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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2020
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    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Nelson, J.; Baker, Mark D.;

    The build-up of intrinsic Bjerrum and ionic defects at ice-vapor interfaces electrically charges ice surfaces and thus gives rise to many phenomena including thermoelectricity, ferroelectric ice films, sparks from objects in blizzards, electromagnetic emissions accompanying cracking in avalanches, glaciers, and sea ice, and charge transfer during ice-ice collisions in thunderstorms. Fletcher's theory of the ice surface in equilibrium proposed that the Bjerrum defects have a higher rate of creation at the surface than in the bulk, which produces a high concentration of surface D defects that then attract a high concentration of OH- ions at the surface. Here, we add to this theory the effect of a moving interface caused by growth or sublimation. This effect can increase the amount of ionic surface charges more than 10-fold for growth rates near 1 mm s-1 and can extend the spatial separation of interior charges in qualitative agreement with many observations. In addition, ice-ice collisions should generate sufficient pressure to melt ice at the contact region and we argue that the ice particle with the initially sharper point at contact loses more mass of melt than the other particle. A simple analytic model of this process with parameters that are consistent with observations leads to predicted collisional charge exchange that semiquantitatively explains the negative charging region of thunderstorms. The model also has implications for snowflake formation, ferroelectric ice, polarization of ice in snowpacks, and chemical reactions in ice surfaces

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Authors: R. E. Sheehan; C. E. Valladares;

    UHF scintillation measurements of zonal ionospheric drifts have been conducted at Ancon, Peru since 1994 using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction to cross-correlate geo-synchronous satellite signals. An empirical model of average drift over a wide range of <i>K<sub>p</sub></i> and solar flux conditions was constructed from successive two-dimensional fits of drift vs. the parameters and day of year. The model exhibits the typical local time trend of maximum eastward velocity in the early evening with a gradual decrease and reversal in the early morning hours. As expected, velocities at all hours increase with the solar flux and decrease with <i>K<sub>p</sub></i> activity. It was also found that vertical drifts could contribute to the variability of drift measurements to the east of Ancon at a low elevation angle. The vertical drift at the ionospheric intersection to the east can be estimated when combined with nearly overhead observations at Ancon or a similar spaced-antenna site at Antofagasta, Chile. Comparisons on five days with nearly simultaneous measurements of vertical drift by the Julia radar at Jicamarca, Peru show varying agreement with the spaced-antenna estimates. Statistical results from 1997 to 2001 generally agree with radar and satellite studies.

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2004
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    Annales Geophysicae
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    Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
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      Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
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    Authors: J.-H. Shue; P. T. Newell; K. Liou; C.-I. Meng; +2 Authors

    The two-cell aurora is characterized by azimuthally elongated regions of enhanced auroral brightness over extended local times in the dawn and dusk sectors. Its association with the convection, particle precipitation, and field-aligned currents under various phases of substorms has not been fully understood. With Polar Ultraviolet Imager auroral images in conjunction with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F12 spacecraft on the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora, we are able to investigate an association of the auroral emissions with the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and energy flux of electrons. Results show that the substorm expansion onset does not significantly change the orientation of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora. Also, the orientation of the magnetic deflection vector produced by the region&nbsp;1 field-aligned current changed from 73&plusmn;1&deg; to the DMSP trajectory during the substorm growth phase, to 44&plusmn;6&deg; to the DMSP trajectory during the substorm expansion phase. With a comparison between the orientation of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora and the orientation of the magnetic deflection vector, it is found that the angular difference between the two orientations is 28&plusmn;5&deg; during the substorm growth phase, and 13&plusmn;6&deg; during the substorm expansion phase.

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
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    Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
      Other literature type . 2018
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      Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
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    Authors: Sonia Fornasier; Irina Belskaya; D. Perna;

    Abstract In this paper we present the results on the polarimetric and spectroscopic observations of the potentially hazardous Asteroid (214869) 2007 PA8 obtained during its favorable apparition in October–November 2012, when it approached the Earth at the minimal distance of 0.043 AU. Polarimetry was carried out at the NOT in the B, V, R, and I bands covering both low (12–23°) and large phase angles (88–99°). Spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared range was obtained at the TNG telescope. The spectrum of 2007 PA8 shows silicates absorption features and a behavior consistent with a Q-type classification. The olivine and pyroxene BI band is centered at 0.9578 ± 0.0042 μm, with a band depth of 16.5%, the BII band is centered at 1.95 ± 0.01 μm, and it has a band depth of about 3.9%. The 2007 PA8 spectral parameters are consistent with those of L chondrites. Also the spectral comparison with meteorites gives the L-type chondrites, and L6 in particular, as best match. The NEA (214869) 2007 PA8 is the forth moderate albedo asteroid and the first Q-type asteroid for which the value of the polarization maximum is determined. The inversion angle of the polarization curve in the V filter is 19.0 ± 1.1°, the corresponding slope parameter (h) is of 0.078 ± 0.010%/°, the maximum value of polarization is 5.99 ± 0.16%, and the extreme value of negative polarization is estimated to be lower than −0.52%. Using the polarimetric slope we derive a geometric albedo of 0.29 ± 0.08 in the V band, that gives an estimated diameter of 1.4 ± 0.2 km, assuming an absolute H v magnitude of 16.2 mag. We find a strong dependence of the polarization in the B, V, R, and I bands with wavelength, and the polarimetric albedo in the four bands is strongly correlated with the asteroid’s spectrum. The 2007 PA8 polarimetric properties resemble those of other 2 NEAs, 1566 Icarus and 25143 Itokawa, which are both S(IV)/Q type. Our spectral and polarimetric analysis indicate that 2007 PA8 has a young and fresh surface almost unweathered, similar to L-type chondrites. These results, together with dynamical simulations made by Nedelcu et al. (Nedelcu, D. A., Birlan, M., Popescu, M., Badescu, O., Pricopi, D. [2014]. Astron. Astrophys. 567, L7, 5pp.) and Nesvorny et al. (Nesvorny, D., Vokrouhlicky, D., Morbidelli, A., Bottke, W. F. [2009]. Icarus 200, 698–701), indicate that 2007 PA8 may be a member of the Gefion family recently ejected from the 5:2 resonance and a potential source of L chondrites.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hudson, M. K.; Denton, R. E.; Lessard, M. R.; Miftakhova, E. G.; +1 Authors

    A study of Pc-5 magnetic pulsations using data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was carried out. Three-component dynamic magnetic field spectrograms have been used to survey ULF pulsation activity for the approximate fourteen month lifetime of CRRES. Two-hour panels of dynamic spectra were examined to find events which fall into two basic categories: 1) toroidal modes (fundamental and harmonic resonances) and 2) poloidal modes, which include compressional oscillations. The occurence rates were determined as a function of L value and local time. The main result is a comparable probability of occurence of toroidal mode oscillations on the dawn and dusk sides of the magnetosphere inside geosynchronous orbit, while poloidal mode oscillations occur predominantly along the dusk side, consistent with high azimuthal mode number excitation by ring current ions. </p><p style="line-height: 20px;"> Pc-5 pulsations following Storm Sudden Commencements (SSCs) were examined separately. The spatial distribution of modes for the SSC events was consistent with the statistical study for the lifetime of CRRES. The toroidal fundamental (and harmonic) resonances are the dominant mode seen on the dawn-side of the magnetosphere following SSCs. Power is mixed in all three components. In the 21 dusk side SSC events there were only a few examples of purely compressional (two) or radial (one) power in the CRRES study, a few more examples of purely toroidal modes (six), with all three components predominant in about half (ten) of the events.<br><br> <b>Key words.</b> Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics) – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities)

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    Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2004
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    Authors: Lichtfouse, Eric; Budzinski, Hélène; Garrigues, Philippe; Eglinton, Timothy;

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of soils from two maize growing fields were analyzed for molecular structure by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, for 13 C/ 12 C ratios by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and for 14 C age by accelerator mass spectrometry. These investigations indicate that the aromatic fractions are dominated by pyrolytic inputs. Calculation of molecular maturity parameters based on hopanes and PAHs gives values typical of high thermal stress such as exhibited by high rank coals and petroleums with equivalent vitrinite reflectances of ∼0.6–1.5%. The interpretations based on molecular compositions are corroborated by isotopic data. Specifically, both the absence of 13 C/ 12 C variations in the aromatic fractions during 23 years of maize cropping, and a 14 C age greater than 9820 years demonstrate that these substances are not derived by the aromatization of modern plant material or soil biomass. Together, these results show that soil PAHs are mainly of pyrolytic origin, e.g. exogenous (airborne) contributions of fossil fuel combustion products and (old) vegetation fires, with a small contribution of uncombusted fossil fuels. This approach using molecular and isotope information represents a promising way to study the fate of ancient, reworked, fossil organic matter in modern media such as soils, sediments, plants, air and food.

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    Organic Geochemistry
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ridley, A. J.;

    Abstract. A number of recent studies have shown that the upstream Mach number may play a significant role in the energy transfer between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation results of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are presented that show the transition from nominal solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field driving to extremely strong driving. One of the predominant features of the magnetosphere that becomes apparent during low Mach number conditions is the formation of Alfvén wings above and below the magnetosphere. Alfvén wing are cavities of low flow, and have been observed at Io and Ganymede, both of which reside in regions of sub-Alfvénic flow. It is shown that Alfvén wings exist even during nominal Mach number time periods – the wings fold over to form what has been classically viewed as the magnetotail. The regions of low flow within the Alfvén wing limit the electric field applied across the ionosphere, hence causing the ionospheric cross polar cap potential to be dependent upon the Mach number, and in turn, causing the saturation of the potential.

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    Annales Geophysicae
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Ren, X.; Lesher, R. L.; +1 Authors

    International audience; A new method for measuring gas-phase naphthalene in the atmosphere is based on laser-induced fluorescence at low pressure. The fluorescence spectrum of naphthalene near 308 nm was identified. Naphthalene fluorescence quenching by N2, O2 and H2O was investigated in the laboratory. No significant quenching was found for H2O with mixing ratio up to 2.5%. The quenching rate of naphthalene fluorescence is (1.98±0.18)×10?11 cm3 molecule?1 s?1 for N2, and (2.48±0.08)×10?10 cm3 molecule?1 s?1 for O2 at 297 K. Instrument calibrations were performed with a range of naphthalene mixing ratios between 5 and 80 parts per billion by volume (ppbv, 10?9. In the current instrument configuration, the detection limit is estimated to be about 20 parts per trillion by volume (pptv, 10?12) with 2? confidence and a 1-min integration time. Measurement of atmospheric naphthalene in three cities, Nashville, TN, Houston, TX, and New York City, NY, are presented. Good correlation between naphthalene and major anthropogenic pollutants is found.

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    https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-4...
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      https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-4...
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    Authors: Nelson, J.; Baker, Mark D.;

    International audience; The time resolved chemical composition of aerosol particles, formed by the oxidation of alpha-pinene has been investigated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using negative and positive ionisation methods (ESI(-) and APCI(+)). The experiments were performed at the EUPHORE facility in Valencia (Spain) under various experimental conditions, including dark ozone reactions, photosmog experiments with low NOx mixing ratios and reaction with OH radicals in the absence of NOx (H2O2-photolysis). Particles were sampled on PTFE filters at different stages of the reaction and extracted with methanol. The predominant products from alpha-pinene in the particulate phase are cis-pinic acid, cis-pinonic acid and hydroxy-pinonic acid isomers. Another major compound with molecular weight 172 was detected, possibly a hydroxy-carboxylic acid. These major compounds account for 50% to 80% of the identified aerosol products, depending on the time of sampling and type of experiment. In addition, more than 20 different products have been detected and structures have been tentatively assigned based on their molecular weight and responses to the different ionisation modes. The different experiments performed showed that the aerosol formation is mainly caused by the ozonolysis reaction. The highest aerosol yields were observed in the dark ozone experiments, for which also the highest ratios of mass of identified products to the formed aerosol mass were found (30% to 50%, assuming a density of 1 g cm-3).

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-3...
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    https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-3...
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    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D.