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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ovsienko, Valentin; Schwartz, Richard; Tabachnikov, Serge;

    The pentagram map is a projectively natural iteration defined on polygons, and also on objects we call twisted polygons (a twisted polygon is a map from Z into the projective plane that is periodic modulo a projective transformation). We find a Poisson structure on the space of twisted polygons and show that the pentagram map relative to this Poisson structure is completely integrable in the sense of Arnold-Liouville. For certain families of twisted polygons, such as those we call universally convex, we translate the integrability into a statement about the quasi-periodic motion for the dynamics of the pentagram map. We also explain how the pentagram map, in the continuous limit, corresponds to the classical Boussinesq equation. The Poisson structure we attach to the pentagram map is a discrete version of the first Poisson structure associated with the Boussinesq equation. Comment: revised version: errors and typos corrected, Theorem 4 improved

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    Other literature type . Article . 2010
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    Article . 2010
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Communications in Mathematical Physics
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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    Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2010
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      MPG.PuRe
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Communications in Mathematical Physics
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2008
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    Authors: Zhilin, Zhang; Tzyy-Ping, Jung; Scott, Makeig; Bhaskar D, Rao;

    Telemonitoring of electroencephalogram (EEG) through wireless body-area networks is an evolving direction in personalized medicine. Among various constraints in designing such a system, three important constraints are energy consumption, data compression, and device cost. Conventional data compression methodologies, although effective in data compression, consumes significant energy and cannot reduce device cost. Compressed sensing (CS), as an emerging data compression methodology, is promising in catering to these constraints. However, EEG is non-sparse in the time domain and also non-sparse in transformed domains (such as the wavelet domain). Therefore, it is extremely difficult for current CS algorithms to recover EEG with the quality that satisfies the requirements of clinical diagnosis and engineering applications. Recently, Block Sparse Bayesian Learning (BSBL) was proposed as a new method to the CS problem. This study introduces the technique to the telemonitoring of EEG. Experimental results show that its recovery quality is better than state-of-the-art CS algorithms, and sufficient for practical use. These results suggest that BSBL is very promising for telemonitoring of EEG and other non-sparse physiological signals. Comment: Matlab codes can be downloaded at: http://dsp.ucsd.edu/~zhilin/BSBL.html, or http://sites.google.com/site/researchbyzhang/bsbl

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    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christodoulou, Marios; Rovelli, Carlo; Speziale, Simone; Vilensky, Ilya;

    A gravitationally collapsed object can bounce-out from its horizon via a tunnelling process that violates the classical equations in a finite region. Since tunnelling is a non-perturbative phenomenon, it cannot be described in terms of quantum fluctuations around a classical solution and a background-free formulation of quantum gravity is needed to analyze it. Here we use Loop Quantum Gravity to compute the amplitude for this process, in a first approximation. The amplitude determines the tunnelling time as a function of the mass. This is the key information to evaluate the astrophysical relevance of this process. The calculation offers a template and a concrete example of how a background-free quantum theory of gravity can be used to compute a realistical observable quantity. Comment: We consider this paper important. 17 pages, 13 figures

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    Other literature type . Article . 2016
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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      Other literature type . Article . 2016
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    Authors: Kettle, B.; Hollatz, D.; Gerstmayr, E.; Samarin, G.M.; +34 Authors

    We describe a laser-plasma platform for photon-photon collision experiments to measure fundamental quantum electrodynamic processes such as the linear Breit-Wheeler process with real photons. The platform has been developed using the Gemini laser facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. A laser wakefield accelerator and a bremsstrahlung convertor are used to generate a collimated beam of photons with energies of hundreds of MeV, that collide with keV x-ray photons generated by a laser heated plasma target. To detect the pairs generated by the photon-photon collisions, a magnetic transport system has been developed which directs the pairs onto scintillation-based and hybrid silicon pixel single particle detectors. We present commissioning results from an experimental campaign using this laser-plasma platform for photon-photon physics, demonstrating successful generation of both photon sources, characterisation of the magnetic transport system and calibration of the single particle detectors, and discuss the feasibility of this platform for the observation of the Breit-Wheeler process. The design of the platform will also serve as the basis for the investigation of strong-field quantum electrodynamic processes such as the nonlinear Breit-Wheeler and the Trident process, or eventually, photon-photon scattering. Comment: 28 pages, 14 figures

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    Oskar Bordeaux
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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 2021
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
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    Preprint . 2021
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      CERN Document Server
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: David Dumas; Anna Lenzhen; Kasra Rafi; Jing Tao;

    We study the geometry of the Thurston metric on the Teichm\"uller space $\mathcal{T}(S)$ of hyperbolic structures on a surface $S$. Some of our results on the coarse geometry of this metric apply to arbitrary surfaces $S$ of finite type; however, we focus particular attention on the case where the surface is a once-punctured torus, $S_{1,1}$. In that case, our results provide a detailed picture of the infinitesimal, local, and global behavior of the geodesics of the Thurston metric, as well as an analogue of Royden's theorem. Comment: 50 pages, 14 figures. v6: Minor change in introduction. v5: Remark 5.5 adds info about Figure 0. v4: Minor correction in Thm 3.10. v3: Revised according to referee report. v2: Minor corrections

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    Forum of Mathematics, Sigma
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forum of Mathematics, Sigma
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Chamon, Claudio; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.;

    We summarize a theoretical framework based on global time-reparametrization invariance that explains the origin of dynamic fluctuations in glassy systems. We introduce the main ideas without getting into much technical details. We describe a number of consequences arising from this scenario that can be tested numerically and experimentally distinguishing those that can also be explained by other mechanisms from the ones that we believe, are special to our proposal. We support our claims by presenting some numerical checks performed on the 3d Edwards-Anderson spin-glass. Finally, we discuss up to which extent these ideas apply to super-cooled liquids that have been studied in much more detail up to present. Comment: 33 pages, 7 figs, contribution to JSTAT special issue `Principles of Dynamical Systems' work-shop at Newton Institute, Univ. of Cambridge, UK

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Dahlem, Markus A.;

    Migraine is a common disabling headache disorder characterized by recurrent episodes sometimes preceded or accompanied by focal neurological symptoms called aura. The relation between two subtypes, migraine without aura (MWoA) and migraine with aura (MWA), is explored with the aim to identify targets for neuromodulation techniques. To this end, a dynamically regulated control system is schematically reduced to a network of the trigeminal nerve, which innervates the cranial circulation, an associated descending modulatory network of brainstem nuclei, and parasympathetic vasomotor efferents. This extends the idea of a migraine generator region in the brainstem to a larger network and is still simple and explicit enough to open up possibilities for mathematical modeling in the future. In this study, it is suggested that the migraine generator network (MGN) is driven and may therefore respond differently to different spatio-temporal noxious input in the migraine subtypes MWA and MWoA. The noxious input is caused by a cortical perturbation of homeostasis, known as spreading depression (SD). The MGN might even trigger SD in the first place by a failure in vasomotor control. As a consequence, migraine is considered as an inherently dynamical disease to which a linear course from upstream to downstream events would not do justice. Minimally invasive and noninvasive neuromodulation techniques are briefly reviewed and their rational is discussed in the context of the proposed mechanism. 12 pages, 8 figures, revised version

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    Authors: Muñoz, M. Olguín; Klatzky, R.; Wang, J.; Pillai, P.; +2 Authors

    Wearable Cognitive Assistants (WCA) are anticipated to become a widely-used application class, in conjunction with emerging network infrastructures like 5G that incorporate edge computing capabilities. While prototypical studies of such applications exist today, the relationship between infrastructure service provisioning and its implication for WCA usability is largely unexplored despite the relevance that these applications have for future networks. This paper presents an experimental study assessing how WCA users react to varying end-to-end delays induced by the application pipeline or infrastructure. Participants interacted directly with an instrumented task-guidance WCA as delays were introduced into the system in a controllable fashion. System and task state were tracked in real time, and biometric data from wearable sensors on the participants were recorded. Our results show that periods of extended system delay cause users to correspondingly (and substantially) slow down in their guided task execution, an effect that persists for a time after the system returns to a more responsive state. Furthermore, the slow-down in task execution is correlated with a personality trait, neuroticism, associated with intolerance for time delays. We show that our results implicate impaired cognitive planning, as contrasted with resource depletion or emotional arousal, as the reason for slowed user task executions under system delay. The findings have several implications for the design and operation of WCA applications as well as computational and communication infrastructure, and additionally for the development of performance analysis tools for WCA. Comment: 27 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to PLOS ONE on October 15, 2020

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    Preprint . 2020
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Ozan Ozdenizci; Ye Wang; Toshiaki Koike-Akino; Deniz Erdogmus;

    Deep learning methods for person identification based on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity encounters the problem of exploiting the temporally correlated structures or recording session specific variability within EEG. Furthermore, recent methods have mostly trained and evaluated based on single session EEG data. We address this problem from an invariant representation learning perspective. We propose an adversarial inference approach to extend such deep learning models to learn session-invariant person-discriminative representations that can provide robustness in terms of longitudinal usability. Using adversarial learning within a deep convolutional network, we empirically assess and show improvements with our approach based on longitudinally collected EEG data for person identification from half-second EEG epochs. Comment: Accepted for publication by IEEE Signal Processing Letters

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    IEEE Signal Processing Letters
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      IEEE Signal Processing Letters
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ovsienko, Valentin; Schwartz, Richard; Tabachnikov, Serge;

    The pentagram map is a projectively natural iteration defined on polygons, and also on objects we call twisted polygons (a twisted polygon is a map from Z into the projective plane that is periodic modulo a projective transformation). We find a Poisson structure on the space of twisted polygons and show that the pentagram map relative to this Poisson structure is completely integrable in the sense of Arnold-Liouville. For certain families of twisted polygons, such as those we call universally convex, we translate the integrability into a statement about the quasi-periodic motion for the dynamics of the pentagram map. We also explain how the pentagram map, in the continuous limit, corresponds to the classical Boussinesq equation. The Poisson structure we attach to the pentagram map is a discrete version of the first Poisson structure associated with the Boussinesq equation. Comment: revised version: errors and typos corrected, Theorem 4 improved

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