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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carolien G.F. de Kovel; Lyubomir I. Aftanas; André Aleman; Aaron Alexander-Bloch; +74 Authors

    Objective: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects.Methods: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T-1-weighted MRI data were processedwith a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1.Results: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset.Conclusions: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; American Jou...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    DZNE Pub
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; American Jou...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      DZNE Pub
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rachel D, Moloney; Anthony C, Johnson; Siobhain M, O'Mahony; Timothy G, Dinan; +2 Authors

    SummaryVisceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs of the body, which affects a significant proportion of the population and is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). While IBS is multifactorial, with no single etiology to completely explain the disorder, many patients also experience comorbid behavioral disorders, such as anxiety or depression; thus, IBS is described as a disorder of the gut–brain axis. Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of visceral pain disorders. Chronic stress can modify central pain circuitry, as well as change motility and permeability throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. More recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the bidirectional communication along the gut–brain axis, and subsequent changes in behavior, has emerged. Thus, stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviors. This review will highlight the evidence by which stress and the gut microbiota interact in the regulation of visceral nociception. We will focus on the influence of stress on the microbiota and the mechanisms by which microbiota can affect the stress response and behavioral outcomes with an emphasis on visceral pain.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CNS Neuroscience &am...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CNS Neuroscience &am...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andreas Berg Storsve; Anders M. Fjell; Anastasia Yendiki; Kristine B. Walhovd;

    A causal link between decreases in white matter (WM) integrity and cortical degeneration is assumed, but there is scarce knowledge on the relationship between these changes across the adult human lifespan. We investigated changes in thickness throughout the cortical mantle and WM tract integrity derived from T1 and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 201 healthy adults aged 23-87 years over a mean interval of 3.6 years. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity changes were calculated for forceps minor and major and eight major white matter tracts in each hemisphere by use of a novel automated longitudinal tractography constrained by underlying anatomy (TRACULA) approach. We hypothesized that increasing MD and decreasing FA across tracts would relate to cortical thinning, with some anatomical specificity. WM integrity decreased across tracts non-uniformly, with mean annual percentage decreases ranging from 0.20 in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus to 0.65 in the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus. For most tracts, greater MD increases and FA decreases related to more cortical thinning, in areas in part overlapping with but also outside the projected tract endings. The findings indicate a combination of global and tract-specific relationships between WM integrity and cortical thinning.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2016
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Buijsen, Ronald; Sellier, C; Severijnen, Lies-anne; Oulad-Abdelghani, M; +5 Authors

    Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a late-onset monogenetic neurodegenerative disorder, is caused by a CGG-repeat expansion (55-200) in the 5′ UTR of the fragile-X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) on the X-chromosome [1]. The prevalence of the FMR1 premutation (PM) is about 1:855 in males and 1:291 in females [2]. Approximately 45.5% of male and 16.5% of female PM carriers older than 50 years will develop signs of FXTAS [3]. In addition to the core features of tremor and gait ataxia, unexplained medical co-morbidities have been reported, including thyroid disease, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, migraine, impotence, and neuropathy [4]. PM carriers have increased levels of FMR1 mRNA (2 to 8 fold in leucocytes) and normal to slightly reduced FMR1 protein (FMRP) levels [5]. The current hypothesis is that FXTAS is caused by an RNA gain-of-function mechanism. Ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions, are found in both brain and non-central nervous system (CNS) organs of patients with FXTAS [6,7]. So far, it is not clear whether these inclusions are protective or toxic. Recently, it has been hypothesized that repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation plays a role in disease process and inclusion formation. Todd et al. [8] demonstrated that through initiation at a near-ATG codon located in the 5′UTR of the FMR1 gene a polyGlycine-containing protein, FMRpolyG, is expressed. This protein accumulates in ubiquitin-positive inclusions in Drosophila, cell culture, mouse disease models and brain from FXTAS patients. To investigate the link between FMRpolyG expression and the co-morbid medical problems associated with the PM we have developed two novel mouse monoclonal antibodies against polyGlycine; 8FM and 9FM (for epitopes and specificity see Additional file 1: Figure S1), and performed immunostaining in CNS as well as in non-CNS organs of FXTAS patient J.L. (case 6 in [7]; other cases not available). To establish antibody specificity, we performed immunostaining with both antibodies on brain sections from FXTAS patient J.L., healthy non-demented controls (n = 3) and a patient with Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, or C9FTD. In hippocampus and cerebellum from FXTAS patient J.L. we identified FMRpolyG-positive inclusions with both 8FM (1:10) and 9FM (1:10) antibody (Figure 1a-b, Additional file 2: Figure S2a-b), as was described previously [8]. None of the controls showed FMRpolyG-positive inclusions (data not shown). Next, we studied the immunolocalization of FMRpolyG protein in heart, kidney, adrenal gland and thyroid in patient J.L. with 8FM (1:10) and 9FM (1:10), compared to post mortem non-CNS somatic organ tissues from 3 healthy controls. We also examined tissues for FMRP (mouse T1A; 1:200) expression and ubiquitin-positive inclusions (DAKO, ZO458; 1:200). Consistent with our previous report [7], ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions were identified along with a normal distribution of FMRP (data not shown). Intranuclear FMRpolyG-positive inclusions could be detected in all organs examined (Figure 1c-h, Additional file 2: Figure S2c-h). No control tissues showed any FMRpolyG-positive inclusions (data not shown). Colocalization of ubiquitin- and FMRpolyG-positive inclusions was visualized and quantified by immunofluorescent double staining using antibodies against ubiquitin and FMRpolyG (8FM) (Figure 2a-f). For hippocampus, cerebellum and the non-CNS organs most inclusions are positive for both FMRpolyG and ubiquitin, although some rare inclusions positive for only one of the proteins could also be detected (Figure 2g, n = 100 inclusions). In conclusion, using two novel antibodies the present report not only confirms the existence of FMRpolyG-positive aggregates in CNS tissue from a FXTAS individual but also demonstrates for the first time the presence of FMRpolyG-positive intranuclear inclusions in post mortem non-CNS material of a PM carrier with FXTAS. Furthermore, colocalization of FMRpolyG and ubiquitin is found in the vast majority of inclusions. The presence of FMRpolyG-positive intranuclear inclusions in heart, kidney, adrenal gland and thyroid is consistent with the unexplained medical co-morbidities reported in some patients with FXTAS, including thyroid disease, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, migraine, impotence, and neuropathy. We hypothesize that the underlying pathological mechanisms of the medical co-morbidities in systemic tissues share common features (protein toxic gain-of-function) with CNS pathology of patients with FXTAS. Our report suggests that in addition to elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA containing an expanded CGG repeat, and ubiquitin-positive inclusions, FMRpolyG expression might also play a role in a toxic gain-of-function mechanism in medical co-morbidities in FXTAS (RNA versus FMRpolyG toxic gain-of-function). Interestingly, a very recent report suggests that RAN translation products in C9FTD/ALS, toxic dipeptide repeat proteins (poly-(glycine-arginine) and poly-(proline-arginine)), are toxic in Drosophila [9]. Further research is needed to understand how FMRpolyG may elicit toxicity in both CNS and non-CNS organs and its precise role in co-morbidities in PM carriers. Importantly, if FMRpolyG production is important for cellular toxicity this will open new avenues for therapeutic intervention studies for FXTAS by developing drugs that block this aberrant translation. Figure 1 9FM FMRpolyG-positive intranuclear inclusions in hippocampus, cerebellum and non-CNS tissues of a FXTAS patient. FMRpolyG-positive (9FM) intranuclear inclusions in a hippocampus, b cerebellum, c glomeruli and d distal tubule of the kidney, e zona glomerulosa ... Figure 2 Colocalization of FMRpolyG (8FM) and ubiquitin in intranuclear inclusions in hippocampus, cerebellum and of non-CNS tissues of a FXTAS patient. Staining for ubiquitin (green), FMRpolyG (8FM; red) and DAPI (blue). Colocalization of ubiquitin and FMRpolyG ...

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    Authors: Marianna D. Eddy; Jonathan Grainger; Phillip J. Holcomb; John D. E. Gabrieli;

    AbstractThe development of neurocognitive mechanisms in single word reading was studied in children ages 8–10 years using ERPs combined with priming manipulations aimed at dissociating orthographic and phonological processes. Transposed‐letter (TL) priming (barin–BRAIN vs. bosin–BRAIN) was used to assess orthographic processing, and pseudohomophone (PH) priming (brane–BRAIN vs. brant–BRAIN) was used to assess phonological processing. Children showed TL and PH priming effects on both the N250 and N400 ERP components, and the magnitude of TL priming correlated positively with reading ability, with better readers showing larger TL priming effects. Phonological priming, on the other hand, did not correlate with reading ability. The positive correlations between TL priming and reading ability in children points to a key role for flexible sublexical orthographic representations in reading development, in line with their hypothesized role in the efficient mapping of orthographic information onto semantic information in skilled readers.

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    Psychophysiology
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    Psychophysiology
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      Psychophysiology
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    Authors: Weigard, A.; Matzke, Dora; Tanis, Charlotte; Heathcote, Andrew;

    The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal neuroimaging study of unprecedented scale that is in the process of following over 11,000 youth from middle childhood though age 20. However, a design feature of the study's stop-signal task violates "context independence", an assumption critical to current non-parametric methods for estimating stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), a key measure of inhibitory ability in the study. This has led some experts to call for the task to be changed and for previously collected data to be used with caution. We present a cognitive process modeling framework, the RDEX-ABCD model, that provides a parsimonious explanation for the impact of this design feature on “go” stimulus processing and successfully accounts for key behavioral trends in the ABCD data. Simulation studies using this model suggest that failing to account for the context independence violations in the ABCD design can lead to erroneous inferences in several realistic scenarios. However, we demonstrate that RDEX-ABCD effectively addresses these violations and can be used to accurately measure SSRT along with an array of additional mechanistic parameters of interest (e.g., attention to the stop signal, cognitive efficiency), advancing investigators’ ability to draw valid and nuanced inferences from ABCD data. Availability of data and materials: Data from the ABCD Study are available through the NIH Data Archive (NDA): nda.nih.gov/abcd. Code for all analyses featured in this study is openly available on the Open Science Framework (OSF): osf.io/2h8a7/.

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    Authors: Anna Gaglianese; Mariana P. Branco; Iris I. A. Groen; Noah C. Benson; +4 Authors

    AbstractThere is ongoing debate regarding the extent to which human cortices are specialized for processing a given sensory input versus a given type of information, independently of the sensory source. Many neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have reported that primary and extrastriate visual cortices respond to tactile and auditory stimulation, in addition to visual inputs, suggesting these cortices are intrinsically multisensory. In particular for tactile responses, few studies have proven neuronal processes in visual cortex in humans. Here, we assessed tactile responses in both low-level and extrastriate visual cortices using electrocorticography recordings in a human participant. Specifically, we observed significant spectral power increases in the high frequency band (30–100 Hz) in response to tactile stimuli, reportedly associated with spiking neuronal activity, in both low-level visual cortex (i.e. V2) and in the anterior part of the lateral occipital–temporal cortex. These sites were both involved in processing tactile information and responsive to visual stimulation. More generally, the present results add to a mounting literature in support of task-sensitive and sensory-independent mechanisms underlying functions like spatial, motion, and self-processing in the brain and extending from higher-level as well as to low-level cortices.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Brain Topography
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    Brain Topography
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Serveur académique lausannois
    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Hirschler, Lydiane; Sollmann, Nico; Schmitz‐Abecassis, Bárbara; Pinto, Joana; +37 Authors

    Preoperative clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for gliomas, brain tumors with dismal outcomes due to their infiltrative properties, still rely on conventional structural MRI, which does not deliver information on tumor genotype and is limited in the delineation of diffuse gliomas. The GliMR COST action wants to raise awareness about the state of the art of advanced MRI techniques in gliomas and their possible clinical translation or lack thereof. This review describes current methods, limits, and applications of advanced MRI for the preoperative assessment of glioma, summarizing the level of clinical validation of different techniques. In this first part, we discuss dynamic susceptibility contrast and dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI, arterial spin labeling, diffusion‐weighted MRI, vessel imaging, and magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The second part of this review addresses magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical exchange saturation transfer, susceptibility‐weighted imaging, MRI‐PET, MR elastography, and MR‐based radiomics applications.Evidence Level: 3Technical Efficacy: Stage 2

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Magnetic ...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Laurence O'Dwyer; Colby J. Tanner; Eelco V. van Dongen; Corina U. Greven; +9 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 136213.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural correlates, no study to date has investigated these structural correlates within a framework that robustly accounts for the phenotypic overlap between the two disorders. The presence of ASD symptoms was measured by the parent-reported Children's Social and Behavioural Questionnaire (CSBQ) in ADHD subjects (n = 180), their unaffected siblings (n = 118) and healthy controls (n = 146). ADHD symptoms were assessed by a structured interview (K-SADS-PL) and the Conners' ADHD questionnaires. Whole brain T1-weighted MPRAGE images were acquired and the structural MRI correlates of ASD symptom scores were analysed by modelling ASD symptom scores against white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) volumes using mixed effects models which controlled for ADHD symptom levels. ASD symptoms were significantly elevated in ADHD subjects relative to both controls and unaffected siblings. ASD scores were predicted by the interaction between WM and GM volumes. Increasing ASD score was associated with greater GM volume. Equivocal results from previous structural studies in ADHD and ASD may be due to the fact that comorbidity has not been taken into account in studies to date. The current findings stress the need to account for issues of ASD comorbidity in ADHD.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2014
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    Article . 2014
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2014
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2014
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Vonk, Willianne I. M.; Rainbolt, T. Kelly; Dolan, Patrick T.; Webb, Ashley E.; +2 Authors

    SummaryNeural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are critical for continued cellular replacement in the adult brain. Life-long maintenance of a functional NSPC pool necessitates stringent mechanisms to preserve a pristine proteome. We find that the NSPCs chaperone network robustly maintains misfolded protein solubility and stress resilience through high levels of the ATP-dependent chaperonin TRiC/CCT. Strikingly, NSPC differentiation rewires the cellular chaperone network, reducing TRiC/CCT levels and inducing those of the ATP-independent small heat shock proteins (sHSPs). This switches the proteostasis strategy in neural progeny cells to promote sequestration of misfolded proteins into protective inclusions. The chaperone network of NSPCs is more effective than that of differentiated cells, leading to improved management of proteotoxic stress and amyloidogenic proteins. However, NSPC proteostasis is impaired by brain aging. The less efficient chaperone network of differentiated neural progeny may contribute to their enhanced susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases characterized by aberrant protein misfolding and aggregation.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Molecular Cell
    Article . Preprint
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Molecular Cell
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
    Data sources: Crossref
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