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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Saket Navlakha; Alison L Barth; Ziv Bar-Joseph;

    Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains. Author Summary During development of neural circuits in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This is a fundamental process that occurs in many brain regions and organisms, yet, despite decades of study of this process, the rate of synapse elimination, and how such rates affect the function and structure of networks, has not been studied. We performed large-scale brain imaging experiments to quantify synapse elimination rates in the developing mouse cortex and found that the rate is decreasing over time (i.e. aggressive elimination occurs early, followed by a longer phase of slow elimination). We show that such rates optimize the efficiency and robustness of distributed routing networks under several models. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the design of airline networks.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS Computational Biology
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS Computational Biology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS Computational Biology
      Article
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS Computational Biology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Muñoz, M. Olguín; Klatzky, R.; Wang, J.; Pillai, P.; +2 Authors

    Wearable Cognitive Assistants (WCA) are anticipated to become a widely-used application class, in conjunction with emerging network infrastructures like 5G that incorporate edge computing capabilities. While prototypical studies of such applications exist today, the relationship between infrastructure service provisioning and its implication for WCA usability is largely unexplored despite the relevance that these applications have for future networks. This paper presents an experimental study assessing how WCA users react to varying end-to-end delays induced by the application pipeline or infrastructure. Participants interacted directly with an instrumented task-guidance WCA as delays were introduced into the system in a controllable fashion. System and task state were tracked in real time, and biometric data from wearable sensors on the participants were recorded. Our results show that periods of extended system delay cause users to correspondingly (and substantially) slow down in their guided task execution, an effect that persists for a time after the system returns to a more responsive state. Furthermore, the slow-down in task execution is correlated with a personality trait, neuroticism, associated with intolerance for time delays. We show that our results implicate impaired cognitive planning, as contrasted with resource depletion or emotional arousal, as the reason for slowed user task executions under system delay. The findings have several implications for the design and operation of WCA applications as well as computational and communication infrastructure, and additionally for the development of performance analysis tools for WCA. Comment: 27 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to PLOS ONE on October 15, 2020

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    ResearchGate Data
    Preprint . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2020
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      Preprint . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ana Paula Salazar; Kathleen E. Hupfeld; Jessica K. Lee; Lauren A. Banker; +9 Authors

    Astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) must adapt to several environmental challenges including microgravity, elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), and isolation while performing highly controlled movements with complex equipment. Head down tilt bed rest (HDBR) is an analog used to study spaceflight factors including body unloading and headward fluid shifts. We recently reported how HDBR with elevated CO2 (HDBR+CO2) affects visuomotor adaptation. Here we expand upon this work and examine the effects of HDBR+CO2 on brain activity during visuomotor adaptation. Eleven participants (34 ± 8 years) completed six functional MRI (fMRI) sessions pre-, during, and post-HDBR+CO2. During fMRI, participants completed a visuomotor adaptation task, divided into baseline, early, late and de-adaptation. Additionally, we compare brain activity between this NASA campaign (30-day HDBR+CO2) and a different campaign with a separate set of participants (60-day HDBR with normal atmospheric CO2 levels, n = 8; 34.25 ± 7.9 years) to characterize the specific effects of CO2. Participants were included by convenience. During early adaptation across the HDBR+CO2 intervention, participants showed decreasing activation in temporal and subcortical brain regions, followed by post- HDBR+CO2 recovery. During late adaptation, participants showed increasing activation in the right fusiform gyrus and right caudate nucleus during HDBR+CO2; this activation normalized to baseline levels after bed rest. There were no correlations between brain changes and adaptation performance changes from pre- to post HDBR+CO2. Also, there were no statistically significant differences between the HDBR+CO2 group and the HDBR controls, suggesting that changes in brain activity were due primarily to bed rest rather than elevated CO2. Five HDBR+CO2 participants presented with optic disc edema, a sign of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS). An exploratory analysis of HDBR+CO2 participants with and without signs of SANS revealed no group differences in brain activity during any phase of the adaptation task. Overall, these findings have implications for spaceflight missions and training, as ISS missions require individuals to adapt to altered sensory inputs over long periods in space. Further, this is the first study to verify the HDBR and elevated CO2 effects on the neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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      Frontiers in Neural Circuits
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wong, Patrick C. M.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Zheng, Jing;

    The ASPM and MCPH1 genes have been implicated in the adaptive evolution of the human brain [Mekel-Bobrov N. et al., 2005. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in homo sapiens. Science 309; Evans P.D. et al., 2005. Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309]. Curiously, experimental attempts have failed to connect the implicated SNPs in these genes with higher-level brain functions. These results stand in contrast with a population-level study linking the population frequency of their alleles with the tendency to use lexical tones in a language [Dediu D., Ladd D.R., 2007. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and microcephalin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104]. In the present study, we found a significant correlation between the load of the derived alleles of ASPM and tone perception in a group of European Americans who did not speak a tone language. Moreover, preliminary results showed a significant correlation between ASPM load and hemodynamic responses to lexical tones in the auditory cortex, and such correlation remained after phonemic awareness, auditory working memory, and non-verbal IQ were controlled. As in previous studies, no significant correlation between ASPM and cognitive measures were found. MCPH1 did not correlate with any measures. These results suggest that the association between the recently derived allele of ASPM is likely to be specific and is tied to higher level brain functions in the temporal cortex related to human communication.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS ONE
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2012
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    Authors: Sagduyu, Yalin Evren; Berry, Randall A.; Ephremides, Anthony;

    Game-Theoretic Models and Security; International audience; We analyze the effects of dynamic packet traffic on jamming attacks in wireless networks. For random access over collision channels, the jamming problem is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which nodes choose their transmission probabilities under energy and delay constraints. We relax the standard assumption of backlogged nodes and evaluate the Nash equilibrium strategies for random arrivals, which introduces the possibility that jamming attacks fail due to empty packet queues at the transmitters. The maximum feasible throughput is derived depending on whether jammers have the queue state knowledge, or not. We also model the effects of erroneous queue state inference due to random packet traffic and incorporate the channel sensing capability before jamming. The analysis extends from one transmitter-jammer pair transmitting over a single channel at a single access point to multiple transmitters and jammers, and then to an arbitrary number of subchannels at multiple channel access points. In the resulting jamming games, we show that jammers cannot effectively increase the average energy cost and cannot decrease the feasible throughput for transmitters, if they face uncertainty on transmitter queue states. Therefore, medium access is less vulnerable to jamming attacks under increasing traffic uncertainty. This motivates the use of traffic dynamics as a defense mechanism to mitigate denial of service attacks in wireless access.

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    Authors: Ozan Ozdenizci; Ye Wang; Toshiaki Koike-Akino; Deniz Erdogmus;

    Deep learning methods for person identification based on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity encounters the problem of exploiting the temporally correlated structures or recording session specific variability within EEG. Furthermore, recent methods have mostly trained and evaluated based on single session EEG data. We address this problem from an invariant representation learning perspective. We propose an adversarial inference approach to extend such deep learning models to learn session-invariant person-discriminative representations that can provide robustness in terms of longitudinal usability. Using adversarial learning within a deep convolutional network, we empirically assess and show improvements with our approach based on longitudinally collected EEG data for person identification from half-second EEG epochs. Comment: Accepted for publication by IEEE Signal Processing Letters

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    IEEE Signal Processing Letters
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      IEEE Signal Processing Letters
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Slavov, Vasil; Rao, Praveen; Barenkala, Dinesh; Paturi, Srivenu;

    Chip makers are envisioning hundreds of cores in future processors for throughput oriented computing. These processors, called manycore processors, require new architectural innovations for scaling to a large number of cores as compared with today's multicore processors. We report an early study on the performance of RDF query processing on a manycore processor. In our study, we use the Intel SCC, an experimental manycore processor from Intel Labs. This processor has new architectural features, namely, 48 Pentium cores, a high speed, on-chip mesh network to communicate between cores and access memory controllers, on-chip message passing buffers for high speed message passing, and software controlled fine-grained power management. We classify queries based on their I/O footprint and study the impact of two standard models, namely, task and data parallel programming models. Based on our experiments with synthetic and real RDF datasets on the SCC, we conclude that the task parallelism model provides an immediate way to boost the performance of RDF query processing.

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    Authors: Annika Labs; Theresa Reich; Helene Schulenburg; Manuel Boennen; +10 Authors

    Here we present a dataset with a description of portrayed emotions in the movie ”Forrest Gump”. A total of 12 observers independently annotated emotional episodes regarding their temporal location and duration. The nature of an emotion was characterized with basic attributes, such as arousal and valence, as well as explicit emotion category labels. In addition, annotations include a record of the perceptual evidence for the presence of an emotion. Two variants of the movie were annotated separately: 1) an audio-movie version of Forrest Gump that has been used as a stimulus for the acquisition of a large public functional brain imaging dataset, and 2) the original audio-visual movie. We present reliability and consistency estimates that suggest that both stimuli can be used to study visual and auditory emotion cue processing in real-life like situations. Raw annotations from all observers are publicly released in full in order to maximize their utility for a wide range of applications and possible future extensions. In addition, aggregate time series of inter-observer agreement with respect to particular attributes of portrayed emotions are provided to facilitate adoption of these data.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Jennifer Langel; Tomoko Ikeno; Lily Yan; Antonio A. Nunez; +1 Authors

    Light influences the daily patterning of activity by both synchronizing internal clocks to environmental light-dark cycles and acutely modulating arousal states, a process known as masking. Masking responses are completely reversed in diurnal and nocturnal species. In nocturnal rodents, masking is mediated through a subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) whose projections are similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents. This raises the possibility that differences in responsivity to signals that these cells release might underlie chronotype differences in masking. We explored one aspect of this hypothesis by examining the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations in many ipRGC target areas of a diurnal species (Nile grass rat) and a nocturnal one (Norway rat). We discovered that while many of these regions were very similar in these two species, there were striking differences in the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN; higher density of glutamate cells in Norway rats) and in the lateral habenula (LHb; GABAeric cells present in grass rats, but not Norway rats). These patterns raise the possibility that the vLGN and LHb contribute to differences in masking and/or circadian regulation of diurnal and nocturnal species.

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    Brain Research
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ban, Yue; Smith, Benjamin E.; Markham, Michael R.;

    The bioelectrical properties and resulting metabolic demands of electrogenic cells are determined by their morphology and the subcellular localization of ion channels. The electric organ cells (electrocytes) of the electric fish Eigenmannia virescens generate action potentials (APs) with Na+currents >10 μA and repolarize the AP with Na+-activated K+(KNa) channels. To better understand the role of morphology and ion channel localization in determining the metabolic cost of electrocyte APs, we used two-photon three-dimensional imaging to determine the fine cellular morphology and immunohistochemistry to localize the electrocytes' ion channels, ionotropic receptors, and Na+-K+-ATPases. We found that electrocytes are highly polarized cells ∼1.5 mm in anterior-posterior length and ∼0.6 mm in diameter, containing ∼30,000 nuclei along the cell periphery. The cell's innervated posterior region is deeply invaginated and vascularized with complex ultrastructural features, whereas the anterior region is relatively smooth. Cholinergic receptors and Na+channels are restricted to the innervated posterior region, whereas inward rectifier K+channels and the KNachannels that terminate the electrocyte AP are localized to the anterior region, separated by >1 mm from the only sources of Na+influx. In other systems, submicrometer spatial coupling of Na+and KNachannels is necessary for KNachannel activation. However, our computational simulations showed that KNachannels at a great distance from Na+influx can still terminate the AP, suggesting that KNachannels can be activated by distant sources of Na+influx and overturning a long-standing assumption that AP-generating ion channels are restricted to the electrocyte's posterior face.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Saket Navlakha; Alison L Barth; Ziv Bar-Joseph;

    Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains. Author Summary During development of neural circuits in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This is a fundamental process that occurs in many brain regions and organisms, yet, despite decades of study of this process, the rate of synapse elimination, and how such rates affect the function and structure of networks, has not been studied. We performed large-scale brain imaging experiments to quantify synapse elimination rates in the developing mouse cortex and found that the rate is decreasing over time (i.e. aggressive elimination occurs early, followed by a longer phase of slow elimination). We show that such rates optimize the efficiency and robustness of distributed routing networks under several models. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the design of airline networks.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    PLoS Computational Biology
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    PLoS Computational Biology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2015
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      PLoS Computational Biology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Muñoz, M. Olguín; Klatzky, R.; Wang, J.; Pillai, P.; +2 Authors

    Wearable Cognitive Assistants (WCA) are anticipated to become a widely-used application class, in conjunction with emerging network infrastructures like 5G that incorporate edge computing capabilities. While prototypical studies of such applications exist today, the relationship between infrastructure service provisioning and its implication for WCA usability is largely unexplored despite the relevance that these applications have for future networks. This paper presents an experimental study assessing how WCA users react to varying end-to-end delays induced by the application pipeline or infrastructure. Participants interacted directly with an instrumented task-guidance WCA as delays were introduced into the system in a controllable fashion. System and task state were tracked in real time, and biometric data from wearable sensors on the participants were recorded. Our results show that periods of extended system delay cause users to correspondingly (and substantially) slow down in their guided task execution, an effect that persists for a time after the system returns to a more responsive state. Furthermore, the slow-down in task execution is correlated with a personality trait, neuroticism, associated with intolerance for time delays. We show that our results implicate impaired cognitive planning, as contrasted with resource depletion or emotional arousal, as the reason for slowed user task executions under system delay. The findings have several implications for the design and operation of WCA applications as well as computational and communication infrastructure, and additionally for the development of performance analysis tools for WCA. Comment: 27 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to PLOS ONE on October 15, 2020

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    Preprint . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2020
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      Preprint . 2020
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