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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alexeev, I. I.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Bobrovnikov, S. Yu.; Kalegaev, V. V.; +2 Authors

    We study the topological structure of the magnetosphere for northward IMF. Using a magnetospheric magnetic field model we study the high-latitude response to prolonged periods of northward IMF. For forced solar wind conditions we investigate the location of the polar cap region, the polar cap potential drop, and the field-aligned acceleration potentials, depending on the solar wind pressure and IMF <i>B<sub>y</sub></i> and <i>B<sub>x</sub></i> changes. The open field line bundles, which connect the Earth's polar ionosphere with interplanetary space, are calculated. The locations of the magnetospheric plasma domains relative to the polar ionosphere are studied. The specific features of the open field line regions arising when IMF is northward are demonstrated. The coefficients of attenuation of the solar wind magnetic and electric fields which penetrate into the magnetosphere are determined.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2008
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    Authors: Herckes, P.; Leenheer, J. A.; Collett Jr., J. L.;

    International audience; Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected during a three week winter period in Fresno (CA). A composite sample was characterized by isolating several distinct fractions and characterizing them by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. More than 80% of the organic matter in the aerosol samples was recovered and characterized. Only 35% of the organic matter was water soluble with another third soluble in dichloromethane and the remainder insoluble. Within the isolated water soluble material, hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fractions contained the largest amounts of carbon. The hydrophobic acids fraction appears to contain significant amounts of lignin type structures, spectra of the hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fraction are indicative of carbohydrates and secondary organic material. The dichloromethane soluble fraction contains a variety of organic compound families typical of many previous studies of organic aerosol speciation, including alkanes, alkanols, alkanals and alkanoic acids. Finally the water and solvent insoluble fraction exhibits a strong aromaticity as one would expect from black or elemental carbon like material; however, these spectra also show a substantial amount of aliphaticity consistent with linear side chains on the aromatic structures.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Ciesielski, Maciej; Askar, Serkan; Gomez-Prado, Daniel; Guillot, Jeremie; +1 Authors

    International audience; An original technique to transform functional representation of the design into a structural representation in form of a data flow graph (DFG) is described. A canonical, word-level data structure, Taylor Expansion Diagram (TED), is used as a vehicle to effect this transformation. The problem is formulated as that of applying a sequence of decomposition cuts to a TED that transforms it into a DFG optimized for a particular objective. A systematic approach to arrive at such a decomposition is described. Experimental results show that such constructed DFG provides a better starting point for architectural synthesis than those extracted directly from HDL specifications.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Muñoz, M. Olguín; Klatzky, R.; Wang, J.; Pillai, P.; +2 Authors

    Wearable Cognitive Assistants (WCA) are anticipated to become a widely-used application class, in conjunction with emerging network infrastructures like 5G that incorporate edge computing capabilities. While prototypical studies of such applications exist today, the relationship between infrastructure service provisioning and its implication for WCA usability is largely unexplored despite the relevance that these applications have for future networks. This paper presents an experimental study assessing how WCA users react to varying end-to-end delays induced by the application pipeline or infrastructure. Participants interacted directly with an instrumented task-guidance WCA as delays were introduced into the system in a controllable fashion. System and task state were tracked in real time, and biometric data from wearable sensors on the participants were recorded. Our results show that periods of extended system delay cause users to correspondingly (and substantially) slow down in their guided task execution, an effect that persists for a time after the system returns to a more responsive state. Furthermore, the slow-down in task execution is correlated with a personality trait, neuroticism, associated with intolerance for time delays. We show that our results implicate impaired cognitive planning, as contrasted with resource depletion or emotional arousal, as the reason for slowed user task executions under system delay. The findings have several implications for the design and operation of WCA applications as well as computational and communication infrastructure, and additionally for the development of performance analysis tools for WCA. Comment: 27 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to PLOS ONE on October 15, 2020

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2021
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      PLoS ONE
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      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sagduyu, Yalin Evren; Berry, Randall A.; Ephremides, Anthony;

    Game-Theoretic Models and Security; International audience; We analyze the effects of dynamic packet traffic on jamming attacks in wireless networks. For random access over collision channels, the jamming problem is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which nodes choose their transmission probabilities under energy and delay constraints. We relax the standard assumption of backlogged nodes and evaluate the Nash equilibrium strategies for random arrivals, which introduces the possibility that jamming attacks fail due to empty packet queues at the transmitters. The maximum feasible throughput is derived depending on whether jammers have the queue state knowledge, or not. We also model the effects of erroneous queue state inference due to random packet traffic and incorporate the channel sensing capability before jamming. The analysis extends from one transmitter-jammer pair transmitting over a single channel at a single access point to multiple transmitters and jammers, and then to an arbitrary number of subchannels at multiple channel access points. In the resulting jamming games, we show that jammers cannot effectively increase the average energy cost and cannot decrease the feasible throughput for transmitters, if they face uncertainty on transmitter queue states. Therefore, medium access is less vulnerable to jamming attacks under increasing traffic uncertainty. This motivates the use of traffic dynamics as a defense mechanism to mitigate denial of service attacks in wireless access.

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    Authors: Slavov, Vasil; Rao, Praveen; Barenkala, Dinesh; Paturi, Srivenu;

    Chip makers are envisioning hundreds of cores in future processors for throughput oriented computing. These processors, called manycore processors, require new architectural innovations for scaling to a large number of cores as compared with today's multicore processors. We report an early study on the performance of RDF query processing on a manycore processor. In our study, we use the Intel SCC, an experimental manycore processor from Intel Labs. This processor has new architectural features, namely, 48 Pentium cores, a high speed, on-chip mesh network to communicate between cores and access memory controllers, on-chip message passing buffers for high speed message passing, and software controlled fine-grained power management. We classify queries based on their I/O footprint and study the impact of two standard models, namely, task and data parallel programming models. Based on our experiments with synthetic and real RDF datasets on the SCC, we conclude that the task parallelism model provides an immediate way to boost the performance of RDF query processing.

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    Authors: E. Kang; M. J. Root; D. W. Toohey; W. H. Brune;

    Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) can be defined as the maximum aerosol mass that the oxidation of precursor gases produces. In the measurement, all precursor gases are rapidly oxidized with extreme amounts of oxidants to low volatility compounds, resulting in the aerosol formation. Oxidation occurs in a small, simple, flow-through chamber that has a short residence time and is irradiated with ultraviolet light. The amount of the oxidants ozone (O<sub>3</sub>), hydroxyl (OH), and hydroperoxyl (HO<sub>2</sub>) were measured directly and can be controlled by varying the UV light and the relative humidity. Maximum values were 40 ppmv for O<sub>3</sub> 500 pptv for OH, and 4 ppbv for HO<sub>2</sub>. The oxidant amounts are 100 to 1000 times troposphere values, but the ratios OH/O<sub>3</sub> and HO<sub>2</sub>/OH are similar to troposphere values. The aerosol production mechanism and the aerosol mass yield were studied for several controlling variables, such as temperature, relative humidity, oxidant concentration, presence of nitrogen oxides (NO<sub>x</sub>), precursor gas composition and amount, and the presence of acidic seed aerosol. The measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of several natural and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds and a mixture of hydrocarbons in the PAM chamber were similar to those obtained in large, batch-style environmental chambers. This PAM method is being developed for measuring potential aerosol mass in the atmosphere, but is also useful for examining SOA processes in the laboratory and in environmental chambers.

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    Authors: Berlyand, Leonid; Mironescu, Petru;

    93 p.; This is a long and unpublished version of the paper "Ginzburg-Landau minimizers with prescribed degrees. Capacity of the domain and emergence of vortices" (J. Funct. Anal. 2006). It contains detailed profs of some facts mentioned in that paper, and many additional results.

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    Authors: Chorti, Arsenia; Perlaza, Samir; Han, Zhu; Vincent Poor, Harold;

    International audience; Physical layer security can provide alternative means for securing the exchange of confidential messages in wireless applications. In this paper, the resilience of wireless multiuser networks to passive (interception of the broadcast channel) and active (interception of the broadcast channel and false feedback) eavesdroppers is investigated. Stochastic characterizations of the secrecy capacity (SC) are obtained in scenarios involving a base station and several destinations. The expected values and variances of the SC along with the probabilities of secrecy outages are evaluated in the following cases: (i) in the presence of passive eavesdroppers without any side information; (ii) in the presence of passive eavesdroppers with side information about the number of eavesdroppers; and (iii) in the presence of a single active eavesdropper with side information about the behavior of the eavesdropper. This investigation demonstrates that substantial secrecy rates are attainable on average in the presence of passive eavesdroppers as long as minimal side information is available. On the other hand, it is further found that active eavesdroppers can potentially compromise such networks unless statistical inference is employed to restrict their ability to attack. Interestingly, in the high signal to noise ratio regime, multiuser networks become insensitive to the activeness or passiveness of the attack. Index Terms—Secrecy capacity, secrecy rate, physical layer security, outage probability, multiuser diversity, multiple eaves-droppers, slow fading and side information.

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    Authors: Jenkins, G. S.; Ryu, J.-H.;

    International audience; During the Northern hemisphere winter season, biomass burning is widespread in West Africa, yet the total tropospheric column ozone values (<30 DU) over much of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (15° N?5° S) are relatively low. At the same time, the tropospheric column ozone values in the Southern Tropical Atlantic are higher than those in the Northern Hemisphere (ozone paradox). We examine the causes for low tropospheric column ozone values by considering the horizontal and vertical transport of biomass fire emissions in West Africa during November through March, using observed data which characterizes fires, aerosols, horizontal winds, precipitation, lightning and outgoing longwave radiation. We have found that easterly winds prevail in the lower troposphere but transition to westerly winds at pressure levels lower than 500 hPa. A persistent anticyclone over West Africa at 700 hPa is responsible for strong easterly winds, which causes a net outflow of ozone/ozone precursors from biomass burning in West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards South America. The lowest outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and highest precipitation rates are generally found over the central Atlantic, some distance downstream of fires in West Africa making the vertical transport of ozone and ozone precursors less likely and ozone destruction more likely. However, lightning over land areas in Central Africa and South America can lead to enhanced ozone levels in the upper troposphere especially over the Southern tropical Atlantic during the Northern Hemisphere winter season.

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    Authors: Alexeev, I. I.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Bobrovnikov, S. Yu.; Kalegaev, V. V.; +2 Authors

    We study the topological structure of the magnetosphere for northward IMF. Using a magnetospheric magnetic field model we study the high-latitude response to prolonged periods of northward IMF. For forced solar wind conditions we investigate the location of the polar cap region, the polar cap potential drop, and the field-aligned acceleration potentials, depending on the solar wind pressure and IMF <i>B<sub>y</sub></i> and <i>B<sub>x</sub></i> changes. The open field line bundles, which connect the Earth's polar ionosphere with interplanetary space, are calculated. The locations of the magnetospheric plasma domains relative to the polar ionosphere are studied. The specific features of the open field line regions arising when IMF is northward are demonstrated. The coefficients of attenuation of the solar wind magnetic and electric fields which penetrate into the magnetosphere are determined.

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    Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
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    Authors: Herckes, P.; Leenheer, J. A.; Collett Jr., J. L.;

    International audience; Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected during a three week winter period in Fresno (CA). A composite sample was characterized by isolating several distinct fractions and characterizing them by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. More than 80% of the organic matter in the aerosol samples was recovered and characterized. Only 35% of the organic matter was water soluble with another third soluble in dichloromethane and the remainder insoluble. Within the isolated water soluble material, hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fractions contained the largest amounts of carbon. The hydrophobic acids fraction appears to contain significant amounts of lignin type structures, spectra of the hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fraction are indicative of carbohydrates and secondary organic material. The dichloromethane soluble fraction contains a variety of organic compound families typical of many previous studies of organic aerosol speciation, including alkanes, alkanols, alkanals and alkanoic acids. Finally the water and solvent insoluble fraction exhibits a strong aromaticity as one would expect from black or elemental carbon like material; however, these spectra also show a substantial amount of aliphaticity consistent with linear side chains on the aromatic structures.

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    Authors: Ciesielski, Maciej; Askar, Serkan; Gomez-Prado, Daniel; Guillot, Jeremie; +1 Authors

    International audience; An original technique to transform functional representation of the design into a structural representation in form of a data flow graph (DFG) is described. A canonical, word-level data structure, Taylor Expansion Diagram (TED), is used as a vehicle to effect this transformation. The problem is formulated as that of applying a sequence of decomposition cuts to a TED that transforms it into a DFG optimized for a particular objective. A systematic approach to arrive at such a decomposition is described. Experimental results show that such constructed DFG provides a better starting point for architectural synthesis than those extracted directly from HDL specifications.

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    Authors: Muñoz, M. Olguín; Klatzky, R.; Wang, J.; Pillai, P.; +2 Authors

    Wearable Cognitive Assistants (WCA) are anticipated to become a widely-used application class, in conjunction with emerging network infrastructures like 5G that incorporate edge computing capabilities. While prototypical studies of such applications exist today, the relationship between infrastructure service provisioning and its implication for WCA usability is largely unexplored despite the relevance that these applications have for future networks. This paper presents an experimental study assessing how WCA users react to varying end-to-end delays induced by the application pipeline or infrastructure. Participants interacted directly with an instrumented task-guidance WCA as delays were introduced into the system in a controllable fashion. System and task state were tracked in real time, and biometric data from wearable sensors on the participants were recorded. Our results show that periods of extended system delay cause users to correspondingly (and substantially) slow down in their guided task execution, an effect that persists for a time after the system returns to a more responsive state. Furthermore, the slow-down in task execution is correlated with a personality trait, neuroticism, associated with intolerance for time delays. We show that our results implicate impaired cognitive planning, as contrasted with resource depletion or emotional arousal, as the reason for slowed user task executions under system delay. The findings have several implications for the design and operation of WCA applications as well as computational and communication infrastructure, and additionally for the development of performance analysis tools for WCA. Comment: 27 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to PLOS ONE on October 15, 2020

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Sagduyu, Yalin Evren; Berry, Randall A.; Ephremides, Anthony;

    Game-Theoretic Models and Security; International audience; We analyze the effects of dynamic packet traffic on jamming attacks in wireless networks. For random access over collision channels, the jamming problem is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which nodes choose their transmission probabilities under energy and delay constraints. We relax the standard assumption of backlogged nodes and evaluate the Nash equilibrium strategies for random arrivals, which introduces the possibility that jamming attacks fail due to empty packet queues at the transmitters. The maximum feasible throughput is derived depending on whether jammers have the queue state knowledge, or not. We also model the effects of erroneous queue state inference due to random packet traffic and incorporate the channel sensing capability before jamming. The analysis extends from one transmitter-jammer pair transmitting over a single channel at a single access point to multiple transmitters and jammers, and then to an arbitrary number of subchannels at multiple channel access points. In the resulting jamming games, we show that jammers cannot effectively increase the average energy cost and cannot decrease the feasible throughput for transmitters, if they face uncertainty on transmitter queue states. Therefore, medium access is less vulnerable to jamming attacks under increasing traffic uncertainty. This motivates the use of traffic dynamics as a defense mechanism to mitigate denial of service attacks in wireless access.

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    Authors: Slavov, Vasil; Rao, Praveen; Barenkala, Dinesh; Paturi, Srivenu;

    Chip makers are envisioning hundreds of cores in future processors for throughput oriented computing. These processors, called manycore processors, require new architectural innovations for scaling to a large number of cores as compared with today's multicore processors. We report an early study on the performance of RDF query processing on a manycore processor. In our study, we use the Intel SCC, an experimental manycore processor from Intel Labs. This processor has new architectural features, namely, 48 Pentium cores, a high speed, on-chip mesh network to communicate between cores and access memory controllers, on-chip message passing buffers for high speed message passing, and software controlled fine-grained power management. We classify queries based on their I/O footprint and study the impact of two standard models, namely, task and data parallel programming models. Based on our experiments with synthetic and real RDF datasets on the SCC, we conclude that the task parallelism model provides an immediate way to boost the performance of RDF query processing.

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    Authors: E. Kang; M. J. Root; D. W. Toohey; W. H. Brune;

    Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) can be defined as the maximum aerosol mass that the oxidation of precursor gases produces. In the measurement, all precursor gases are rapidly oxidized with extreme amounts of oxidants to low volatility compounds, resulting in the aerosol formation. Oxidation occurs in a small, simple, flow-through chamber that has a short residence time and is irradiated with ultraviolet light. The amount of the oxidants ozone (O<sub>3</sub>), hydroxyl (OH), and hydroperoxyl (HO<sub>2</sub>) were measured directly and can be controlled by varying the UV light and the relative humidity. Maximum values were 40 ppmv for O<sub>3</sub> 500 pptv for OH, and 4 ppbv for HO<sub>2</sub>. The oxidant amounts are 100 to 1000 times troposphere values, but the ratios OH/O<sub>3</sub> and HO<sub>2</sub>/OH are similar to troposphere values. The aerosol production mechanism and the aerosol mass yield were studied for several controlling variables, such as temperature, relative humidity, oxidant concentration, presence of nitrogen oxides (NO<sub>x</sub>), precursor gas composition and amount, and the presence of acidic seed aerosol. The measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of several natural and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds and a mixture of hydrocarbons in the PAM chamber were similar to those obtained in large, batch-style environmental chambers. This PAM method is being developed for measuring potential aerosol mass in the atmosphere, but is also useful for examining SOA processes in the laboratory and in environmental chambers.