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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • Centre for Cognitive Ageing & Cognitive Epidemiology

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Katrina L. Grasby*† and Neda Jahanshad*† et al.;

    The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Raphael Hesse; Maica Llavero Hurtado; Rosemary J. Jackson; Samantha L. Eaton; +12 Authors

    AbstractDegeneration of synapses in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) strongly correlates with cognitive decline, and synaptic pathology contributes to disease pathophysiology. We recently discovered that the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE4), exacerbates synapse loss and synaptic accumulation of oligomeric amyloid beta in human AD brain. To begin to understand the molecular cascades involved in synapse loss in AD and how this is mediated byAPOE, and to generate a resource of knowledge of changes in the synaptic proteome in AD, we conducted a proteomic screen and systematicin-silicoanalysis of synaptoneurosome preparations from temporal and occipital cortices of human AD and control subjects with knownAPOEgene status. Our analysis identified over 5,500 proteins in human synaptoneurosomes and highlighted disease, brain region, and APOE-associated changes in multiple molecular pathways including a decreased abundance in AD of proteins important for synaptic and mitochondrial function and an increased abundance of proteins involved in neuroimmune interactions and intracellular signaling.HighlightsProteomic analysis of synapses isolated from Alzheimer’s disease and control subject brains identifies over 5,500 proteins in human synapses.In silico analysis reveals region-specific decreases in proteins involved in synaptic and mitochondrial function and increases in proteins involved in neuroimmune signaling and intracellular signaling in AD.The apolipoprotein E4 risk gene is associated with exacerbated changes in synaptic proteins in AD.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Acta Neuropathologic...arrow_drop_down
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    Acta Neuropathologica Communications
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    Acta Neuropathologica Communications
    Article . Preprint
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Acta Neuropathologic...arrow_drop_down
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      Acta Neuropathologica Communications
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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    Authors: Cole, JH; Ritchie, SJ; Bastin, ME; Valdes Hernandez, MC; +14 Authors

    Age-associated disease and disability are placing a growing burden on society. However, ageing does not affect people uniformly. Hence, markers of the underlying biological ageing process are needed to help identify people at increased risk of age-associated physical and cognitive impairments and ultimately, death. Here, we present such a biomarker, 'brain-predicted age', derived using structural neuroimaging. Brain-predicted age was calculated using machine-learning analysis, trained on neuroimaging data from a large healthy reference sample (N=2001), then tested in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N=669), to determine relationships with age-associated functional measures and mortality. Having a brain-predicted age indicative of an older-appearing brain was associated with: weaker grip strength, poorer lung function, slower walking speed, lower fluid intelligence, higher allostatic load and increased mortality risk. Furthermore, while combining brain-predicted age with grey matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumes (themselves strong predictors) not did improve mortality risk prediction, the combination of brain-predicted age and DNA-methylation-predicted age did. This indicates that neuroimaging and epigenetics measures of ageing can provide complementary data regarding health outcomes. Our study introduces a clinically-relevant neuroimaging ageing biomarker and demonstrates that combining distinct measurements of biological ageing further helps to determine risk of age-related deterioration and death.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 25 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.62.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Smith, K.; Ricaud, B.; Shahid, N.; Rhodes, S.; +5 Authors

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task´s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100-140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140-180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD. Fil: Smith, Keith. University of Edinburgh; Reino Unido Fil: Ricaud, Benjamin. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; Suiza Fil: Shahid, Nauman. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; Suiza Fil: Rhodes, Stephen. University of Edinburgh; Reino Unido Fil: Starr, John M.. University of Edinburgh; Reino Unido Fil: Ibáñez Barassi, Agustín Mariano. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Favaloro; Argentina. Universidad Autόnoma del Caribe; Colombia. Universidad Adolfo Ibañez; Chile. ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorder; Australia Fil: Parra, Mario A.. University of Edinburgh; Reino Unido. Universidad Autόnoma del Caribe; Colombia. Heriot-Watt University; Reino Unido Fil: Escudero, Javier. University of Edinburgh; Reino Unido Fil: Vandergheynst, Pierre. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; Suiza

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2017
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    Article . 2017
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2016
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      Article . 2017
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      CONICET Digital
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: CONICET Digital
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2016
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Liana, Romaniuk; Anca-Larisa, Sandu; Gordon D, Waiter; Christopher J, McNeil; +10 Authors

    Background The majority of reward learning neuroimaging studies have not focused on the motivational aspects of behavior, such as the inherent value placed on choice itself. The experience and affective value of personal control may have particular relevance for psychiatric disorders, including depression. Methods We adapted a functional magnetic resonance imaging reward task that probed the value placed on exerting control over one’s decisions, termed choice value, in 122 healthy participants. We examined activation associated with choice value; personally chosen versus passively received rewards; and reinforcement learning metrics, such as prediction error. Relationships were tested between measures of motivational orientation (categorized as autonomy, control, and impersonal) and subclinical depressive symptoms. Results Anticipating personal choice activated left insula, cingulate, right inferior frontal cortex, and ventral striatum (pfamilywise error–corrected < .05). Ventral striatal activations to choice were diminished in participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Personally chosen rewards were associated with greater activation of the insula and inferior frontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and substantia nigra compared with rewards that were passively received. In participants who felt they had little control over their own behavior (impersonal orientation), prediction error signals in nucleus accumbens were stronger during passive trials. Conclusions Previous findings regarding personal choice have been verified and advanced through the use of both reinforcement learning models and correlations with psychopathology. Personal choice has an impact on the extended reward network, potentially allowing these clinically important areas to be addressed in ways more relevant to personality styles, self-esteem, and symptoms such as motivational anhedonia.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Biological Psychiatry Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
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      Biological Psychiatry Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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    Authors: Luciano, Michelle; Corley, Janie; Cox, Simon R.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; +7 Authors

    Objective: To assess the association between Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) and change in brain MRI volumetric measures and mean cortical thickness across a 3-year period in older age (73–76 years).\ud \ud Methods: We focused on 2 longitudinal brain volumes (total and gray matter; n = 401 and 398, respectively) plus a longitudinal measurement of cortical thickness (n = 323), for which the previous cross-sectional evidence of an association with the MeDi was strongest. Adherence to the MeDi was calculated from data gathered from a food frequency questionnaire at age 70, 3 years prior to the baseline imaging data collection.\ud \ud Results: In regression models adjusting for relevant demographic and physical health indicators, we found that lower adherence to the MeDi was associated with greater 3-year reduction in total brain volume (explaining 0.5% of variance, p < 0.05). This effect was half the size of the largest covariate effect (i.e., age). Cross-sectional associations between MeDi and baseline MRI measures in 562 participants were not significant. Targeted analyses of meat and fish consumption did not replicate previous associations with total brain volume or total gray matter volume.\ud \ud Conclusions: Lower adherence to the MeDi in an older Scottish cohort is predictive of total brain atrophy over a 3-year interval. Fish and meat consumption does not drive this change, suggesting that other components of the MeDi or, possibly, all of its components in combination are responsible for the association.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: W D, Hill; G, Davies; S E, Harris; S P, Hagenaars; +4 Authors

    Differences in general cognitive function have been shown to be partly heritable and to show genetic correlations with several psychiatric and physical disease states. However, to date, few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have demonstrated genome-wide significance, hampering efforts aimed at determining which genetic variants are most important for cognitive function and which regions drive the genetic associations between cognitive function and disease states. Here, we combine multiple large genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets, from the CHARGE cognitive consortium (n=53 949) and UK Biobank (n=36 035), to partition the genome into 52 functional annotations and an additional 10 annotations describing tissue-specific histone marks. Using stratified linkage disequilibrium score regression we show that, in two measures of cognitive function, SNPs associated with cognitive function cluster in regions of the genome that are under evolutionary negative selective pressure. These conserved regions contained ~2.6% of the SNPs from each GWAS but accounted for ~40% of the SNP-based heritability. The results suggest that the search for causal variants associated with cognitive function, and those variants that exert a pleiotropic effect between cognitive function and health, will be facilitated by examining these enriched regions.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Rafael Ortiz-Ramon; Maria del C. Valdés Hernández; Víctor González-Castro; Stephen Makin; +6 Authors

    La cuantificación diferencial de la atrofia cerebral, hiperintensidades de materia blanca (WMH) y lesiones de accidente cerebrovascular es importante en estudios de accidente cerebrovascular y demencia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lesiones de accidente cerebrovascular, generalmente se pasa por alto por los métodos de procesamiento automático de la neuroimagen y los sistemas de aprendizaje profundo de última generación, que carecen de suficientes datos anotados. Exploramos el uso de la radiómica para identificar si una resonancia magnética (RMN) del cerebro pertenece a un individuo que tuvo un derrame cerebral o no. Las características de textura en los tejidos segmentados automática y convencionalmente, pueden ayudar a identificar la presencia de lesiones previas de accidente cerebrovascular en una resonancia magnética, y deben tenerse en cuenta en las estrategias de aprendizaje de transferencia de los sistemas de aprendizaje profundo de vanguardia. pp. 12-24 SI

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Keating, Jessica; Affleck-Brodie, Caitlin; Wiegand, Ronny; Morcom, Alexa M.;

    The present study investigated the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in the control of recollection in young and older adults. We used electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of age and of individual differences in WMC on the ability to prioritize recollection according to current goals. Targets in a recognition exclusion task were words encoded using two alternative decisions. The left parietal ERP old/new effect was used as an electrophysiological index of recollection, and the selectivity of recollection measured in terms of the difference in its magnitude according to whether recognized items were targets or non-targets. Young adults with higher WMC showed greater recollection selectivity than those with lower WMC, while older adults showed nonselective recollection which did not vary with WMC. The data suggest that aging impairs the ability to engage cognitive control effectively to prioritize what will be recollected.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Ueno, Taiji; Meteyard, Lotte; Hoffman, Paul; Murayama, Kou;

    Abstract An influential account of reading holds that words with exceptional spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g., PINT) are read via activation of their lexical-semantic representations, supported by the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). This account has been inconclusive because it is based on neuropsychological evidence, in which lesion-deficit relationships are difficult to localize precisely, and functional neuroimaging data, which is spatially precise but cannot demonstrate whether the ATL activity is necessary for exception word reading. To address these issues, we used a technique with good spatial specificity—repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)—to demonstrate a necessary role of ATL in exception word reading. Following rTMS to left ventral ATL, healthy Japanese adults made more regularization errors in reading Japanese exception words. We successfully simulated these results in a computational model in which exception word reading was underpinned by semantic activations. The ATL is critically and selectively involved in reading exception words.

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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Katrina L. Grasby*† and Neda Jahanshad*† et al.;

    The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Article . 2020
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