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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Achar, Pramod,; Henderson, Anthony; Juteau, Daniel; Riche, Simon;

    We construct a modular generalized Springer correspondence for any classical group, by generalizing to the modular setting various results of Lusztig in the case of characteristic-$0$ coefficients. We determine the cuspidal pairs in all classical types, and compute the correspondence explicitly for $\mathrm{SL}(n)$ with coefficients of arbitrary characteristic and for $\mathrm{SO}(n)$ and $\mathrm{Sp}(2n)$ with characteristic-$2$ coefficients. Comment: 52 pages. Version 2 corrects a minor mistake in the combinatorics of the type D case; no numbered statements are affected. Version 3 has minor additions, mostly in Section 2; final version, to appear in J. Eur. Math. Soc

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . 2017
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of the European Mathematical Society
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2017
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2017
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      Journal of the European Mathematical Society
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2017
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Sheffield, Scott; Werner, Wendelin;

    The two-dimensional Brownian loop-soup is a Poissonian random collection of loops in a planar domain with an intensity parameter c. When c is not greater than 1, we show that the outer boundaries of the loop clusters are disjoint simple loops (when c>1, there is almost surely only one cluster) that satisfy certain conformal restriction axioms. We prove various results about loop-soups, cluster sizes, and the c=1 phase transition. Combining this with the results of another paper of ours on the Markovian characterization of simple conformal loop ensembles (CLE), this proves that these outer boundaries of clusters of Brownian loops are in fact SLE(k) loops for k in (8/3, 4]. More generally, it completes the proof of the fact that the following three descriptions of simple CLEs (proposed in earlier works by the authors) are equivalent: (1) The random loop ensembles traced by branching Schramm-Loewner Evolution (SLE(k)) curves for k in (8/3, 4]. (2) The outer-cluster-boundary ensembles of Brownian loop-soups. (3) The (only) random loop ensembles satisfying the conformal restriction axioms. This paper has been merged with version 2 of arxiv:1006.2374. The merged longer paper is posted on ArxiV as version 3 of arxiv:1006.2374 and it is to appear in Ann. Math

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    Preprint . 2010
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    Article . 2010
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      Preprint . 2010
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      Article . 2010
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    Authors: Ben-Avraham, D.; Majumdar, Satya N.; Redner, S.;

    We introduce a toy model of the "rat race" in which individuals try to better themselves relative to the rest of the population. An individual is characterized by a real-valued fitness and each advances at a constant rate by an amount that depends on its standing in the population. The leader advances to remain ahead of its nearest neighbor, while all others advance by an amount that is set by the distance to the leader. A rich dynamics occurs as a function of the mean jump size of the trailing particles. For small jumps, the leader maintains its position, while for large jumps, there are long periods of stasis that are punctuated by episodes of explosive advancement and many lead changes. Intermediate to these two regimes, agents reach a common fitness and evolution grinds to a halt. Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, 2-column revtex4 format. Slight revisions in response to referee comments

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    Article . 2007
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Getz, W.M.; Brückner, D.; Smith, K.B.;

    International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 1989
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apidologie
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    Apidologie
    Article . 1989 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . Article . 1989
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apidologie
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      Apidologie
      Article . 1989 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wonil eChoi; Rutvik H. Desai; John M Henderson;

    Most previous studies investigating the neural correlates of reading have presented text using serial visual presentation (SVP), which may not fully reflect the underlying processes of natural reading. In the present study, eye movements and BOLD data were collected while subjects either read normal paragraphs naturally or moved their eyes through “paragraphs” of pseudo-text (pronounceable pseudowords or consonant letter strings) in two pseudo-reading conditions. Eye movement data established that subjects were reading and scanning the stimuli normally. A conjunction fMRI analysis across natural- and pseudo-reading showed that a common eye-movement network including frontal eye fields (FEF), supplementary eye fields (SEF), and intraparietal sulci was activated, consistent with previous studies using simpler eye movement tasks. In addition, natural reading versus pseudo-reading showed different patterns of brain activation: normal reading produced activation in a well-established language network that included superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), angular gyrus (AG), inferior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, whereas pseudo-reading produced activation in an attentional network that included anterior/posterior cingulate and parietal cortex. These results are consistent with results found in previous single-saccade eye movement tasks and SVP reading studies, suggesting that component processes of eye-movement control and language processing observed in past fMRI research generalize to natural reading. The results also suggest that combining eyetracking and fMRI is a suitable method for investigating the component processes of natural reading in fMRI research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    Authors: Sit, Kevin K.; Goard, Michael J.;

    Perception of visual motion is important for a range of ethological behaviors in mammals. In primates, specific visual cortical regions are specialized for processing of coherent visual motion. However, whether mouse visual cortex has a similar organization remains unclear, despite powerful genetic tools available for measuring population neural activity. Here, we use widefield and 2-photon calcium imaging of transgenic mice to measure mesoscale and cellular responses to coherent motion. Imaging of primary visual cortex (V1) and higher visual areas (HVAs) during presentation of natural movies and random dot kinematograms (RDKs) reveals varied responsiveness to coherent motion, with stronger responses in dorsal stream areas compared to ventral stream areas. Moreover, there is considerable anisotropy within visual areas, such that neurons representing the lower visual field are more responsive to coherent motion. These results indicate that processing of visual motion in mouse cortex is distributed heterogeneously both across and within visual areas. Processing of coherent motion has been extensively studied in the primate visual system, but has not been well characterized in mice. Here, the authors use widefield calcium imaging to reveal that coherent motion responses are organized anisotropically both across and within visual areas in mice.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Nature Communications
    Article . Preprint
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2020
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2020
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Nature Communications
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Ian M. Lyons; Sian L. Beilock;

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2012
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: W. Jeffrey Johnston; David J. Freedman;

    A pedestrian crossing a street during rush hour often looks and listens for potential danger. When they hear several different horns, they localize the cars that are honking and decide whether or not they need to modify their motor plan. How does the pedestrian use this auditory information to pick out the corresponding cars in visual space? The integration of distributed representations like these is called the assignment problem, and it must be solved to integrate distinct representations across but also within sensory modalities. Here, we identify and analyze a solution to the assignment problem: the representation of one or more common stimulus features in pairs of relevant brain regions—for example, estimates of the spatial position of cars are represented in both the visual and auditory systems. We characterize how the reliability of this solution depends on different features of the stimulus set (e.g., the size of the set and the complexity of the stimuli) and the details of the split representations (e.g., the precision of each stimulus representation and the amount of overlapping information). Next, we implement this solution in a biologically plausible receptive field code and show how constraints on the number of neurons and spikes used by the code force the brain to navigate a tradeoff between local and catastrophic errors. We show that, when many spikes and neurons are available, representing stimuli from a single sensory modality can be done more reliably across multiple brain regions, despite the risk of assignment errors. Finally, we show that a feedforward neural network can learn the optimal solution to the assignment problem, even when it receives inputs in two distinct representational formats. We also discuss relevant results on assignment errors from the human working memory literature and show that several key predictions of our theory already have support.

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    PLoS Computational Biology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS Computational Biology
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    Authors: Timothy A, Allen; Nandakumar S, Narayanan; Dianna B, Kholodar-Smith; Yanjun, Zhao; +2 Authors

    Abstract Muscimol is a GABA A -agonist that causes rapid and reversible suppression of neurophysiological activity. Interpretations of the effects of muscimol infusions into the brain have been limited because of uncertainty about spread of the drug around the injection site. To solve this problem, the present study explored the use of a fluorophore-conjugated muscimol molecule (FCM). Whole-cell recordings from horizontal brain slices demonstrated that bath-applied FCM acts like muscimol in reversibly suppressing excitatory synaptic transmission. Two types of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the behavioral effects of FCM infusion are similar to the behavioral effects of muscimol infusion. FCM infusion into the rat amygdala before fear conditioning impaired both cued and contextual freezing, which were tested 24 or 48 h later. Normal fear conditioning occurred when these same rats were subsequently given phosphate-buffered saline infusions. FCM infusion into the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex impaired accuracy during a delayed-response task. Histological analysis showed that the region of fluorescence was restricted to 0.5–1 mm from the injection site. Myelinated fiber tracts acted as diffusional barriers, thereby shaping the overall spread of fluorescence. The results suggest that FCM is indeed useful for exploring the function of small brain regions.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2008
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    Journal of Neuroscience Methods
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neuroscience Methods
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Denis Lacroix; A. B. Balantekin; Michael J. Cervia; Amol V. Patwardhan; +1 Authors

    International audience; The flavor evolution of neutrinos in environments with large neutrino number densities is an open problem at the nexus of astrophysics and neutrino flavor physics. Among the many unanswered questions pertaining to this problem, it remains to be determined whether neutrino-neutrino coherent scattering can give rise to nontrivial quantum entanglement among neutrinos, and whether this can affect the flavor evolution in a meaningful way. To gain further insight into this question, here we study a simple system of two interacting neutrino beams, and obtain the exact phase-space explored by this system using the Husimi quasi-probability distribution. We observe that the entanglement induced by the coupling leads to strong delocalization in phase-space with largely non-Gaussian quantum fluctuations. The link between the neutrino entanglement and quantum fluctuations is illustrated using the one- and two-neutrino entropy. In addition, we propose an approximate phase-space method to describe the interacting neutrinos problem, where the exact evolution is replaced by a set of independent mean-field evolutions with a statistical sampling of the initial conditions. The phase-space approach provides a simple and accurate method to describe the gross features of the neutrino entanglement problem. Applications are shown using time-independent and time-dependent Hamiltonians in the non-adiabatic regime.

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    https://doi.org/10.1103/physre...
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      https://doi.org/10.1103/physre...
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Achar, Pramod,; Henderson, Anthony; Juteau, Daniel; Riche, Simon;

    We construct a modular generalized Springer correspondence for any classical group, by generalizing to the modular setting various results of Lusztig in the case of characteristic-$0$ coefficients. We determine the cuspidal pairs in all classical types, and compute the correspondence explicitly for $\mathrm{SL}(n)$ with coefficients of arbitrary characteristic and for $\mathrm{SO}(n)$ and $\mathrm{Sp}(2n)$ with characteristic-$2$ coefficients. Comment: 52 pages. Version 2 corrects a minor mistake in the combinatorics of the type D case; no numbered statements are affected. Version 3 has minor additions, mostly in Section 2; final version, to appear in J. Eur. Math. Soc

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    Other literature type . 2017
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    Journal of the European Mathematical Society
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2017
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2017
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of the European Mathematical Society
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2014
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Sheffield, Scott; Werner, Wendelin;

    The two-dimensional Brownian loop-soup is a Poissonian random collection of loops in a planar domain with an intensity parameter c. When c is not greater than 1, we show that the outer boundaries of the loop clusters are disjoint simple loops (when c>1, there is almost surely only one cluster) that satisfy certain conformal restriction axioms. We prove various results about loop-soups, cluster sizes, and the c=1 phase transition. Combining this with the results of another paper of ours on the Markovian characterization of simple conformal loop ensembles (CLE), this proves that these outer boundaries of clusters of Brownian loops are in fact SLE(k) loops for k in (8/3, 4]. More generally, it completes the proof of the fact that the following three descriptions of simple CLEs (proposed in earlier works by the authors) are equivalent: (1) The random loop ensembles traced by branching Schramm-Loewner Evolution (SLE(k)) curves for k in (8/3, 4]. (2) The outer-cluster-boundary ensembles of Brownian loop-soups. (3) The (only) random loop ensembles satisfying the conformal restriction axioms. This paper has been merged with version 2 of arxiv:1006.2374. The merged longer paper is posted on ArxiV as version 3 of arxiv:1006.2374 and it is to appear in Ann. Math

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