her age, gender, drinking history, and nutrition, as well as with the vulnerability of specific brain regions. Investigators use a variety of methods to study alcoholism-related brain damage, including examining brains of deceased patients as well as neuroimaging, a technique that enables researchers to test and observe the living brain and to evaluate structural damage in the brain.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2003
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    Authors: Hubbard, Catherine S.; Khan, Shariq A.; Keaser, Michael L.; Mathur, Vani A.; +2 Authors

    Abstract Cover Figure Migraine patients (Pts) show widespread structural and functional brain changes that are associated with symptoms and increased pain catastrophizing A, Migraine patients showed (i) increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the left (L) hippocampus and (ii) decreased cortical thickness in the L anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) compared to healthy control subjects. B, Pain catastrophizing correlated with GMV reductions in the (i) L primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and (ii) L medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and cortical thinning in the (iii) L dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in migraine patients. C, GMV reductions correlated with (i) disease duration (ii), attack frequency, and (iii) migraine pain intensity in patients. D, Whole-brain overlay maps for migraine patients and healthy controls for the (i) L PCC, (ii) L aINS, and (iii) aMCC seed regions rendered onto inflated brains. Red represents resting-state functional connectivity for healthy controls and green represents the same maps in migraine patients. Yellow represents areas showing overlap in functional connectivity in controls and migraineurs. Images are thresholded at T = 4.5 (cluster extent = 25) for visualization purposes. The schematic illustrates the relationship between disease severity measures and pain catastrophizing and disruptions in functional connectivity between the default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), and salience network (SN) in migraine patients. In patients, pain catastrophizing correlated with increased coupling between DMN and CEN nodes (PCC-DLPFC), whereas disease duration and migraine pain intensity correlated with SN-DMN network decoupling (aINS/aMCC-mPFC), and increased SN-CEN (aMCC-aINS) network coupling, respectively. To investigate the neuroanatomical and functional brain changes in migraine patients relative to healthy controls, we used a combined analytical approach including voxel- and surface-based morphometry along with resting-state functional connectivity to determine whether areas showing structural alterations in patients also showed abnormal functional connectivity. Additionally, we wanted to assess whether these structural and functional changes were associated with group differences in pain catastrophizing and migraine-related disease variables in patients. We acquired T1-weighted anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during rest in human subjects with a diagnosis of migraine and healthy controls. Structural analyses revealed greater left hippocampal gray matter volume and reduced cortical thickness in the left anterior midcingulate in patients compared with controls. We also observed negative associations between pain catastrophizing and migraine disease variables and gray matter in areas implicated in processing the sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects of pain in patients. Functional connectivity analyses showed that migraine patients displayed disrupted connectivity between default mode, salience, cognitive, visuospatial, and sensorimotor networks, which was associated with group differences in pain catastrophizing and migraine-related disease variables in patients. Together, our findings show widespread morphological and functional brain abnormalities in migraineurs in affective, cognitive, visual, and pain-related brain areas, which are associated with increased pain catastrophizing, disease chronicity, and severity of symptoms, suggesting that these structural and functional changes may be a consequence of repeated, long-term nociceptive signaling leading to increased pain sensitivity, mood disturbances, and maladaptive coping strategies to deal with unrelenting pain. Our study provides a new and comprehensive look at how migraine affects brain structure, how these changes in structure are related to functional brain networks, and how coping and disease severity influence both structure and functional networks. Specifically, we demonstrate concomitant functional and structural brain changes related to pain catastrophizing and disease severity in migraine patients.

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    Article . 2014
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    Authors: Wang, Ze;

    To develop a multivariate machine learning classification-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification method for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI.The label and control images of ASL MRI were separated using a machine-learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM). The perfusion-weighted image was subsequently extracted from the multivariate (all voxels) SVM classifier. Using the same pre-processing steps, the proposed method was compared with standard ASL CBF quantification method using synthetic data and in-vivo ASL images.As compared with the conventional univariate approach, the proposed ASL CBF quantification method significantly improved spatial signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and image appearance of ASL CBF images.the multivariate machine learning-based classification is useful for ASL CBF quantification.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Ragan, Timothy; Kadiri, Lolahon R.; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bahlmann, Karsten; +6 Authors

    Here we describe an automated method, named serial two-photon (STP) tomography, that achieves high-throughput fluorescence imaging of mouse brains by integrating two-photon microscopy and tissue sectioning. STP tomography generates high-resolution datasets that are free of distortions and can be readily warped in three dimensions, for example, for comparing multiple anatomical tracings. This method opens the door to routine systematic studies of neuroanatomy in mouse models of human brain disorders.

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    Article . 2012
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      Article . 2012
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    Authors: Feuillastre, Sophie; Pauton, Mathilde; Gao, L.; Desmarchelier, Alaric; +6 Authors

    International audience; Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) based displays have already entered the mass production market thank to their outstanding properties such as light weight, fast response time, low power consumption and wide color gamut. However, the request in the market continues to grow for lower cost and more efficient devices. Direct emission of circularly polarized light from OLEDs can improve the contrast of the OLED display [1] and simplify device architecture [2]. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) emitters represent an important family of molecule, where high syntheses yield, efficient CPL and dissymmetry factors are key challenges [3]. The development of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for optoelectronic applications is an active area of recent research [4]. TADF emitters are a class of fluorophore that enable harvesting triplet states for fluorescent emission by a reverse intersystem-crossing phenomenon. This allows maximal emission efficiencies, especially in organic electroluminescent devices (OLEDs) that generate 75% triplet exciton. We have recently developed a class of purely organic luminophore that combines CPL with TADF in a simple modular design [5]. This presentation will discuss the concept, preparation, and properties of this new class of molecules and present their application in OLED devices. The importance of the structure-property relationships will be also discussed.

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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
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    Authors: Boutet, Stéphanie; Vazquez, Franck; Liu, Jun; Béclin, Christophe; +6 Authors

    AbstractIn animals, double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) and single-stranded microRNA (miRNA) regulate gene expression by targeting homologous mRNA for cleavage or by interfering with their translation, respectively [1–3]. siRNAs are processed from injected or transgene-derived, long, perfect double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), while miRNAs are processed from short, imperfect dsRNA precursors transcribed from endogenous intergenic regions [4–9]. In plants, both siRNAs and miRNAs activate cleavage of homologous RNA targets [10–12], but little is known about the genes controlling their production or action. The SGS2/SDE1 protein contributes to produce transgene siRNA [10], while DCL1 and HEN1 contribute to endogenous miRNA accumulation [8, 9]. Here, we show that: i) SGS2, SGS3 [13], AGO1 [14, 15], and HEN1 contribute to produce transgene siRNA involved in sense posttranscriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS); ii) HEN1, but not SGS2, SGS3, or AGO1, contributes to the accumulation of the endogenous miR171 miRNA and to the cleavage of Scarecrow target mRNA by miR171[11]; iii) SGS2, SGS3, AGO1, and HEN1 contribute to resistance against cucumber mosaic virus [13, 15], but not to siRNA and IR-PTGS triggered by hairpin transgenes directly producing perfect dsRNA [16]; and iv) the actions of HEN1 in miRNA/development and siRNA/S-PTGS can be uncoupled by single-point mutations at different positions in the protein.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Redin, Claire;

    Certaines maladies héréditaires monogéniques sont caractérisées par une grande hétérogénéité génétique. Chez des individus présentant un phénotype clinique similaire, les mutations causales peuvent être retrouvées dans un des gènes parmi un sous-ensemble décrits comme impliqués dans la maladie. Cette hétérogénéité génétique limite considérablement les offres diagnostiques pour les patients, et une majorité reste sans diagnostic moléculaire. Nous avons développé une approche diagnostique alternative par séquençage à haut débit ciblé (ciblant spécifiquement les régions codantes des gènes d’intérêt par capture d’exons), au travers de trois pathologies génétiquement hétérogènes : le syndrome de Bardet-Biedl (19 gènes décrits), les leucodystrophies (50 gènes), et la déficience intellectuelle (>400 gènes). Au vu de son efficacité dans le syndrome de Bardet-Biedl et la déficience intellectuelle (80% et 25% de mutations détectées respectivement, soit des taux nettement supérieurs à ceux des méthodes précédentes), elle est depuis appliquée en routine diagnostique. Au-delà du diagnostic, cette approche permet de manière non biaisée de revoir la contribution de chacun des gènes dans la pathologie et donc d’identifier les gènes récurrents, et d’établir de nouvelles corrélations génotype/phénotype. Some monogenic disorders are characterized by a vast genetic heterogeneity. In individuals with similar clinical phenotype, causative mutations can be found in one gene from a subset des