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    Authors: Vidal, Jérémie; Su, Sylvie; Cébron, David;

    Acoustic eigenmodes are often used to passively infer physical properties of the interiors of rotating planets and stars. Acoustic wave imaging has been also introduced in fluid dynamics. The experimental technique consists in observing and analysing the splitting in frequency of the acoustic modes, by solving an inverse problem. For instance, the presence of an (unknown) rotational profile disturbs the acoustic spectrum. Moreover, a topographic splitting is often superimposed on the rotational splitting. Indeed, rotating celestial objects are rather ellipsoidal than spherical at the leading order, as well as laboratory experiments which are weakly non-spherical (due to mechanical deformations). Rotation and topography should be taken into account simultaneously, but the acoustic problem does not admit exact solutions in the presence of rotation. Fully numerical solutions are often computed. However, they cannot be easily combined with inversion schemes to yield robust results. Hence, the usual approach is to consider small perturbations to non-rotating solutions. As an alternative, we present a new description of the compressible modes, relying on the method of weighted residuals. Here, we present a new spectral method to describe potential flows in triaxial ellipsoids. It relies on an explicit Galerkin expansion, made of global polynomials expressed in Cartesian coordinates. We illustrate this method by considering the canonical situation of diffusionless acoustic modes in an homogeneous, compressible and homentropic fluid ellipsoid at rest. The pressure satisfies a Dirichlet condition (sound soft boundary). We validate our results against fully numerical simulations performed with the commercial software comsol, showing a perfect quantitative agreement. This new method will be extended to include additional effects and alternative boundary conditions. Les modes acoustiques sont couramment utilisés pour déterminer les propriétés physiques de l'intérieur des planètes et des étoiles. La méthode d'imagerie par vélocimétrie acoustique a été récemment introduite en mécanique des fluides, en complément des méthodes d'imagerie existantes. Elle consiste à reconstruire l'écoulement à partir de la levée de dégénérescence des modes acoustiques, observée expérimentalement (par exemple) en présence d'un profil de rotation. Ainsi, des algorithmes d'inversion sont nécessaires pour reconstruire indirectement l'écoulement en rotation dans des expériences en géométrie quasi-sphérique. Cependant, les objets célestes et les expériences ne sont pas rigoureusement sphériques, mais plutôt ellipsoïdaux (au premier ordre). Les effets topographiques et la rotation doivent alors être pris en compte correctement dans le modèle physique. Les méthodes analytiques et numériques existantes (en géométrie déformée) ne peuvent plus alors être couplées facilement et efficacement aux algorithmes d'inversion. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous avons développé une nouvelle méthode de Galerkin semi-analytique en ellipsoïdes tri-axes. Elle repose sur une décomposition polynomiale explicite, en coordonnées cartésiennes, des écoulements potentiels en ellipsoïdes. Nous illustrons la méthode en considérant les modes acoustiques d'un fluide compressible, uniforme et homentropique, avec une condition de Dirichlet homogène à la paroi (condition isobare). Nous validons nos résultats avec des simulations numériques réalisées avec le logiciel comsol. Nous étendrons cette méthode novatrice afin de prendre en compte des effets physiques supplémentaires, afin de décrire plus précisément les conditions expérimentales.

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    Authors: Kinjo, Ryota; Calvi, Marco; Zhang, Kai; Hellmann, Sebastian; +5 Authors

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    Authors: Deheuvels, Sébastien;

    La qualité des données sismiques du satellite CoRoT ouvre de nouveaux horizons dans l'étude de la structure interne et de l'évolution des étoiles. Mon travail de thèse a consisté à l'analyse et à l'interprétation des spectres d'oscillations de pulsateurs de type solaire observés au sol et depuis l'espace, en particulier avec le satellite CoRoT. L'objectif de l'analyse d'un spectre d'oscillations est de déterminer les paramètres des modes propres de l'étoile (fréquences propres, amplitudes, durées de vie). Au sein du DAT (groupe en charge de l'analyse des pulsateurs de type solaire observés avec CoRoT), j'ai contribué à adapter aux objets étudiés une méthode utilisée avec succès pour extraire les paramètres des modes du Soleil. J'ai appliqué cette méthode à l'analyse des cinq premiers pulsateurs de type solaire observés avec CoRoT. Un soin particulier a été consacré à l'étude de la significativité des pics détectés, qui a permis de conforter la détection de modes mixtes dans le spectre de l'étoile HD 49385. Dans le cadre de mon travail de modélisation et d'interprétation, j'ai recherché les informations qu'apportent les paramètres sismiques sur la structure du cœur de certaines des étoiles analysées. Ces étoiles possèdent (ou ont possédé) un cœur convectif, dont les caractéristiques dépendent des processus de transport des éléments chimiques (e.g. l'overshooting), aujourd'hui mal décrits par les modèles théoriques. J'ai modélisé trois pulsateurs de type solaire de masses et de stades évolutifs différents, dont les paramètres sismiques permettent de sonder le cœur et donc de contraindre observationnellement les processus de transport. En particulier, la détection dans l'étoile HD 49385 de modes mixtes en croisement évité m'a amené à étudier l'apport de ce type de mode à la compréhension de la structure du cœur. The high-quality seismic data obtained with the CoRoT satellite open new opportunities for the study of stellar interiors and evolution. My PhD thesis consisted of the analysis and the interpretation of the oscillation spectra of several solar-like pulsators observed from both the ground and space, in particular with the CoRoT satellite. When analyzing an oscillation spectrum, the goal is to determine the parameters of the star pulsation modes (the eigenfrequencies, amplitudes, lifetimes,...). Within the DAT (group responsible for the analysis of the solar-like pulsators observed with CoRoT), I contributed to adapt to the studied objects a method successfully used to extract the mode parameters of the Sun. I applied this method to the analysis of the first five solar-like pulsators observed with CoRoT. Particular care was given to the determination of the significance of the detected peaks, which strengthened the detection of mixed modes in the spectrum of the star HD 49385. In the framework of the interpretation of the oscillation spectra, I investigated the information which the seismic parameters convey about the structure of the core for several of the analyzed stars. These stars have (or have had) a convective core, whose characteristics depend on chemical transport processes (e.g. overshooting), which are currently ill-described by theoretical models. I modeled three solar-like pulsators which have different masses and evolutionary stages. Their seismic parameters make it possible to probe their cores and therefore to obtain observational constraints on the processes of transport. In particular, the detection of mixed modes in avoided crossing in the spectrum of the star HD 49385 has led me to study how this type of mode can contribute to the understanding of the structure of the core.

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    Authors: Mahler, Guillaume;

    Les amas de galaxies sont des structures massives composées à plus de 80% de matière noire. Leur coeur peut atteindre une densité de masse critique qui en déformant l'espace-temps fait converger les rayons lumineux vers l'observateur. Grâce à des relevés photométriques profonds de l'amas Abell 2744, de nombreux systèmes multiples ont été découverts. Identifier ces systèmes reste un défi, j'ai donc développé une méthode robuste basée sur les propriétés photométriques conservées par l'effet de lentille gravitationnelle qui permet de les détecter automatiquement. Le meilleur moyen de prouver que des images proviennent de la même galaxie reste la mesure de leur distance(redshifts) grâce à leur spectre. En analysant les données collectées par le spectrographe à intégrale de champ MUSE j'ai mesuré un grand nombre de sources (514) dont 83 d'entre elles sont des images multiples. Bénéficiant de cette large couverture spectrale, j'ai créé un modèle paramétrique de masse parmi les plus contraints à ce jour. La sensibilité atteinte par le modèle permet de sonder l'influence de structures périphériques (jusqu'à une distance de 700kpc), révélant ainsi des erreurs systématiques sur la mesure de la masse due à la paramétrisation du modèle (6%). Comparé aux précédentes études, on voit une diminution de 10% de la masse dans un rayon 100 kpc montrant ainsi en partie le gain offert par la spectroscopie. Ce gain, bien que négligeable sur la mesure de l'amplification, s'est avéré pouvoir contraindre la balance en masse entre les différentes composantes de notre modèle, dépassant par endroits 2 fois l'incertitude statistique Clusters of galaxies are large and massive structures containing more than 80% of dark matter. In the cluster core, the mass density can reach a critical threshold making the curvature of space-time large enough to bend light path and then allow multiple convergence of images from the same sources to appear on the observer field of view. Thanks to deep photometric coverage of Abell 2744, a lot of multiply-imaged systems were discovered. Nevertheless, finding them remain a challenge and based on the preserved photometric properties by lensing, I developed a robust method to automatically find them. However, measuring the redshifts for each multiple images remains the best way to surely associate them. The deep coverage of the integral field spectrograph MUSE allowed me to identify a large number of sources ( 514 ) among them 83 were multiple images. Thanks to this large spectroscopic coverage, I built one of the most constrained parametric mass model for lensing cluster to date. The sensitivity raised by this model allow me to probe the influence of outskirts substructures ( at 700 kpc distance ), revealing systematic sources of uncertainties related to the mass model parametrisation ( 6% ). Compared to previous studies, I notice a 10% lower mass in the center ( within 100kpc ) showing one of the benefit of large spectroscopic constraints. This benefit, is smaller on the amplification estimation but shows a significant discrepancy between different mass counterparts in the models, up to 2 times the statistical uncertainties

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    Authors: Clegg, Matthew; Ruiz, Harold;

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    Authors: Pelouze, Gabriel;

    La couche la plus externe de l’atmosphère solaire, la couronne, est composée de plasma dont la température dépasse de plusieurs ordres de grandeur celle de la surface.Expliquer comment la couronne est chauffée à des températures de l’ordre d’un million de degrés constitue un défi majeur de la physique solaire.Dans ce contexte, je m’intéresse au chauffage des boucles coronales (qui sont des structures composées de plasma confiné dans des tubes de champ magnétique) et plus particulièrement aux cycles de non-équilibre thermique (TNE).L’étude de ces cycles permet de caractériser le chauffage des boucles.Ces cycles se développent dans des boucles soumises à un chauffage fortement stratifié, localisé près de leurs pieds.Ils se traduisent notamment par une variation périodique de la température et de la densité du plasma dans la boucle.Ces variations engendrent des pulsations d’intensité de longue période, qui sont détectées depuis peu dans l’émission en extrême-ultraviolet (EUV) de certaines boucles coronales.Par ailleurs, des écoulements périodiques de plasma à températures coronales se produisent durant ces cycles.Dans certains cas, le plasma qui s’écoule peut refroidir de plusieurs ordres de grandeur et former de la pluie coronale périodique.Durant ma thèse, j’ai travaillé à la première détection de ces écoulements à haute et à basse température.En utilisant des séries temporelles de spectres EUV de l’instrument Hinode/EIS, j’ai mesuré la vitesse Doppler du plasma dans des boucles dans lesquelles on détecte des pulsations d’intensité.Cela m’a permis de détecter des écoulements de plasma à température coronale associé à certaines pulsations d’intensité.Par ailleurs, j’ai participé à la détection d’un événement de pluie coronale périodique (à température plus froide) dans des séries d’images de l’instrument SDO/AIA.Ces détections permettent de confirmer que les pulsations d’intensité de longue période sont bien le résultat de cycles de TNE, ainsi que d’apporter de nouvelles contraintes sur le chauffage des boucles coronales.Cela permet notamment de conclure que le chauffage des boucles coronales est localisé près de leurs pieds et que son temps de répétition est inférieur au temps de refroidissement du plasma.Afin de détecter les écoulements à haute température, j’ai dû corriger de nombreux effets instrumentaux de EIS.J’ai notamment développé une nouvelle méthode pour aligner les spectres avec des images de l’instrument AIA, qui permet de corriger l’angle de roulis et la variation aléatoire du pointage de EIS.En appliquant cette méthode à un grand nombre de spectres, j’ai réalisé la première mesure systématique de l’angle de roulis de l’instrument.Par la suite, j’ai réalisé des simulations numériques du cas de pluie coronale périodique.Dans ces simulations, j’ai calculé l’évolution du plasma dans la boucle pour différents paramètres de chauffage et différentes géométries du champ magnétique.Cela m’a permis d’identifier les paramètres de chauffage permettant de reproduire le comportement observé.Avec ces simulations, j’ai par ailleurs pu comprendre comment l’asymétrie de la boucle et du chauffage conditionnent la température minimale atteinte par les écoulements qui se forment lors des cycles de non-équilibre thermique. The outermost layer of the solar atmosphere, the corona, is composed of plasma which is hotter than the surface by several orders of magnitude.One of the main challenges in solar physics is to explain how the corona is formed and heated to temperatures of a few million degrees.In this context, I focus on the heating of coronal loops (which are structures composed of plasma confined in magnetic field tubes), and more precisely on thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) cycles.Studying these cycles allows us to characterize the heating of coronal loops.These cycles occur in loops with a highly stratified heating, localized near their footpoints.Among other effects, they cause periodic variations of the temperature and density of the plasma in the loop.These variations result in long-period intensity pulsations, which have recently been detected in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) emission of some coronal loops.In addition, periodic flows of plasma at coronal temperatures occur during these cycles.In some cases, the flowing plasma can cool down by several orders of magnitude, and thus form periodic coronal rain.During my thesis, I worked on the first detection of these periodic plasma flows at coronal and lower temperatures.Using time series of spatially-resolved EUV spectra from the instrument Hinode/EIS, I measured the Doppler velocity of plasma in loops undergoing long-period intensity pulsations.This allowed me to detect flows of plasma at coronal temperatures associated with some maxima of the intensity pulsations.In addition, I took part in the detection of an event of periodic coronal rain (at cooler temperatures), using series of images from the instrument SDO/AIA.These detections confirm that the long-period intensity pulsations detected in coronal loops are indeed the result of TNE cycles, and allow better constrain the heating of the loops.From this, conclude that the heating of coronal loops is highly stratified, localized near their footpoints, with a repetition time shorter than the cooling time of the plasma.Detecting the flows of plasma at coronal temperatures required that I correct many EIS instrumental effects.To that aim, I developed a new method for coalinging EIS spectra with images from AIA.This method can correct the roll angle and the jitter (a random variation of the pointing) of EIS.By applying it to a large number of spectra, I carried out a comprehensive determination of the EIS roll angle.I also performed numerical simulations of the periodic coronal rain event.In these simulations, I computed the evolution of the plasma in the loop for different values of the heating parameters, as well as several magnetic field geometries.This allowed me to determine the heating parameters which are required to reproduce the observed behavior of this loop.By analyzing these simulations, I was also able to understand how the asymmetry of the loop and of the heating determine the minimum temperature of the plasma flows which form during thermal non-equilibrium cycles.

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    Authors: NEPOTU PALAMARCIUC, Tatiana;

    Ce manuscrit présente la synthèse et la caractérisation de deux nouvelles familles de complexes mononucléaires, [Fe(L)2(NCS)2] et [Fe(L)(H2B(pz)2)2], montrant des propriétés bistables. L’étude des structures cristallographiques a permis de discuter l’influence de l’élongation des ligands L sur le réseau cristallin et sur les contacts intermoléculaires ainsi que l’existence de corrélations structures / propriétés. Enfin, la dernière partie de ce travail est consacrée à l’élaboration de façon contrôlée d’objets à transition de spin à l’échelle nanométrique, sous la forme de films déposés par sublimation et de nanoclusters synthétisés en milieu confiné. This thesis presents the synthesis and characterization of two new families of mononuclear complexes, [Fe(L)2(NCS)2] and [Fe(L)(H2B(pz)2)2] showing bistable properties. The crystallographic studies allowed us to discuss the influence of the elongation of the ligands L on the crystal lattice, intermolecular contacts and the existence of structure / properties correlations. The final part of this work shows the controlled synthesis of spin crossover objects at the nanometric scale as thin films prepared by sublimation and nanoclusters synthesized in confined media.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
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      Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: Abou Hamdan, Hussein;

    Les cancers représentent un problème majeur de santé public d'où la nécessité de rechercher de nouvelles classes de médicaments. Parmi les pistes pour développer de nouveaux traitements, deux ont retenu notre attention et celle de nos collaborateurs : la modulation de l’épissage par des composés comme le NVS-SM2, et l’inhibition de l’oncogène KRAS par des dérivés de produits naturels, les flavaglines. Dans ce contexte, nous avons développé la première synthèse robuste du NVS-SM2, qui peut satisfaire la demande globale de cet agent pour examiner en détail son potentiel thérapeutique dans différents types d’affection. En outre, la stratégie de synthèse rapportée ici pourrait être étendue à de nouveaux analogues de ce composé. D’autre part, nous avons synthétisé de nouvelles flavaglines qui sont en cours d'étude pour leurs effets sur l’inhibition de KRAS. Au cours de cette étude, nous avons découvert de nouvelles réactions, notamment une inversion de configuration d’amines induite par du chlorure de diméthylcarbamoyle. Cancers represent a major public health problem hence the need to use new classes of medicines. Among the opportunities for developing new treatments, two have caught our attention and that of our collaborators: the modulation of splicing by compounds such as NVS-SM2, and the inhibition of the oncogene KRAS by derivatives of natural products, the flavaglines.In this context, we have developed the first robust synthesis of NVS-SM2, which can satisfy the global demand of this agent to examine in detail its therapeutic potential in different types of disorders. In addition, the synthetic strategy reported here could be extended to new analogues of this compound. Furthermore, we have synthesized new flavaglines that have been examined for their effects on KRAS inhibition. During this study, we discovered new reactions, including a dimethylcarbamoyl chloride-induced amine inversion of configuration.

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    Authors: Gaudrain, Etienne; Patterson, Roy;

    L'identité vocale d'un locuteur est largement définie par l'anatomie de son appareil phonatoire. La hauteur fondamentale de sa voix est définie par la taille et la masse de ses cordes vocales (ainsi que par la tension qu'il y applique). La longueur de son tractus vocal définie une grandeur d'\emph{échelle acoustique} que l'auditeur associera à la taille du locuteur. En combinant ces deux informations, il est possible d'estimer la taille, l'âge et le genre du locuteur à partir se sa voix. Cependant, la fréquence fondamentale est rarement fixe et varie pour participer à la prosodie. De même, la longueur du tractus vocal varierait faiblement pour transmettre certaines émotions. L'étude présentée ici vise à caractériser les variations de hauteur fondamentale et de longueur de tractus vocal qu'un locuteur peut tolérer avant de décider que le locuteur a changé. Les résultats montrent que les auditeurs sont bien plus tolérants pour un changement de hauteur fondamental que pour un changement de longueur de tractus vocal, alors même qu'ils sont moins sensibles à ce dernier. Ces résultats concordent avec les variations observées dans des enregistrements de parole et suggèrent que les auditeurs ont développé un modèle de locuteur par apprentissage. Les implications de ces résultats pour l'étude de l'analyse des scènes auditives et pour l'étude de l'organisation du système auditif sont discutées.

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    Authors: Renault, Coralie;

    Dans cette thèse, on s'est intéressé à la dynamique des poches de tourbillon pour des équations issues de la mécanique des fluides posées dans le plan. La thèse est composée de trois partie indépendantes. Un des objectifs est d'établir l'existence des tourbillons uniformément concentrés et rigides, c’est-à-dire, qui ne se déforment pas lors de l'évolution. Nous analysons deux configurations liées à la nature topologique du support: poches simplement et doublement connexes. Nos solutions sont obtenues via des techniques de bifurcations et d'analyse complexe. Le deuxième objectif est d'obtenir des précisions sur la structure globale du diagramme de bifurcation et sa réponse vis-à-vis des petites perturbations dans le modèle. Plus précisément, dans le deuxième chapitre on prouve l'existence de V-states doublement connexes dans un voisinage de l'anneau pour le modèle des surfaces quasi-géostrophique. On montre que l'on peut construire des branches de solutions qui sont des anneaux perturbés pour certaines valeurs explicites de vitesses angulaires qui sont liées aux fonctions hypergéométriques de Gauss et aux fonctions de Bessel. Le troisième chapitre porte sur l'étude de la structure du diagramme de bifurcation dans le cas doublement connexes pour l'équation d'Euler. Numériquement, près d'un cas dégénéré, les deux branches issues des deux vitesses angulaires possibles semblaient se rejoindre pour former un lacet. Nous avons prouvé analytiquement ce résultat. Le quatrième chapitre porte sur le modèle shallow water quasi-géostrophique. Dans une première partie, on prouve l'existence de V-states simplement connexes dans un voisinage du tourbillon de Rankine pour un nombre dénombrable de vitesses angulaires liées aux fonctions de Bessel modifiées. La deuxième partie porte sur la réponse du diagramme de bifurcation lorsque l'on fait varier un paramètre du modèle. On montre en particulier qu'une singularité présente lors d'un cas limite est éclatée. Notre étude analytique a été complétée par des simulations numériques portant sur les V-states limites pour les symétries deux et trois. In this dissertation, we are concerned with the vortex dynamics for some equations arising in fluid mechanics. We distinguish three independent parts. One of the objectives is to prove the existence of uniformly concentrated rigid vortices, they do not change their shapes during the motion. We examine two configurations related to the topological nature of the support: simply and doubly connected vortex patches. Our solutions are obtained using bifurcation arguments and complex analysis tools. The second objective is to obtain some precisions on the global structure of the bifurcation diagram and its response to small perturbations. More precisely, in the second chapter we prove the existence of doubly connected V-states in a neighborhood of the annulus for the surface quasi-geostrophic model. We check that we can construct some branches of solutions which are perturbated annulus at some angular velocities related to hypergeometric Gauss functions and Bessel functions. The goal of the third chapter is to study the structure of the bifurcation diagram in the doubly connected case for Euler equations. Numerically, close to a degenerate case, the two branches of solutions come from the two angular velocities seems to merge to form a loop. We prove analytically this result. In the last chapter, we focus on the shallow quasi-geostrophic model. In the first part, we prove the existence of the simply V-states in a neighborhood of the Rankine Vortices for a countable number of angular velocities related to modified Bessel functions. In the second part, we study the reaction of the diagram bifurcation for small perturbations of the parameter. In particular, we prove that some singularities are broken due to a resonance phenomenon. Our analytical study is completed by numerical simulations on the limiting V-states for the two and three fold symetries.

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    Authors: Vidal, Jérémie; Su, Sylvie; Cébron, David;

    Acoustic eigenmodes are often used to passively infer physical properties of the interiors of rotating planets and stars. Acoustic wave imaging has been also introduced in fluid dynamics. The experimental technique consists in observing and analysing the splitting in frequency of the acoustic modes, by solving an inverse problem. For instance, the presence of an (unknown) rotational profile disturbs the acoustic spectrum. Moreover, a topographic splitting is often superimposed on the rotational splitting. Indeed, rotating celestial objects are rather ellipsoidal than spherical at the leading order, as well as laboratory experiments which are weakly non-spherical (due to mechanical deformations). Rotation and topography should be taken into account simultaneously, but the acoustic problem does not admit exact solutions in the presence of rotation. Fully numerical solutions are often computed. However, they cannot be easily combined with inversion schemes to yield robust results. Hence, the usual approach is to consider small perturbations to non-rotating solutions. As an alternative, we present a new description of the compressible modes, relying on the method of weighted residuals. Here, we present a new spectral method to describe potential flows in triaxial ellipsoids. It relies on an explicit Galerkin expansion, made of global polynomials expressed in Cartesian coordinates. We illustrate this method by considering the canonical situation of diffusionless acoustic modes in an homogeneous, compressible and homentropic fluid ellipsoid at rest. The pressure satisfies a Dirichlet condition (sound soft boundary). We validate our results against fully numerical simulations performed with the commercial software comsol, showing a perfect quantitative agreement. This new method will be extended to include additional effects and alternative boundary conditions. Les modes acoustiques sont couramment utilisés pour déterminer les propriétés physiques de l'intérieur des planètes et des étoiles. La méthode d'imagerie par vélocimétrie acoustique a été récemment introduite en mécanique des fluides, en complément des méthodes d'imagerie existantes. Elle consiste à reconstruire l'écoulement à partir de la levée de dégénérescence des modes acoustiques, observée expérimentalement (par exemple) en présence d'un profil de rotation. Ainsi, des algorithmes d'inversion sont nécessaires pour reconstruire indirectement l'écoulement en rotation dans des expériences en géométrie quasi-sphérique. Cependant, les objets célestes et les expériences ne sont pas rigoureusement sphériques, mais plutôt ellipsoïdaux (au premier ordre). Les effets topographiques et la rotation doivent alors être pris en compte correctement dans le modèle physique. Les méthodes analytiques et numériques existantes (en géométrie déformée) ne peuvent plus alors être couplées facilement et efficacement aux algorithmes d'inversion. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous avons développé une nouvelle méthode de Galerkin semi-analytique en ellipsoïdes tri-axes. Elle repose sur une décomposition polynomiale explicite, en coordonnées cartésiennes, des écoulements potentiels en ellipsoïdes. Nous illustrons la méthode en considérant les modes acoustiques d'un fluide compressible, uniforme et homentropique, avec une condition de Dirichlet homogène à la paroi (condition isobare). Nous validons nos résultats avec des simulations numériques réalisées avec le logiciel comsol. Nous étendrons cette méthode novatrice afin de prendre en compte des effets physiques supplémentaires, afin de décrire plus précisément les conditions expérimentales.

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    Authors: Kinjo, Ryota; Calvi, Marco; Zhang, Kai; Hellmann, Sebastian; +5 Authors

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    Authors: Deheuvels, Sébastien;

    La qualité des données sismiques du satellite CoRoT ouvre de nouveaux horizons dans l'étude de la structure interne et de l'évolution des étoiles. Mon travail de thèse a consisté à l'analyse et à l'interprétation des spectres d'oscillations de pulsateurs de type solaire observés au sol et depuis l'espace, en particulier avec le satellite CoRoT. L'objectif de l'analyse d'un spectre d'oscillations est de déterminer les paramètres des modes propres de l'étoile (fréquences propres, amplitudes, durées de vie). Au sein du DAT (groupe en charge de l'analyse des pulsateurs de type solaire observés avec CoRoT), j'ai contribué à adapter aux objets étudiés une méthode utilisée avec succès pour extraire les paramètres des modes du Soleil. J'ai appliqué cette méthode à l'analyse des cinq premiers pulsateurs de type solaire observés avec CoRoT. Un soin particulier a été consacré à l'étude de la significativité des pics détectés, qui a permis de conforter la détection de modes mixtes dans le spectre de l'étoile HD 49385. Dans le cadre de mon travail de modélisation et d'interprétation, j'ai recherché les informations qu'apportent les paramètres sismiques sur la structure du cœur de certaines des étoiles analysées. Ces étoiles possèdent (ou ont possédé) un cœur convectif, dont les caractéristiques dépendent des processus de transport des éléments chimiques (e.g. l'overshooting), aujourd'hui mal décrits par les modèles théoriques. J'ai modélisé trois pulsateurs de type solaire de masses et de stades évolutifs différents, dont les paramètres sismiques permettent de sonder le cœur et donc de contraindre observationnellement les processus de transport. En particulier, la détection dans l'étoile HD 49385 de modes mixtes en croisement évité m'a amené à étudier l'apport de ce type de mode à la compréhension de la structure du cœur. The high-quality seismic data obtained with the CoRoT satellite open new opportunities for the study of stellar interiors and evolution. My PhD thesis consisted of the analysis and the interpretation of the oscillation spectra of several solar-like pulsators observed from both the ground and space, in particular with the CoRoT satellite. When analyzing an oscillation spectrum, the goal is to determine the parameters of the star pulsation modes (the eigenfrequencies, amplitudes, lifetimes,...). Within the DAT (group responsible for the analysis of the solar-like pulsators observed with CoRoT), I contributed to adapt to the studied objects a method successfully used to extract the mode parameters of the Sun. I applied this method to the analysis of the first five solar-like pulsators observed with CoRoT. Particular care was given to the determination of the significance of the detected peaks, which strengthened the detection of mixed modes in the spectrum of the star HD 49385. In the framework of the interpretation of the oscillation spectra, I investigated the information which the seismic parameters convey about the structure of the core for several of the analyzed stars. These stars have (or have had) a convective core, whose characteristics depend on chemical transport processes (e.g. overshooting), which are currently ill-described by theoretical models. I modeled three solar-like pulsators which have different masses and evolutionary stages. Their seismic parameters make it possible to probe their cores and therefore to obtain observational constraints on the processes of transport. In particular, the detection of mixed modes in avoided crossing in the spectrum of the star HD 49385 has led me to study how this type of mode can contribute to the understanding of the structure of the core.

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    Authors: Mahler, Guillaume;

    Les amas de galaxies sont des structures massives composées à plus de 80% de matière noire. Leur coeur peut atteindre une densité de masse critique qui en déformant l'espace-temps fait converger les rayons lumineux vers l'observateur. Grâce à des relevés photométriques profonds de l'amas Abell 2744, de nombreux systèmes multiples ont été découverts. Identifier ces systèmes reste un défi, j'ai donc développé une méthode robuste basée sur les propriétés photométriques conservées par l'effet de lentille gravitationnelle qui permet de les détecter automatiquement. Le meilleur moyen de prouver que des images proviennent de la même galaxie reste la mesure de leur distance(redshifts) grâce à leur spectre. En analysant les données collectées par le spectrographe à intégrale de champ MUSE j'ai mesuré un grand nombre de sources (514) dont 83 d'entre elles sont des images multiples. Bénéficiant de cette large couverture spectrale, j'ai créé un modèle paramétrique de masse parmi les plus contraints à ce jour. La sensibilité atteinte par le modèle permet de sonder l'influence de structures périphériques (jusqu'à une distance de 700kpc), révélant ainsi des erreurs systématiques sur la mesure de la masse due à la paramétrisation du modèle (6%). Comparé aux précédentes études, on voit une diminution de 10% de la masse dans un rayon 100 kpc montrant ainsi en partie le gain offert par la spectroscopie. Ce gain, bien que négligeable sur la mesure de l'amplification, s'est avéré pouvoir contraindre la balance en masse entre les différentes composantes de notre modèle, dépassant par endroits 2 fois l'incertitude statistique Clusters of galaxies are large and massive structures containing more than 80% of dark matter. In the cluster core, the mass density can reach a critical threshold making the curvature of space-time large enough to bend light path and then allow multiple convergence of images from the same sources to appear on the observer field of view. Thanks to deep photometric coverage of Abell 2744, a lot of multiply-imaged systems were discovered. Nevertheless, finding them remain a challenge and based on the preserved photometric properties by lensing, I developed a robust method to automatically find them. However, measuring the redshifts for each multiple images remains the best way to surely associate them. The deep coverage of the integral field spectrograph MUSE allowed me to identify a large number of sources ( 514 ) among them 83 were multiple images. Thanks to this large spectroscopic coverage, I built one of the most constrained parametric mass model for lensing cluster to date. The sensitivity raised by this model allow me to probe the influence of outskirts substructures ( at 700 kpc distance ), revealing systematic sources of uncertainties related to the mass model parametrisation ( 6% ). Compared to previous studies, I notice a 10% lower mass in the center ( within 100kpc ) showing one of the benefit of large spectroscopic constraints. This benefit, is smaller on the amplification estimation but shows a significant discrepancy between different mass counterparts in the models, up to 2 times the statistical uncertainties

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    Authors: Clegg, Matthew; Ruiz, Harold;

    International audience

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    Authors: Pelouze, Gabriel;

    La couche la plus externe de l’atmosphère solaire, la couronne, est composée de plasma dont la température dépasse de plusieurs ordres de grandeur celle de la surface.Expliquer comment la couronne est chauffée à des températures de l’ordre d’un million de degrés constitue un défi majeur de la physique solaire.Dans ce contexte, je m’intéresse au chauffage des boucles coronales (qui sont des structures composées de plasma confiné dans des tubes de champ magnétique) et plus particulièrement aux cycles de non-équilibre thermique (TNE).L’étude de ces cycles permet de caractériser le chauffage des boucles.Ces cycles se développent dans des boucles soumises à un chauffage fortement stratifié, localisé près de leurs pieds.Ils se traduisent notamment par une variation périodique de la température et de la densité du plasma dans la boucle.Ces variations engendrent des pulsations d’intensité de longue période, qui sont détectées depuis peu dans l’émission en extrême-ultraviolet (EUV) de certaines boucles coronales.Par ailleurs, des écoulements périodiques de plasma à températures coronales se produisent durant ces cycles.Dans certains cas, le plasma qui s’écoule peut refroidir de plusieurs ordres de grandeur et former de la pluie coronale périodique.Durant ma thèse, j’ai travaillé à la première détection de ces écoulements à haute et à basse température.En utilisant des séries temporelles de spectres EUV de l’instrument Hinode/EIS, j’ai mesuré la vitesse Doppler du plasma dans des boucles dans lesquelles on détecte des pulsations d’intensité.Cela m’a permis de détecter des écoulements de plasma à température coronale associé à certaines pulsations d’intensité.Par ailleurs, j’ai participé à la détection d’un événement de pluie coronale périodique (à température plus froide) dans des séries d’images de l’instrument SDO/AIA.Ces détections permettent de confirmer que les pulsations d’intensité de longue période sont bien le résultat de cycles de TNE, ainsi que d’apporter de nouvelles contraintes sur le chauffage des boucles coronales.Cela permet notamment de conclure que le chauffage des boucles coronales est localisé près de leurs pieds et que son temps de répétition est inférieur au temps de refroidissement du plasma.Afin de détecter les écoulements à haute température, j’ai dû corriger de nombreux effets instrumentaux de EIS.J’ai notamment développé une nouvelle méthode pour aligner les spectres avec des images de l’instrument AIA, qui permet de corriger l’angle de roulis et la variation aléatoire du pointage de EIS.En appliquant cette méthode à un grand nombre de spectres, j’ai réalisé la première mesure systématique de l’angle de roulis de l’instrument.Par la suite, j’ai réalisé des simulations numériques du cas de pluie coronale périodique.Dans ces simulations, j’ai calculé l’évolution du plasma dans la boucle pour différents paramètres de chauffage et différentes géométries du champ magnétique.Cela m’a permis d’identifier les paramètres de chauffage permettant de reproduire le comportement observé.Avec ces simulations, j’ai par ailleurs pu comprendre comment l’asymétrie de la boucle et du chauffage conditionnent la température minimale atteinte par les écoulements qui se forment lors des cycles de non-équilibre thermique. The outermost layer of the solar atmosphere, the corona, is composed of plasma which is hotter than the surface by several orders of magnitude.One of the main challenges in solar physics is to explain how the corona is formed and heated to temperatures of a few million degrees.In this context, I focus on the heating of coronal loops (which are structures composed of plasma confined in magnetic field tubes), and more precisely on thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) cycles.Studying these cycles allows us to characterize the heating of coronal loops.These cycles occur in loops with a highly stratified heating, localized near their footpoints.Among other effects, they cause periodic variations of the temperature and density of the plasma in the loop.These variations result in long-period intensity pulsations, which have recently been detected in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) emission of some coronal loops.In addition, periodic flows of plasma at coronal temperatures occur during these cycles.In some cases, the flowing plasma can cool down by several orders of magnitude, and thus form periodic coronal rain.During my thesis, I worked on the first detection of these periodic plasma flows at coronal and lower temperatures.Using time series of spatially-resolved EUV spectra from the instrument Hinode/EIS, I measured the Doppler velocity of plasma in loops undergoing long-period intensity pulsations.This allowed me to detect flows of plasma at coronal temperatures associated with some maxima of the intensity pulsations.In addition, I took part in the detection of an event of periodic coronal rain (at cooler temperatures), using series of images from the instrument SDO/AIA.These detections confirm that the long-period intensity pulsations detected in coronal loops are indeed the result of TNE cycles, and allow better constrain the heating of the loops.From this, conclude that the heating of coronal loops is highly stratified, localized near their footpoints, with a repetition time shorter than the cooling time of the plasma.Detecting the flows of plasma at coronal temperatures required that I correct many EIS instrumental effects.To that aim, I developed a new method for coalinging EIS spectra with images from AIA.This method can correct the roll angle and the jitter (a random variation of the pointing) of EIS.By applying it to a large number of spectra, I carried out a comprehensive determination of the EIS roll angle.I also performed numerical simulations of the periodic coronal rain event.In these simulations, I computed the evolution of the plasma in the loop for different values of the heating parameters, as well as several magnetic field geometries.This allowed me to determine the heating parameters which are required to reproduce the observed behavior of this loop.By analyzing these simulations, I was also able to understand how the asymmetry of the loop and of the heating determine the minimum temperature of the plasma flows which form during thermal non-equilibrium cycles.

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    Authors: NEPOTU PALAMARCIUC, Tatiana;

    Ce manuscrit présente la synthèse et la caractérisation de deux nouvelles familles de complexes mononucléaires, [Fe(L)2(NCS)2] et [Fe(L)(H2B(pz)2)2], montrant des propriétés bistables. L’étude des structures cristallographiques a permis de discuter l’influence de l’élongation des ligands L sur le réseau cristallin et sur les contacts intermoléculaires ainsi que l’existence de corrélations structures / propriétés. Enfin, la dernière partie de ce travail est consacrée à l’élaboration de façon contrôlée d’objets à transition de spin à l’échelle nanométrique, sous la forme de films déposés par sublimation et de nanoclusters synthétisés en milieu confiné. This thesis presents the synthesis and characterization of two new families of mononuclear complexes, [Fe(L)2(NCS)2] and [Fe(L)(H2B(pz)2)2] showing bistable properties. The crystallographic studies allowed us to discuss the influence of the elongation of the ligands L on the crystal lattice, intermolecular contacts and the existence of structure / properties correlations. The final part of this work shows the controlled synthesis of spin crossover objects at the nanometric scale as thin films prepared by sublimation and nanoclusters synthesized in confined media.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
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      Oskar Bordeaux
      Doctoral thesis
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    Authors: Abou Hamdan, Hussein;

    Les cancers représentent un problème majeur de santé public d'où la nécessité de rechercher de nouvelles classes de médicaments. Parmi les pistes pour développer de nouveaux traitements, deux ont retenu notre attention et celle de nos collaborateurs : la modulation de l’épissage par des composés comme le NVS-SM2, et l’inhibition de l’oncogène KRAS par des dérivés de produits naturels, les flavaglines. Dans ce contexte, nous avons développé la première synthèse robuste du NVS-SM2, qui peut satisfaire la demande globale de cet agent pour examiner en détail son potentiel thérapeutique dans différents types d’affection. En outre, la stratégie de synthèse rapportée ici pourrait être étendue à de nouveaux analogues de ce composé. D’autre part, nous avons synthétisé de nouvelles flavaglines qui sont en cours d'étude pour leurs effets sur l’inhibition de KRAS. Au cours de cette étude, nous avons découvert de nouvelles réactions, notamment une inversion de configuration d’amines induite par du chlorure de diméthylcarbamoyle. Cancers represent a major public health problem hence the need to use new classes of medicines. Among the opportunities for developing new treatments, two have caught our attention and that of our collaborators: the modulation of splicing by compounds such as NVS-SM2, and the inhibition of the oncogene KRAS by derivatives of natural products, the flavaglines.In this context, we have developed the first robust synthesis of NVS-SM2, which can satisfy the global demand of this agent to examine in detail its therapeutic potential in different types of disorders. In addition, the synthetic strategy reported here could be extended to new analogues of this compound. Furthermore, we have synthesized new flavaglines that have been examined for their effects on KRAS inhibition. During this study, we discovered new reactions, including a dimethylcarbamoyl chloride-induced amine inversion of configuration.

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