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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David Dumas; Anna Lenzhen; Kasra Rafi; Jing Tao;

    We study the geometry of the Thurston metric on the Teichm\"uller space $\mathcal{T}(S)$ of hyperbolic structures on a surface $S$. Some of our results on the coarse geometry of this metric apply to arbitrary surfaces $S$ of finite type; however, we focus particular attention on the case where the surface is a once-punctured torus, $S_{1,1}$. In that case, our results provide a detailed picture of the infinitesimal, local, and global behavior of the geodesics of the Thurston metric, as well as an analogue of Royden's theorem. Comment: 50 pages, 14 figures. v6: Minor change in introduction. v5: Remark 5.5 adds info about Figure 0. v4: Minor correction in Thm 3.10. v3: Revised according to referee report. v2: Minor corrections

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Forum of Mathematics, Sigma
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Forum of Mathematics, Sigma
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2016
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Forum of Mathematics, Sigma
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Forum of Mathematics, Sigma
      Article
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2016
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; McIntosh, Andrew M; Eichhammer, Peter; +289 Authors

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. peerReviewed final draft Article

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UEF eRepository
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    UNC Dataverse
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UEF eRepository
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vora, Ankit; Gwamuri, Jephias; Pala, Nezih; Kulkarni, Anand; +2 Authors

    Using metamaterial absorbers, we have shown that metallic layers in the absorbers do not necessarily constitute undesired resistive heating problem for photovoltaics. Tailoring the geometric skin depth of metals and employing the natural bulk absorbance characteristics of the semiconductors in those absorbers can enable the exchange of undesired resistive losses with the useful optical absorbance in the active semiconductors. Thus, Ohmic loss dominated metamaterial absorbers can be converted into photovoltaic near-perfect absorbers with the advantage of harvesting the full potential of light management offered by the metamaterial absorbers. Based on experimental permittivity data for indium gallium nitride, we have shown that between 75%-95% absorbance can be achieved in the semiconductor layers of the converted metamaterial absorbers. Besides other metamaterial and plasmonic devices, our results may also apply to photodectors and other metal or semiconductor based optical devices where resistive losses and power consumption are important pertaining to the device performance. Comment: Main text, 23 pages with 7 figures. Supplementary information, 10 pages with 14 figures

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 2014
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Scientific Reports
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    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
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      Scientific Reports
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Ian M. Lyons; Sian L. Beilock;

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

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    Authors: Osceola Whitney; Andreas R. Pfenning; Jason T. Howard; Charles Blatti; +10 Authors

    INTRODUCTION Brain activity drives both behavior and regulated gene expression in neurons. Although past studies have identified activity-induced signaling and gene regulation cascades in cultured neurons, much less is known about how activity- dependent transcriptional networks are affected by the variations in cell-type composition, network interconnections, and firing patterns that comprise behaviorally active brain circuits in vivo. Dual mechanism model for behaviorally regulated gene expression diversity. ( Left ) Song brain circuit and zebra finch song motif (transcribed using https://my.scorecloud.com). ( Middle ) Song nucleus–specific (RA, red; Area X, blue) singing- regulated genes (gene A and gene B) in response to neural f ring (yellow). ( Right ) Region-general EATF and region-specific TF only bind to genomic DNA (lines) with region-specific acetylated histone 3 (H3K27ac peaks) and then transcribe their mRNAs (green arrow). RATIONALE We tested the hypothesis that behaviorally regulated gene expression is anatomically and temporally diverse and that the key determinants of this diversity are networks of transcription factors, their genomic binding sites, and epigenetic chromatin states. We analyzed genome-wide, singing-regulated gene expression across time in the four major forebrain regions of the song control system in songbirds, a model of speech production in humans. We then performed a transcription factor motif analysis to identify gene regulatory networks enriched in each song nucleus and measured acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) to identify chromatin regions that were transcriptionally active in the genomes of song nuclei before and after singing. RESULTS We found that singing was associated with differential regulation of about 10% of all genes in the avian genome that came in several waves across time. Less than 1% of these genes were comparably regulated in all song nuclei tested, and these comprised a core set dominated by immediate-early gene (IEG) transcription factors. By contrast, the vast majority of singing-regulated genes were regulated in only one or a subset of song nuclei, such that each song nucleus had its own dominant subset of genes regulated with defined temporal profiles, controlling a variety of functions. The promoters of many of the singing-regulated genes contained binding motifs for known early-activated transcription factors (EATFs) that become active in response to neural firing, some of which were expressed differentially between song nuclei at baseline. One EATF, calcium-response factor ( CaRF ), was tested with RNA interference knockdown in cultured neurons and found to regulate the predicted genes in response to neural activity, but was also found to modulate their expression even at baseline. More strikingly, we found with H3K27ac analysis that many song nucleus–specific singing-regulated genes did not show increased chromatin regulatory element activity after singing but rather already had primed region-specific regulatory activity before singing began. CONCLUSIONS We propose a dual mechanism for the diversity of behaviorally regulated genes across different brain regions in vivo (see the figure). First, the neural activity associated with singing activates EATFs, and some TFs differentially expressed in brain regions at baseline, to trigger region-specific expression of their target genes. Second, brain region–specific enhancers near activity- regulated genes are waiting in an epigenetically primed state, ready to modulate transcription of general and song nucleus–specific genes at a moment’s notice when the neurons fire. The combination of these two mechanisms underlies a great diversity of behaviorally regulated gene expression, permitting each nucleus to perform its particular function in this complex behavior.

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    DSpace@MIT
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    Authors: Hermundstad, Ann M.; Brown, Kevin S.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Aminoff, Elissa M.; +6 Authors

    The anatomical connectivity of the human brain supports diverse patterns of correlated neural activity that are thought to underlie cognitive function. In a manner sensitive to underlying structural brain architecture, we examine the extent to which such patterns of correlated activity systematically vary across cognitive states. Anatomical white matter connectivity is compared with functional correlations in neural activity measured via blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals. Functional connectivity is separately measured at rest, during an attention task, and during a memory task. We assess these structural and functional measures within previously-identified resting-state functional networks, denoted task-positive and task-negative networks, that have been independently shown to be strongly anticorrelated at rest but also involve regions of the brain that routinely increase and decrease in activity during task-driven processes. We find that the density of anatomical connections within and between task-positive and task-negative networks is differentially related to strong, task-dependent correlations in neural activity. The space mapped out by the observed structure-function relationships is used to define a quantitative measure of separation between resting, attention, and memory states. We find that the degree of separation between states is related to both general measures of behavioral performance and relative differences in task-specific measures of attention versus memory performance. These findings suggest that the observed separation between cognitive states reflects underlying organizational principles of human brain structure and function. Author Summary Human cognitive function is thought to be supported by patterns of correlated neural activity. While recent work has shown that such functional correlations are differentially supported by specific properties of anatomical brain connectivity, the extent to which brain anatomy shapes cognition is not understood. In this study, we develop new network-based approaches for relating anatomical connectivity, correlations in neural activity (functional connectivity), and behavioral task performance. We use noninvasive neuroimaging techniques to measure whole-brain connectivity in 71 subjects across three cognitive states: at rest, during an attention task, and during a memory task. By associating anatomical and functional connectivity with known functional brain networks, we show that the relative strength of inter- versus intra-network connectivity distinguishes between resting, attention, and memory states. When compared across subjects, we further show that the observed relationship between brain anatomy and function is predictive of individual differences in attention and memory task performance.

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    Authors: Katrina L. Grasby*† and Neda Jahanshad*† et al.;

    The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Authors: Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Yao, Xiaohui; Kim, Sungeun; +17 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionGenetic data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) have been crucial in advancing the understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. Here, we provide an update on sample collection, scientific progress and opportunities, conceptual issues, and future plans.MethodsLymphoblastoid cell lines and DNA and RNA samples from blood have been collected and banked, and data and biosamples have been widely disseminated. To date, APOE genotyping, genome‐wide association study (GWAS), and whole exome and whole genome sequencing data have been obtained and disseminated.ResultsADNI genetic data have been downloaded thousands of times, and >300 publications have resulted, including reports of large‐scale GWAS by consortia to which ADNI contributed. Many of the first applications of quantitative endophenotype association studies used ADNI data, including some of the earliest GWAS and pathway‐based studies of biospecimen and imaging biomarkers, as well as memory and other clinical/cognitive variables. Other contributions include some of the first whole exome and whole genome sequencing data sets and reports in healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment, and AD.DiscussionNumerous genetic susceptibility and protective markers for AD and disease biomarkers have been identified and replicated using ADNI data and have heavily implicated immune, mitochondrial, cell cycle/fate, and other biological processes. Early sequencing studies suggest that rare and structural variants are likely to account for significant additional phenotypic variation. Longitudinal analyses of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and epigenomic changes will also further elucidate dynamic processes underlying preclinical and prodromal stages of disease. Integration of this unique collection of multiomics data within a systems biology framework will help to separate truly informative markers of early disease mechanisms and potential novel therapeutic targets from the vast background of less relevant biological processes. Fortunately, a broad swath of the scientific community has accepted this grand challenge.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Sonja M C de Zwarte; Rachel M. Brouwer; Ingrid Agartz; Martin Alda; +87 Authors

    The researchers and studies included in this Article were supported by the Research Council of Norway (Grant No. 223273), National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Grant No. R01 MH117601 [to NJ], Grant Nos. R01 MH116147, R01 MH111671, and P41 EB015922 [to PMT], Grant Nos. 5T32MH073526 and U54EB020403 [to CRKC], and Grant No. R03 MH105808 [to CEB and SCF]) and National Institute on Aging (NIA) (Grant No. T32AG058507 [to CRKC]).; C-SFS: This work was supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research.; Cardiff: This work was supported by the National Centre for Mental Health, Bipolar Disorder Research Network, 2010 National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) Young Investigator Award (Grant No. 17319).; DEU: This work was supported by Dokuz Eylul University Department of Scientific Research Projects Funding (Grant No. 2012. KB. SAG. 062). This report represents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and King's College London. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, NIHR, or Department of Health.; EGEU: This work was supported by the Ege University School of Medicine Research Foundation (Grant No. 2009-D-00017).; EHRS: The Edinburgh High Risk Study was supported by the Medical Research Council.; GROUP: The infrastructure for the GROUP study was supported by the Geestkracht program of the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (Grant No. 10-000-1002).; ENBD_UT/BPO_FLB: This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant No. R01 MH 085667).; HHR/PHHR: This work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Grant Nos. 103703, 106469, and 341717), Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation, Dalhousie Clinical Research Scholarship (to TH), 2007 Brain and Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award (to TH), and Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic (Grant Nos. NR8786 and NT13891).; HUBIN: This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council (Grant Nos. K2007-62X-15077-04-1, K2008-62P-20597-01-3, K2010-62X-15078-07-2, K2012-61X-15078-09-3), regional agreement on medical training and clinical research between Stockholm County Council and the Karolinska Institutet, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and HUBIN project.; IDIBAPS: This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness/Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Grant Nos. PI070066, PI1100683, and PI1500467) and Fundacio Marato TV3 (Grant No. 091630), co-financed by ERDF Funds from the European Commission A Way of Making Europe"), Brain and Behaviour Research Foundation (NARSAD Young Investigator Award), and Alicia Koplowitz Foundation.; IoP-BD: The Maudsley Bipolar Twin Study was supported by the Stanley Medical Research Institute and NARSAD.; IoP-SZ: This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Research Training Fellowship (Grant No. 064971 to MMP), NARSAD Young Investigator Award (to TT), and European Community's Sixth Framework Programme through a Marie Curie Training Network called the European Twin Study Network on Schizophrenia.; Lieber Institute for Brain Development (LIBD): This work was supported by the NIMH Intramural Research Program (to DRW's laboratory). LIBD is a nonprofit research institute located in Baltimore, MD. The work performed at LIBD was performed in accordance with an NIMH material transfer agreement with LIBD.; MFS: The Maudsley Family Study cohort collection was supported by the Wellcome Trust (Grant Nos. 085475/B/08/Z and 085475/Z/08/Z), NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospital, Medical Research Council (Grant No. G0901310), and British Medical Association Margaret Temple Fellowship 2016.; MooDS: This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research grants NGFNplus MooDS (Systematic Investigation of the Molecular Causes of Major Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia) and Integrated Network IntegraMent (Integrated Understanding of Causes and Mechanisms in Mental Disorders) under the auspices of the e: Med program (Grant Nos. O1ZX1314B and O1ZX1314G) and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. 1617 [to AH]).; MSSM: This work was supported by NIMH (Grant Nos. R01 MH116147 and R01 MH113619).; NU: This work was supported by NIH (Grant Nos. U01 MH097435, R01 MH084803, and R01 EB020062) and National Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 1636893 and 1734853).; OLIN: This work was supported by NIH (Grant No. R01 MH080912).; STAR: This work was supported by NIH (Grant No. R01 MH052857).; SydneyBipolarGroup: The Australian cohort collection was supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Program Grants (Grant No. 510135 [to PBM] and Grant No. 1037196 [to PBM and PRS]) and Project Grants (Grant No. 1063960 [to JMF and PRS] and Grant No. 1066177 [to JMF]).; UMCU: This work was supported by NARSAD (Grant No. 20244 [to MHJH]), ZonMw (Grant No. 908-02-123 [to HEHP]), VIDI (Grant No. 452-11-014 [to NEMvH] and Grant No. 917-46-370 [to HEHP]), and Stanley Medical Research Institute.; CliNG: We thank Anna Fanelli, Kathrin Jakob, and Maria Keil for help with data acquisition.; All authors have contributed to and approved the contents of this manuscript.; GS has received research and travel support from Janssen Pharmaceutica and Otsuka Pharmaceutical and honoraria from Adamed Pharma. NY has been an investigator in clinical studies conducted together with Janssen-Cilag, Corcept Therapeutics, and COMPASS Pathways in the last 3 years. AM-L has received consultant fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, BrainsWay, Elsevier, Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation, and Science Advances. CRKC has received partial research support from Biogen, Inc. (Boston, MA) for work unrelated to the topic of this manuscript. The remaining authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest. Research Council of NorwayResearch Council of Norway [223273]; National Institutes of Health (NIH)United States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [R01 MH117601, R01 MH116147, R01 MH111671, P41 EB015922, 5T32MH073526, U54EB020403, R03 MH105808]; National Institute on Aging (NIA)United States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute on Aging (NIA) [T32AG058507]; Canadian Institutes of Health ResearchCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) [103703, 106469, 341717]; National Centre for Mental Health; 2010 National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) Young Investigator Award [17319]; Dokuz Eylul University Department of Scientific Research Projects FundingDokuz Eylul University [2012.KB.SAG.062]; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and King's College London; Ege University School of Medicine Research Foundation [2009-D-00017]; Medical Research CouncilMedical Research Council UK (MRC) [G0901310]; Geestkracht program of the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development [10-000-1002]; National Institute of Mental HealthUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) [R01 MH 085667]; Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation; Dalhousie Clinical Research Scholarship; 2007 Brain and Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award; Ministry of Health of the Czech RepublicMinistry of Health, Czech Republic [NR8786, NT13891]; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [K2007-62X-15077-04-1, K2008-62P-20597-01-3, K2010-62X-15078-07-2, K2012-61X-15078-09-3]; Stockholm County CouncilStockholm County Council; Karolinska InstitutetKarolinska Institutet; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut ; Alice Wallenberg Foundation; HUBIN project; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness/Instituto de Salud Carlos III [PI070066, PI1100683, PI1500467]; Fundacio Marato TV3 [091630]; ERDF Funds from the European Commission A Way of Making Europe"); Brain and Behaviour Research Foundation (NARSAD Young Investigator Award); Alicia Koplowitz Foundation; Stanley Medical Research Institute; NARSADNARSAD [20244]; Wellcome TrustWellcome Trust [064971, 085475/B/08/Z, 085475/Z/08/Z]; NARSAD Young Investigator AwardNARSAD; European CommunityEuropean Community (EC); NIMH Intramural Research ProgramUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospital; British Medical Association Margaret Temple Fellowship 2016; German Federal Ministry for Education and ResearchFederal Ministry of Education ; Research (BMBF) [O1ZX1314B, O1ZX1314G]; Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftGerman Research Foundation (DFG) [1617]; NIMHUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) [R01 MH116147, R01 MH113619]; NIHUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [U01 MH097435, R01 MH084803, R01 EB020062, R01 MH080912, R01 MH052857]; National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [1636893, 1734853]; Australian National Health and Medical Research CouncilNational Health and Medical Research Council of Australia [510135, 1037196, 1063960, 1066177]; ZonMwNetherlands Organization for Health Research and Development [908-02-123]; VIDINetherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) [452-11-014, 917-46-370]; Janssen PharmaceuticaJohnson ; Johnson USAJanssen Biotech Inc; Otsuka PharmaceuticalOtsuka Pharmaceutical; Bipolar Disorder Research Network BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic liability, and some structural brain abnormalities are common to both conditions. First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (FDRs-SZ) show similar brain abnormalities to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Imaging findings in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (FDRs-BD) have been inconsistent in the past, but recent studies report regionally greater volumes compared with control subjects. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of global and subcortical brain measures of 6008 individuals (1228 FDRs-SZ, 852 FDRs-BD, 2246 control subjects, 1016 patients with schizophrenia, 666 patients with bipolar disorder) from 34 schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder family cohorts with standardized methods. Analyses were repeated with a correction for intracranial volume (ICV) and for the presence of any psychopathology in the relatives and control subjects. RESULTS: FDRs-BD had significantly larger ICV (d = +10.16, q .05 corrected), whereas FDRs-SZ showed smaller thalamic volumes than control subjects (d = -0.12, q .05 corrected). ICV explained the enlargements in the brain measures in FDRs-BD. In FDRs-SZ, after correction for ICV, total brain, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, and thalamus volumes were significantly smaller; the cortex was thinner (d -0.09, q .05 corrected); and third ventricle was larger (d = +0.15, q .05 corrected). The findings were not explained by psychopathology in the relatives or control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Despite shared genetic liability, FDRs-SZ and FDRs-BD show a differential pattern of structural brain abnormalities, specifically a divergent effect in ICV. This may imply that the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading to brain anomalies in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are distinct. WOS: 000485217300010 PubMed ID: 31443932

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