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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Monica Margoni; Elisabetta Pagani; Paolo Preziosa; Marco Palombo; +4 Authors

    Background Soma and neurite density imaging (SANDI) is a new biophysical model that incorporates soma in addition to neurite density, thus possibly providing more specific information about the complex pathological processes of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose To discriminate the pathological abnormalities of MS white matter (WM) lesions, normal-appearing (NA) WM and cortex and to evaluate the associations among SANDI-derived measures, clinical disability, and conventional MRI variables. Methods Twenty healthy controls (HC) and 23 MS underwent a 3 T brain MRI. Using SANDI on diffusion-weighted sequence, the fractions of neurite (f(neurite)) and soma (f(soma)) were assessed in WM lesions, NAWM, and cortex. Results Compared to HC WM, MS NAWM showed lower f(neurite) (false discovery rate [FDR]-p = 0.011). In MS patients, WM lesions showed lower f(neurite) and f(soma) compared to both HC and MS NAWM (FDR-p < 0.001 for all). In the cortex, MS patients had lower f(neurite) and f(soma) compared to HC (FDR-p <= 0.009). Compared to both HC and RRMS, PMS patients had lower f(neurite) in NAWM (vs HC: FDR-p < 0.001; vs RRMS: FDR-p = 0.003) and cortex (vs HC: FDR-p < 0.001; vs RRMS: p = 0.031, not surviving FDR correction), and lower cortical f(soma) (vs HC: FDR-p < 0.001; vs RRMS: FDR-p = 0.009). Compared to HC, PMS also showed a higher f(soma) in NAWM (FDR-p = 0.015). F-neurite and f(soma) in the different brain compartments were correlated with age, phenotype, disease duration, disability, WM lesion volumes, normalized brain, cortical, and WM volumes (r from - 0.761 to 0.821, FDR-p <= 0.4). Conclusions SANDI may represent a clinically relevant model to discriminate different neurodegenerative phenomena that gradually accumulate through MS disease course.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio Istituziona...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Neurology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer Nature TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio Istituziona...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neurology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paddy J. Slator; Marco Palombo; Karla L. Miller; Carl-Fredrik Westin; +7 Authors

    AbstractMicrostructure imaging seeks to noninvasively measure and map microscopic tissue features by pairing mathematical modeling with tailored MRI protocols. This article reviews an emerging paradigm that has the potential to provide a more detailed assessment of tissue microstructure—combined diffusion‐relaxometry imaging. Combined diffusion‐relaxometry acquisitions vary multiple MR contrast encodings—such as b‐value, gradient direction, inversion time, and echo time—in a multidimensional acquisition space. When paired with suitable analysis techniques, this enables quantification of correlations and coupling between multiple MR parameters—such as diffusivity, , , and . This opens the possibility of disentangling multiple tissue compartments (within voxels) that are indistinguishable with single‐contrast scans, enabling a new generation of microstructural maps with improved biological sensitivity and specificity.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine; Oxford University Research Archive
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine; Oxford University Research Archive
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Renée S. Koolschijn; William T. Clarke; I. Betina Ip; Uzay E. Emir; +1 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 298954.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) Proton-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique used to measure the concentration of different neurochemicals. "Single-voxel" MRS data is typically acquired across several minutes, before individual transients are averaged through time to give a measurement of neurochemical concentrations. However, this approach is not sensitive to more rapid temporal dynamics of neurochemicals, including those that reflect functional changes in neural computation relevant to perception, cognition, motor control and ultimately behaviour. In this review we discuss recent advances in functional MRS (fMRS) that now allow us to obtain event-related measures of neurochemicals. Event-related fMRS involves presenting different experimental conditions as a series of trials that are intermixed. Critically, this approach allows spectra to be acquired at a time resolution in the order of seconds. Here we provide a comprehensive user guide for event-related task designs, choice of MRS sequence, analysis pipelines, and appropriate interpretation of event-related fMRS data. We raise various technical considerations by examining protocols used to quantify dynamic changes in GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Overall, we propose that although more data is needed, event-related fMRS can be used to measure dynamic changes in neurochemicals at a temporal resolution relevant to computations that support human cognition and behaviour. 12 p.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Radboud Repositoryarrow_drop_down
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2023
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: G. A. Oakes; V. N. Ciriano-Tejel; D. F. Wise; M. A. Fogarty; +17 Authors

    Three key metrics for readout systems in quantum processors are measurement speed, fidelity and footprint. Fast high-fidelity readout enables mid-circuit measurements, a necessary feature for many dynamic algorithms and quantum error correction, while a small footprint facilitates the design of scalable, highly-connected architectures with the associated increase in computing performance. Here, we present two complementary demonstrations of fast high-fidelity single-shot readout of spins in silicon quantum dots using a compact, dispersive charge sensor: a radio-frequency single-electron box. The sensor, despite requiring fewer electrodes than conventional detectors, performs at the state-of-the-art achieving spin read-out fidelity of 99.2% in less than 6 $\mu$s. We demonstrate that low-loss high-impedance resonators, highly coupled to the sensing dot, in conjunction with Josephson parametric amplification are instrumental in achieving optimal performance. We quantify the benefit of Pauli spin blockade over spin-dependent tunneling to a reservoir, as the spin-to-charge conversion mechanism in these readout schemes. Our results place dispersive charge sensing at the forefront of readout methodologies for scalable semiconductor spin-based quantum processors. Comment: Main: 9 pages, 4 figures, 1 table. Supplementary: 33 pages, 18 figures

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    Physical Review X
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2022
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Physical Review Xarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2022
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Peter N Taylor; Christoforos A Papasavvas; Thomas W Owen; Gabrielle M Schroeder; +10 Authors

    The identification of abnormal electrographic activity is important in a wide range of neurological disorders, including epilepsy for localising epileptogenic tissue. However, this identification may be challenging during non-seizure (interictal) periods, especially if abnormalities are subtle compared to the repertoire of possible healthy brain dynamics. Here, we investigate if such interictal abnormalities become more salient by quantitatively accounting for the range of healthy brain dynamics in a location-specific manner. To this end, we constructed a normative map of brain dynamics, in terms of relative band power, from interictal intracranial recordings from 234 subjects (21,598 electrode contacts). We then compared interictal recordings from 62 patients with epilepsy to the normative map to identify abnormal regions. We hypothesised that if the most abnormal regions were spared by surgery, then patients would be more likely to experience continued seizures post-operatively. We first confirmed that the spatial variations of band power in the normative map across brain regions were consistent with healthy variations reported in the literature. Second, when accounting for the normative variations, regions which were spared by surgery were more abnormal than those resected only in patients with persistent post-operative seizures (t=-3.6, p=0.0003), confirming our hypothesis. Third, we found that this effect discriminated patient outcomes (AUC=0.75 p=0.0003). Normative mapping is a well-established practice in neuroscientific research. Our study suggests that this approach is feasible to detect interictal abnormalities in intracranial EEG, and of potential clinical value to identify pathological tissue in epilepsy. Finally, we make our normative intracranial map publicly available to facilitate future investigations in epilepsy and beyond. 25 pages, 6 figures

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    Brain
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Brain
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Diana D Moreno Santillán; Tanya M. Lama; Yocelyn T Gutierrez Guerrero; Alexis Brown; +15 Authors

    SCV was supported by a Max Planck Research Group awarded by the Max Planck Gesellschaft, a Human Frontiers Science Program Grant (RGP0058/2016) and a UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (MR/T021985/1). Comprising more than 1,400 species, bats possess adaptations unique among mammals including powered flight, unexpected longevity, and extraordinary immunity. Some of the molecular mechanisms underlying these unique adaptations includes DNA repair, metabolism and immunity. However, analyses have been limited to a few divergent lineages, reducing the scope of inferences on gene family evolution across the Order Chiroptera. We conducted an exhaustive comparative genomic study of 37 bat species, one generated in this study, encompassing a large number of lineages, with a particular emphasis on multi-gene family evolution across immune and metabolic genes. In agreement with previous analyses, we found lineage-specific expansions of the APOBEC3 and MHC-I gene families, and loss of the proinflammatory PYHIN gene family. We inferred more than 1,000 gene losses unique to bats, including genes involved in the regulation of inflammasome pathways such as epithelial defence receptors, the natural killer gene complex and the interferon-gamma induced pathway. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed genes lost in bats are involved in defence response against pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns. Gene family evolution and selection analyses indicate bats have evolved fundamental functional differences compared to other mammals in both innate and adaptive immune system, with the potential to enhance antiviral immune response while dampening inflammatory signalling. In addition, metabolic genes have experienced repeated expansions related to convergent shifts to plant-based diets. Our analyses support the hypothesis that, in tandem with flight, ancestral bats had evolved a unique set of immune adaptations whose functional implications remain to be explored. Postprint Peer reviewed

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    MPG.PuRe
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    Molecular Ecology
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2021
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Molecular Ecology
    Article . 2021
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    Molecular Ecology; METIS Research Information System
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    NARCIS
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      Molecular Ecology
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Molecular Ecology
      Article . 2021
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      Molecular Ecology; METIS Research Information System
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    Authors: Thomas W. Owen; Gabrielle M. Schroeder; Vytene Janiukstyte; Gerard R. Hall; +7 Authors

    AbstractObjectiveEpilepsy surgery fails to achieve seizure freedom in 30%–40% of cases. It is not fully understood why some surgeries are unsuccessful. By comparing interictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) band power from patient data to normative maps, which describe healthy spatial and population variability, we identify patient‐specific abnormalities relating to surgical failure. We propose three mechanisms contributing to poor surgical outcome: (1) not resecting the epileptogenic abnormalities (mislocalization), (2) failing to remove all epileptogenic abnormalities (partial resection), and (3) insufficiently impacting the overall cortical abnormality. Herein we develop markers of these mechanisms, validating them against patient outcomes.MethodsResting‐state MEG recordings were acquired for 70 healthy controls and 32 patients with refractory neocortical epilepsy. Relative band‐power spatial maps were computed using source‐localized recordings. Patient and region‐specific band‐power abnormalities were estimated as the maximum absolute z‐score across five frequency bands using healthy data as a baseline. Resected regions were identified using postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that our mechanistically interpretable markers would discriminate patients with and without postoperative seizure freedom.ResultsOur markers discriminated surgical outcome groups (abnormalities not targeted: area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80, p = .003; partial resection of epileptogenic zone: AUC = 0.68, p = .053; and insufficient cortical abnormality impact: AUC = 0.64, p = .096). Furthermore, 95% of those patients who were not seizure‐free had markers of surgical failure for at least one of the three proposed mechanisms. In contrast, of those patients without markers for any mechanism, 80% were ultimately seizure‐free.SignificanceThe mapping of abnormalities across the brain is important for a wide range of neurological conditions. Here we have demonstrated that interictal MEG band‐power mapping has merit for the localization of pathology and improving our mechanistic understanding of epilepsy. Our markers for mechanisms of surgical failure could be used in the future to construct predictive models of surgical outcome, aiding clinical teams during patient pre‐surgical evaluations.

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    Epilepsia
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
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      Epilepsia
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Karoline Leiberg; Jane de Tisi; John S. Duncan; Bethany Little; +5 Authors

    Anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) is a surgical procedure to treat drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Resection may involve large amounts of cortical tissue. Here, we examine the effects of this surgery on cortical morphology measured in independent variables both near the resection and remotely. We studied 101 individuals with TLE (55 left, 46 right onset) who underwent ATLR. For each individual we considered one pre-surgical MRI and one follow-up MRI 2 to 13 months after surgery. We used our newly developed surface-based method to locally compute traditional morphological variables (average cortical thickness, exposed surface area, and total surface area), and the independent measures $K$, $I$, and $S$, where $K$ measures white matter tension, $I$ captures isometric scaling, and $S$ contains the remaining information about cortical shape. Data from 924 healthy controls was included to account for healthy ageing effects occurring during scans. A SurfStat random field theory clustering approach assessed changes across the cortex caused by ATLR. Compared to preoperative data, surgery had marked effects on all morphological measures. Ipsilateral effects were located in the orbitofrontal and inferior frontal gyri, the pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus, and the lateral occipital gyrus and lingual cortex. Contralateral effects were in the lateral occipital gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus and frontal pole. The restructuring following ATLR is reflected in widespread morphological changes, mainly in regions near the resection, but also remotely in regions that are structurally connected to the anterior temporal lobe. The causes could include mechanical effects, Wallerian degeneration, or compensatory plasticity. The study of independent measures revealed additional effects compared to traditional measures.

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    Cortex
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
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      Cortex
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Green, Rebecca E.; Lord, Jodie; Scelsi, Marzia A.; Xu, Jin; +19 Authors

    Additional file 7: Supplementary file 7: Supplementary Notes. Supplementary Notes (metabolomics acquisition, metabolomic and genomic quality control, polygenic risk scores, software and packages used, additional analyses, participant characteristics split by amyloid status).

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    Authors: Lipeng Ning; Elisenda Bonet-Carne; Francesco Grussu; Farshid Sepehrband; +35 Authors

    NeuroImage : a journal of brain function 221, 11712 (2020). doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117128 Published by Academic Press, Orlando, Fla.

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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2020
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    Lirias
    Article . 2020
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2019
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      Article . 2020
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2020
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Monica Margoni; Elisabetta Pagani; Paolo Preziosa; Marco Palombo; +4 Authors

    Background Soma and neurite density imaging (SANDI) is a new biophysical model that incorporates soma in addition to neurite density, thus possibly providing more specific information about the complex pathological processes of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose To discriminate the pathological abnormalities of MS white matter (WM) lesions, normal-appearing (NA) WM and cortex and to evaluate the associations among SANDI-derived measures, clinical disability, and conventional MRI variables. Methods Twenty healthy controls (HC) and 23 MS underwent a 3 T brain MRI. Using SANDI on diffusion-weighted sequence, the fractions of neurite (f(neurite)) and soma (f(soma)) were assessed in WM lesions, NAWM, and cortex. Results Compared to HC WM, MS NAWM showed lower f(neurite) (false discovery rate [FDR]-p = 0.011). In MS patients, WM lesions showed lower f(neurite) and f(soma) compared to both HC and MS NAWM (FDR-p < 0.001 for all). In the cortex, MS patients had lower f(neurite) and f(soma) compared to HC (FDR-p <= 0.009). Compared to both HC and RRMS, PMS patients had lower f(neurite) in NAWM (vs HC: FDR-p < 0.001; vs RRMS: FDR-p = 0.003) and cortex (vs HC: FDR-p < 0.001; vs RRMS: p = 0.031, not surviving FDR correction), and lower cortical f(soma) (vs HC: FDR-p < 0.001; vs RRMS: FDR-p = 0.009). Compared to HC, PMS also showed a higher f(soma) in NAWM (FDR-p = 0.015). F-neurite and f(soma) in the different brain compartments were correlated with age, phenotype, disease duration, disability, WM lesion volumes, normalized brain, cortical, and WM volumes (r from - 0.761 to 0.821, FDR-p <= 0.4). Conclusions SANDI may represent a clinically relevant model to discriminate different neurodegenerative phenomena that gradually accumulate through MS disease course.

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    Journal of Neurology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer Nature TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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