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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    Preprint
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patience A. Cowie; C. H. Scholz; Gerald P. Roberts; J. Faure Walker; +1 Authors

    International audience; Viscous flow at depth contributes to elastic strain accumulation along seismogenic faults during both post-seismic and inter-seismic phases of the earthquake cycle. Evaluating the importance of this contribution is hampered by uncertainties regarding (i) the extent to which viscous deformation occurs in shear zones or by distributed flow within the crust and/or upper mantle, and (ii) the value of the exponent, n, in the flow law that relates strain rate to applied stress. Geodetic data, rock deformation experiments, and field observations of exhumed (inactive) faults provide strong evidence for non-linear viscous flow but may not fully capture the long term, in situ behaviour of active fault zones. Here we demonstrate that strain rates derived from Holocene offsets on seismogenic normal faults in the actively uplifting and extending central and southern Italian Apennines may be used to address this issue. The measured strain rates, averaged over a time scale of 104 years, exhibit a well-defined power-law dependence on topographic elevation with a power-law exponent ≈ 3.0 (2.7 - 3.4 at 95% CI; 2.3 - 4.0 at 99% CI). Contemporary seismicity indicates that the upper crust in this area is at the threshold for frictional failure within an extensional stress field and therefore differential stress is directly proportional to elevation. Our data thus imply a relationship between strain rate and stress that is consistent with non-linear viscous flow, with n ≈ 3, but because the measurements are derived from slip along major crustal faults they do not represent deformation of a continuum. We know that, down-dip of the seismogenic part of active faults, cataclasis, hydrous alteration, and shear heating all contribute to grain size reduction and material weakening. These processes initiate localisation at the frictional-viscous transition and the development of mylonitic shear zones within the viscous regime. Furthermore, in quartzo-feldspathic crust, mylonites form a fabric of mineral segregated layers parallel to shear with their strength controlled by the weakest phase: quartz. Using a published flow law for wet quartz calibrated for mylonitic rocks to fit the strain rates across individual fault zones (~5 km wide), we estimate a lower bound on the temperature of the deforming material using our data. This temperature is reached at or just below the base of the seismogenic zone, as constrained by regional surface heat flow data and the depth distribution of crustal seismicity. We conclude that it is the rate of viscous flow in quartz-rich mylonitic shear zones, not distributed flow within the lower crust and/or upper mantle, which modulates the Holocene slip rates on the up-dip seismogenic part of the faults in this area. Our observations support the idea that the irregular, stick-slip movement of brittle faults, and hence earthquake recurrence, are ultimately modulated by down-dip viscous flow over multiple earthquake cycles.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nature Geoscience; H...arrow_drop_down
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    Nature Geoscience
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2013
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    Authors: Taylor, JSH; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen;

    Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies. Following 2 wk of training, participants read the trained words while neural activity was measured with functional MRI. Representational similarity analysis on item pairs from the same orthography revealed that right vOT and posterior regions of left vOT were sensitive to basic visual similarity. Left vOT encoded letter identity and representations became more invariant to position along a posterior-to-anterior hierarchy. Item pairs that shared sounds or meanings, but were written in different orthographies with no letters in common, evoked similar neural patterns in anterior left vOT. These results reveal a hierarchical, posterior-to-anterior gradient in vOT, in which representations of letters become increasingly invariant to position and are transformed to convey spoken language information. Significance Learning to read is the most important milestone in a child’s education. However, controversies remain regarding how readers’ brains transform written words into sounds and meanings. We address these by combining artificial language learning with neuroimaging to reveal how the brain represents written words. Participants learned to read new words written in 2 different alphabets. Following 2 wk of training, we found a hierarchy of brain areas that support reading. Letter position is represented more flexibly from lower to higher visual regions. Furthermore, higher visual regions encode information about word sounds and meanings. These findings advance our understanding of how the brain comprehends language from arbitrary visual symbols.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Apollo
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Apollo
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Keable, Abby; Fenna, Kate; Yuen, Ho Ming; Johnston, David A.; +9 Authors

    Deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the walls of cerebral arteries as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) suggests an age-related failure of perivascular drainage of soluble Aβ from the brain. As CAA is associated with Alzheimer's disease and with intracerebral haemorrhage, the present study determines the unique sequence of changes that occur as Aβ accumulates in artery walls. Paraffin sections of post-mortem human occipital cortex were immunostained for collagen IV, fibronectin, nidogen 2, Aβ and smooth muscle actin and the immunostaining was analysed using Image J and confocal microscopy. Results showed that nidogen 2 (entactin) increases with age and decreases in CAA. Confocal microscopy revealed stages in the progression of CAA: Aβ initially deposits in basement membranes in the tunica media, replaces first the smooth muscle cells and then the connective tissue elements to leave artery walls completely or focally replaced by Aβ. The pattern of development of CAA in the human brain suggests expansion of Aβ from the basement membranes to progressively replace all tissue elements in the artery wall. Establishing this full picture of the development of CAA is pivotal in understanding the clinical presentation of CAA and for developing therapies to prevent accumulation of Aβ in artery walls. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. Highlights • Lymphatic drainage of the brain is along basement membranes in the walls of arteries. • Perivascular lymphatic drainage fails with age and arteriosclerosis. • Aβ deposits in the perivascular drainage pathways of leptomeningeal arteries as CAA. • As CAA progresses, Aβ replaces all elements of the ageing artery wall. • Facilitation of perivascular drainage may prevent CAA and delay Alzheimer's disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    e-Prints Soton
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: e-Prints Soton
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      e-Prints Soton
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marc-Thorsten Hütt; Marcus Kaiser; Claus C. Hilgetag;

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to study deviations of network architectures from regular graphs (rings and lattices) and consider the implications of such deviations for self-organized dynamic patterns on the network. Following this strategy, we draw on the theory of spatio-temporal pattern formation and propose a novel perspective for analysing dynamics on networks, by evaluating how the self-organized dynamics are confined by network architecture to a small set of permissible collective states. In particular, we discuss the role of prominent topological features of brain connectivity, such as hubs, modules and hierarchy, in shaping activity patterns. We illustrate the notion of network-guided pattern formation with numerical simulations and outline how it can facilitate the understanding of neural dynamics.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: de Berker, A.; Kurth-Nelson, Z.; Rutledge, R. ; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7337-5039; Bestmann, S.; +1 Authors

    How organisms learn the value of single stimuli through experience is well described. In many decisions, however, value estimates are computed “on the fly” by combining multiple stimulus attributes. The neural basis of this computation is poorly understood. Here we explore a common scenario in which decision-makers must combine information about quality and quantity to determine the best option. Using fMRI, we examined the neural representation of quality, quantity, and their integration into an integrated subjective value signal in humans of both genders. We found that activity within inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) correlated with offer quality, while activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically correlated with offer quantity. Several brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), were sensitive to an interaction of quality and quantity. However, the ACC was uniquely activated by quality, quantity, and their interaction, suggesting that this region provides a substrate for flexible computation of value from both quality and quantity. Furthermore, ACC signals across subjects correlated with the strength of quality and quantity signals in IFG and IPS, respectively. ACC tracking of subjective value also correlated with choice predictability. Finally, activity in the ACC was elevated for choice trials, suggesting that ACC provides a nexus for the computation of subjective value in multiattribute decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Would you prefer three apples or two oranges? Many choices we make each day require us to weigh up the quality and quantity of different outcomes. Using fMRI, we show that option quality is selectively represented in the inferior frontal gyrus, while option quantity correlates with areas of the intraparietal sulcus that have previously been associated with numerical processing. We show that information about the two is integrated into a value signal in the anterior cingulate cortex, and the fidelity of this integration predicts choice predictability. Our results demonstrate how on-the-fly value estimates are computed from multiple attributes in human value-based decision-making.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Hatton, Sean N; Huynh, Khoa H; Bonilha, Leonardo; Abela, Eugenio; +70 Authors

    AbstractThe epilepsies are commonly accompanied by widespread abnormalities in cerebral white matter. ENIGMA-Epilepsy is a large quantitative brain imaging consortium, aggregating data to investigate patterns of neuroimaging abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, including temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal epilepsy, and genetic generalized epilepsy. Our goal was to rank the most robust white matter microstructural differences across and within syndromes in a multicentre sample of adult epilepsy patients. Diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed from 1,069 non-epileptic controls and 1,249 patients: temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (N=599), temporal lobe epilepsy with normal MRI (N=275), genetic generalized epilepsy (N=182) and nonlesional extratemporal epilepsy (N=193). A harmonized protocol using tract-based spatial statistics was used to derive skeletonized maps of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity for each participant, and fiber tracts were segmented using a diffusion MRI atlas. Data were harmonized to correct for scanner-specific variations in diffusion measures using a batch-effect correction tool (ComBat). Analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and sex, examined differences between each epilepsy syndrome and controls for each white matter tract (Bonferroni corrected at p<0.001). Across “all epilepsies” lower fractional anisotropy was observed in most fiber tracts with small to medium effect sizes, especially in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule. Less robust effects were seen with mean diffusivity. Syndrome-specific fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differences were most pronounced in patients with hippocampal sclerosis in the ipsilateral parahippocampal cingulum and external capsule, with smaller effects across most other tracts. Those with temporal lobe epilepsy and normal MRI showed a similar pattern of greater ipsilateral than contralateral abnormalities, but less marked than those in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Patients with generalized and extratemporal epilepsies had pronounced differences in fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and external capsule, and in mean diffusivity of the anterior corona radiata. Earlier age of seizure onset and longer disease duration were associated with a greater extent of microstructural abnormalities in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. We demonstrate microstructural abnormalities across major association, commissural, and projection fibers in a large multicentre study of epilepsy. Overall, epilepsy patients showed white matter abnormalities in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule, with differing severity across epilepsy syndromes. These data further define the spectrum of white matter abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, yielding new insights into pathological substrates that may be used to guide future therapeutic and genetic studies.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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    Authors: Laurel S. Morris; Benjaman To; Kwangyeol Baek; Yee-Chien Chang-Webb; +8 Authors

    Background Functional neurological disorder (FND) is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. Methods We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV). Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS +/CS −) information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance). Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. Results FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS + compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS +/CS −), persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. Conclusions FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND. We highlight a potential mechanism by which negative contexts interfere with adaptive behaviours in this under-explored disorder. Highlights • Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a relatively common but elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms and negative affect. • One theory of FND symptomology is related to unconscious harm avoidance, in which symptom expression occurs to avoid a stressful situation. • We show that FND patients were more sensitive to negative information. However, this did not translate to increased harm avoidance as patients were impaired at goal-directed avoidance learning. • This study suggests that excessive negative conditioning in this group may engender deficient, rather than increased, goal-directed cognitive ability and loss avoidance.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Winston, Gavin P; Cardoso, M Jorge; Williams, Elaine J; Burdett, Jane L; +5 Authors

    The hippocampus is located within the medial temporal lobe and plays a key role in learning and episodic, semantic, and spatial memory. Dysfunction has been reported in neurologic and psychiatric disorders including epilepsy (Wu et al., 2005), Alzheimer's disease (Apostolova et al., 2006), schizophrenia (Tanskanen et al., 2005), and depression (Bremner et al., 2000). Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-resistant focal epilepsy, with seizures frequently arising from the hippocampus. In surgical series of TLE, the pathology is often hippocampal sclerosis (HS) comprising neuronal loss and gliosis and marked by atrophy and signal change on magnetic resonance imaging (Van Paesschen, 2004). Atrophy of the hippocampus through HS provides a good biomarker for the laterality of the seizure focus (Bernasconi et al., 2003), and combined with concordant neurophysiology and neuropsychological data can be sufficient to recommend surgery. Hippocampal atrophy is associated with a favorable surgical outcome (Schramm & Clusmann, 2008). Visual assessment of hippocampal volumes is unreliable, as it may be compromised by head position and primarily detects hippocampal asymmetry rather than volume loss, making bilateral atrophy difficult to identify. Hippocampal segmentation and volumetry are thus important for diagnosis and surgical planning (Watson et al., 1997). The gold standard for hippocampal segmentation is manual delineation by trained raters. This is accurate, reproducible, and sensitive but is time-consuming, requires anatomic knowledge, and is subject to interrater and intrarater variability. The hippocampus is challenging to delineate as it is small and highly variable with ill-defined margins. Many protocols exist for manual segmentation depending on which structures are included and the boundary definition (Konrad et al., 2009). Automated segmentation techniques aim to ensure operator independence, high reproducibility, and reduced demand for human time and expertise. The strongest drive for automation has come from researchers working with large cohorts of patients with Alzheimer's disease patients. Hippocampal volumes are an early marker for the disease, are related to cognitive status, and may reflect disease progression in clinical trials (Frisoni & Jack, 2011). In atlas-based segmentation approaches, a template and associated manual labels are registered (matched) to the new image (Carmichael et al., 2005). Commonly used methods, including FreeSurfer (Fischl et al., 2002), rely on a single template so that subjects that differ significantly from the template, for example HS, are poorly segmented. Segmentation of hippocampi that are sclerotic is more challenging than segmenting hippocampi in Alzheimer's disease, as the latter is associated with more prominent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)–hippocampal boundaries, whereas the former is associated with signal change. The use of an atlas with multiple template images is more effective than a single template (Heckemann et al., 2006) and depends on the quality of registration and template selection strategy. Most previous atlas-based segmentation studies used small template databases of healthy subjects. Results obtained in TLE are significantly worse than in healthy subjects or Alzheimer's disease (Kim et al., 2012), as aside from atrophy, approximately 40% of patients with TLE demonstrate an atypical shape or position of the hippocampus (Bernasconi et al., 2005). In this study, we adapted our published method developed for use in Alzheimer's disease (Cardoso et al., 2013) to a large cohort of adult patients with epilepsy by employing accurate nonlinear registration (Modat et al., 2010) and a large template database that encompasses the range of pathology observed in epilepsy at a tertiary referral center. Manual segmentations of the most similar images from the template database are combined using a label fusion strategy based on local similarity to ensure accurate segmentation regardless of pathology. We demonstrate that this technique achieves reliable segmentation with no more variability than that seen between different expert raters. The algorithm is made freely available via an online Web-based service (https://hipposeg.cs.ucl.ac.uk). In addition, the software, scripts, and an anonymized version of the template database are available from this website.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    Epilepsia
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Epilepsia
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      Article . 2013
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      Epilepsia
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Epilepsia
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    Authors: Towler, John; Fisher, Katie; Eimer, Martin;

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have severe difficulties recognising familiar faces. A current debate is whether these face recognition impairments derive from problems with face perception and in particular whether individuals with DP cannot utilize holistic representations of individual faces. To assess this hypothesis, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a sequential face identity matching task where successively presented pairs of upright faces were either identical or differed with respect to their internal features, their external features, or both. Participants with DP and age-matched controls reported on each trial whether the face pair was identical or different. To track the activation of cortical visual face memory representations, we measured N250r components over posterior face-selective regions. N250r components to full face repetitions were strongly attenuated for DPs as compared to control participants, indicating impaired face identity matching processes in DP. In the Control group, the N250r to full face repetitions was superadditive (i.e., larger than the sum of the two N250r components to partial repetitions of external or internal features). This demonstrates that holistic face representations were involved in identity matching processes. In the DP group, N250r components to full and partial identity repetitions were strictly additive, indicating that the identity matching of external and internal features operated in an entirely part-based fashion, without any involvement of holistic representations. In line with this conclusion, DPs also made a disproportionate number of errors on partial repetition trials, where they often failed to report a change of internal facial features. This suggests an atypical strategy for encoding external features as cues to identity in DP. These results provide direct electrophysiological and behavioural evidence for qualitative differences in the representation of face identity in the occipital-temporal face processing system in developmental prosopagnosia.

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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Cortex
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY NC ND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Cortex
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
    Preprint
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patience A. Cowie; C. H. Scholz; Gerald P. Roberts; J. Faure Walker; +1 Authors

    International audience; Viscous flow at depth contributes to elastic strain accumulation along seismogenic faults during both post-seismic and inter-seismic phases of the earthquake cycle. Evaluating the importance of this contribution is hampered by uncertainties regarding (i) the extent to which viscous deformation occurs in shear zones or by distributed flow within the crust and/or upper mantle, and (ii) the value of the exponent, n, in the flow law that relates strain rate to applied stress. Geodetic data, rock deformation experiments, and field observations of exhumed (inactive) faults provide strong evidence for non-linear viscous flow but may not fully capture the long term, in situ behaviour of active fault zones. Here we demonstrate that strain rates derived from Holocene offsets on seismogenic normal faults in the actively uplifting and extending central and southern Italian Apennines may be used to address this issue. The measured strain rates, averaged over a time scale of 104 years, exhibit a well-defined power-law dependence on topographic elevation with a power-law exponent ≈ 3.0 (2.7 - 3.4 at 95% CI; 2.3 - 4.0 at 99% CI). Contemporary seismicity indicates that the upper crust in this area is at the threshold for frictional failure within an extensional stress field and therefore differential stress is directly proportional to elevation. Our data thus imply a relationship between strain rate and stress that is consistent with non-linear viscous flow, with n ≈ 3, but because the measurements are derived from slip along major crustal faults they do not represent deformation of a continuum. We know that, down-dip of the seismogenic part of active faults, cataclasis, hydrous alteration, and shear heating all contribute to grain size reduction and material weakening. These processes initiate localisation at the frictional-viscous transition and the development of mylonitic shear zones within the viscous regime. Furthermore, in quartzo-feldspathic crust, mylonites form a fabric of mineral segregated layers parallel to shear with their strength controlled by the weakest phase: quartz. Using a published flow law for wet quartz calibrated for mylonitic rocks to fit the strain rates across individual fault zones (~5 km wide), we estimate a lower bound on the temperature of the deforming material using our data. This temperature is reached at or just below the base of the seismogenic zone, as constrained by regional surface heat flow data and the depth distribution of crustal seismicity. We conclude that it is the rate of viscous flow in quartz-rich mylonitic shear zones, not distributed flow within the lower crust and/or upper mantle, which modulates the Holocene slip rates on the up-dip seismogenic part of the faults in this area. Our observations support the idea that the irregular, stick-slip movement of brittle faults, and hence earthquake recurrence, are ultimately modulated by down-dip viscous flow over multiple earthquake cycles.

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    Nature Geoscience
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2013