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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Sonia Fornasier; Irina Belskaya; D. Perna;

    Abstract In this paper we present the results on the polarimetric and spectroscopic observations of the potentially hazardous Asteroid (214869) 2007 PA8 obtained during its favorable apparition in October–November 2012, when it approached the Earth at the minimal distance of 0.043 AU. Polarimetry was carried out at the NOT in the B, V, R, and I bands covering both low (12–23°) and large phase angles (88–99°). Spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared range was obtained at the TNG telescope. The spectrum of 2007 PA8 shows silicates absorption features and a behavior consistent with a Q-type classification. The olivine and pyroxene BI band is centered at 0.9578 ± 0.0042 μm, with a band depth of 16.5%, the BII band is centered at 1.95 ± 0.01 μm, and it has a band depth of about 3.9%. The 2007 PA8 spectral parameters are consistent with those of L chondrites. Also the spectral comparison with meteorites gives the L-type chondrites, and L6 in particular, as best match. The NEA (214869) 2007 PA8 is the forth moderate albedo asteroid and the first Q-type asteroid for which the value of the polarization maximum is determined. The inversion angle of the polarization curve in the V filter is 19.0 ± 1.1°, the corresponding slope parameter (h) is of 0.078 ± 0.010%/°, the maximum value of polarization is 5.99 ± 0.16%, and the extreme value of negative polarization is estimated to be lower than −0.52%. Using the polarimetric slope we derive a geometric albedo of 0.29 ± 0.08 in the V band, that gives an estimated diameter of 1.4 ± 0.2 km, assuming an absolute H v magnitude of 16.2 mag. We find a strong dependence of the polarization in the B, V, R, and I bands with wavelength, and the polarimetric albedo in the four bands is strongly correlated with the asteroid’s spectrum. The 2007 PA8 polarimetric properties resemble those of other 2 NEAs, 1566 Icarus and 25143 Itokawa, which are both S(IV)/Q type. Our spectral and polarimetric analysis indicate that 2007 PA8 has a young and fresh surface almost unweathered, similar to L-type chondrites. These results, together with dynamical simulations made by Nedelcu et al. (Nedelcu, D. A., Birlan, M., Popescu, M., Badescu, O., Pricopi, D. [2014]. Astron. Astrophys. 567, L7, 5pp.) and Nesvorny et al. (Nesvorny, D., Vokrouhlicky, D., Morbidelli, A., Bottke, W. F. [2009]. Icarus 200, 698–701), indicate that 2007 PA8 may be a member of the Gefion family recently ejected from the 5:2 resonance and a potential source of L chondrites.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Bottinelli, Sandrine;

    L'un des buts majeurs de l'astrophysique moderne est de comprendre la formation du Système Solaire. Puisque les protoétoiles de faible masse sont des soleils en formation, l'étude de ces objets est un des meilleurs moyens d'étudier le processus de formation du Soleil et de son système planétaire. Dans ma thèse, je me suis concentrée sur la chimie des premières phases d'évolution des protoétoiles de faible masse en étudiant les molécules organiques complexes dans des sources de Classe 0, qui représentent les phases les plus jeunes connues. De telles molécules ont été découvertes dans IRAS16293-2422, le prototype des sources de Classe 0, démontrant l'existence des ``hot corinos'', des régions où les manteaux des grains subliment. Certaines de ces molécules ont aussi été observées dans des comètes de notre Système Solaire, soulevant la question de savoir si (et auquel cas, comment) la chimie des Classes 0 affecte la composition chimique de la matière du disque protoplanétaire incorporée dans les comètes et autres corps planétaires.Cependant, il est d'abord nécessaire de déterminer si les hot corinos sont omniprésents dans les protoétoiles de faible masse, ou si IRAS16293-2422 est une exception. Ceci était le premier but de ma thèse. L'approche consistait principalement à observer trois sources de Classe 0 pour chercher des molécules organiques complexes. J'ai ainsi découvert et/ou confirmé trois hot corinos de plus.Le second but était de contraindre la taille de la région d'émission des molécules complexes au moyen d'observations interférométriques des deux hot corinos les plus brillants: cette émission est compacte (Le troisième but avait pour lieu de confronter les voies de formation possibles des molécules complexes avec les résultats de mes observations pour essayer de distinguer si ces molécules se forment en phase gazeuse ou à la surface des grains. Bien que mes données ne puissent éliminer aucun des deux cas, elles semblent favoriser le second type de formation. De plus, la comparaison entre hot corinos et leurs homologues massifs, les hot cores (qui montre que les molécules complexes sont relativement plus abondantes dans les hot corinos), soutient également la formation à la surface des grains. One of the major goals of modern astrophysics is to understand theformation of our Solar System. Since low-mass protostars are suns in the making, the study of these objects and their environment provides one of the best ways to investigate the Sun's formation process and to peek in the past history of our Solar System. In my thesis, I focused on the chemistry occuring in Class 0 sources (the earliest known phases in the evolutionary scenario of low-mass protostars) by studying complex organic molecules in their envelopes. Such molecules have been discovered in IRAS16293--2422, the prototype of Class 0 sources, proving the existence of hot corinos, the inner regions of the protostellar envelope where the icy grain mantles sublimate. Some of these molecules have also been observed in comets in our Solar System, raising the question of whether (and if so, how) the chemistry of Class 0 objects affects the chemical composition of the protoplanetary disk material from which comets and other planetary bodies form. However, it is first necessary to determine whether hot corinos are ubiquitous in low-mass protostars or if IRAS16293-2422 is an exception. This was the first goal of my thesis. The approach consisted mainly in observing three Class 0 sources to search for complex organic molecules. I thereby discovered and/or confirmed three more hot corinos.The second goal was then to constrain the size of emission of complex molecules. For this, I carried out interferometric observations of the two brightest hot corinos: this emission is compact (The third goal consisted in confronting the possible formation pathways with the results of my observations to try and discriminate whether complex organic molecules form via gas-phase or grain-surface reactions. Although it was not possible to arrive at a definite answer, my data seem to favor the later formation route. Moreover, the comparison of hot corinos and their high-mass analogs, the hot cores (showing that complex molecules are relatively more abundant in hot corinos), also support grain-surface synthesis of these molecules.

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    Authors: Brian C. Lemaux; Adam Tomczak; Lori M. Lubin; Roy R. Gal; +9 Authors

    Using ~5000 spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies drawn from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey we investigate the relationship between color and galaxy density for galaxy populations of various stellar masses in the redshift range $0.55 \le z \le 1.4$. The fraction of galaxies with colors consistent with no ongoing star formation ($f_q$) is broadly observed to increase with increasing stellar mass, increasing galaxy density, and decreasing redshift, with clear differences observed in $f_q$ between field and group/cluster galaxies at the highest redshifts studied. We use a semi-empirical model to generate mock group/cluster galaxies unaffected by environmental processes and compare them to observed populations to constrain the environmental quenching efficiency ($\Psi_{convert}$). High-density environments from $0.55 \le z \le 1.4$ appear capable of efficiently quenching galaxies with $\log(M_{\ast}/M_{\odot})>10.45$. Lower stellar mass galaxies also appear efficiently quenched at the lowest redshifts, but this efficiency drops precipitously with increasing redshift. Quenching efficiencies, combined with simulated group/cluster accretion histories and results from a companion ORELSE study, are used to constrain the average time from group/cluster accretion to quiescence and the time between accretion and the inception of quenching. These timescales were constrained to be =$2.4\pm0.3$ and =$1.3\pm0.4$ Gyr, respectively, for galaxies with $\log(M_{\ast}/M_{\odot})>10.45$ and =$3.3\pm0.3$ and =$2.2\pm0.4$ Gyr for lower stellar mass galaxies. These quenching efficiencies and associated timescales are used to rule out certain environmental mechanisms as being those primarily responsible for transforming the star-formation properties of galaxies over this 4 Gyr window in cosmic time. Comment: 26 pages, 8 Figures, 4 Tables. Updated with the accepted MNRAS version that includes minor changes to the analysis and text

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    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Authors: Gaëtan Fichet de Clairfontaine; Zakaria Meliani; Andreas Zech; O. Hervet;

    Using the relativistic MHD code MPI-AMRVAC and a radiative transfer code in post-processing, we explore the influence of the magnetic-field configuration and transverse stratification of an over-pressured jet on its morphology, on the moving shock dynamics, and on the emitted radio light curve. First, we investigate different large-scale magnetic fields with their effects on the standing shocks and on the stratified jet morphology. Secondly, we study the interaction of a moving shock wave with the standing shocks. We calculate the synthetic synchrotron maps and radio light curves and analyse the variability at two frequencies 1 and 15.3 GHz and for several observation angles. Finally, we compare the characteristics of our simulated light curves with radio flares observed from the blazar 3C 273 with OVRO and VLBA in the MOJAVE survey between 2008 and 2019. We find that, in a structured, over-pressured relativistic jet, the presence of the large-scale magnetic field structure changes the properties of the standing shock waves and leads to an opening of the jet. When crossing such standing shocks, moving shock waves accompanying overdensities injected in the base of the jet are causing very luminous radio flares. The observation of the temporal structure of these flares under different viewing angles probes the jet at different optical depths. At 1 GHz and for small angles, the self-absorption caused by the moving shock wave becomes more important and leads to a drop in the observed flux after it interacts with the brightest standing knot. A weak asymmetry is seen in the shape of the simulated flares, resulting from the remnant emission of the shocked standing shocks. The characteristics of the simulated flares and the correlation of peaks in the light curve with the crossing of moving and standing shocks favor this scenario as an explanation of the observed radio flares of 3C 273. 19 pages, 14 figures

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Authors: Chung, Ji Ryang; Sung, Chul; Mayerich, David; Kwon, Jaerock; +5 Authors

    Connectomics is the study of the full connection matrix of the brain. Recent advances in high-throughput, high-resolution 3D microscopy methods have enabled the imaging of whole small animal brains at a sub-micrometer resolution, potentially opening the road to full-blown connectomics research. One of the first such instruments to achieve whole-brain-scale imaging at sub-micrometer resolution is the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope (KESM). KESM whole-brain data sets now include Golgi (neuronal circuits), Nissl (soma distribution), and India ink (vascular networks). KESM data can contribute greatly to connectomics research, since they fill the gap between lower resolution, large volume imaging methods (such as diffusion MRI) and higher resolution, small volume methods (e.g., serial sectioning electron microscopy). Furthermore, KESM data are by their nature multiscale, ranging from the subcellular to the whole organ scale. Due to this, visualization alone is a huge challenge, before we even start worrying about quantitative connectivity analysis. To solve this issue, we developed a web-based neuroinformatics framework for efficient visualization and analysis of the multiscale KESM data sets. In this paper, we will first provide an overview of KESM, then discuss in detail the KESM data sets and the web-based neuroinformatics framework, which is called the KESM brain atlas (KESMBA). Finally, we will discuss the relevance of the KESMBA to connectomics research, and identify challenges and future directions.

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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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    Authors: Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Leitner, Samuel N.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles;

    Fourier transform power spectra of azimuthal scans of the optical structure of M33 are evaluated for B, V, and R passbands and fit to fractal models of continuum emission with superposed star formation. Power spectra are also determined for Halpha. The best models have intrinsic power spectra with 1D slopes of around -0.7pm0.7, significantly shallower than the Kolmogorov spectrum (slope =-1.7) but steeper than pure noise (slope=0). A fit to the power spectrum of the flocculent galaxy NGC 5055 gives a steeper slope of around -1.5pm0.2, which could be from turbulence. Both cases model the optical light as a superposition of continuous and point-like stellar sources that follow an underlying fractal pattern. Foreground bright stars are clipped in the images, but they are so prominent in M33 that even their residual affects the power spectrum, making it shallower than what is intrinsic to the galaxy. A model consisting of random foreground stars added to the best model of NGC 5055 fits the observed power spectrum of M33 as well as the shallower intrinsic power spectrum that was made without foreground stars. Thus the optical structure in M33 could result from turbulence too. accepted by ApJ, 13 pages, 10 figures

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    The Astrophysical Journal
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    Authors: Gastón Folatelli; Carlos Contreras; Mark M. Phillips; Stanford E Woosley; +21 Authors

    We present u′g′r′i′BV photometry and optical spectroscopy of the Type Ib/Ic SN 2005bf covering the first ∼100 days following discovery. The u′g′BV light curves displayed an unprecedented morphology among Type Ib/Ic supernovae, with an initial maximum some 2 weeks after discovery and a second, main maximum about 25 days after that. The bolometric light curve indicates that SN 2005bf was a remarkably luminous event, radiating at least 6.3 × 1042 ergs s -1 at maximum light and a total of 2.1 × 1049 ergs during the first 75 days after the explosion. Spectroscopically, SN 2005bf underwent a unique transformation from a Type Ic-like event at early times to a typical Type Ib supernova at later phases. The initial maximum in u′g′BV was accompanied by the presence in the spectrum of high-velocity (>14,000 km s-1) absorption lines of Fe II, Ca II, and H I. The photospheric velocity derived from spectra at early epochs was below 10,000 km s-1, which is unusually low compared with ordinary Type Ib supernovae. We describe one-dimensional computer simulations that attempt to account for these remarkable properties. The most favored model is that of a very energetic (2 × 1051 ergs), asymmetric explosion of a massive (8.3 M⊙) Wolf-Rayet WN star that had lost most of its hydrogen envelope. We speculate that an unobserved relativistic jet was launched producing a two-component explosion consisting of (1) a polar explosion containing a small fraction of the total mass and moving at high velocity and (2) the explosion of the rest of the star. At first, only the polar explosion is observed, producing the initial maximum and the high-velocity absorption-line spectrum resembling a Type Ic event. At late times, this fast-moving component becomes optically thin, revealing the more slowly moving explosion of the rest of the star and transforming the observed spectrum to that of a typical Type Ib supernova. If this scenario is correct, then SN 2005bf is the best example to date of a transition object between normal Type Ib/Ic supernovae and γ-ray bursts. Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas

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    The Astrophysical Journal
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    Authors: Meinshausen, Nicolai; Rice, John; Schücker, Thomas;

    General relativistic kinematics and the cosmological principle alone imply a monotonicity constraint in the Hubble diagram, which we confront to present-day supernova data. We use the running gradient method of statistical inference by Hall & Heckman (2000). We find no significant departure from monotonicity. The method seems well adapted and we recommend its use with future data. 5 pages, 3 figures

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    Authors: Minato, F.; Hagino, K.; Takigawa, N.; Balantekin, A. B.; +1 Authors

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    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors