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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Taylor, JSH; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen;

    Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies. Following 2 wk of training, participants read the trained words while neural activity was measured with functional MRI. Representational similarity analysis on item pairs from the same orthography revealed that right vOT and posterior regions of left vOT were sensitive to basic visual similarity. Left vOT encoded letter identity and representations became more invariant to position along a posterior-to-anterior hierarchy. Item pairs that shared sounds or meanings, but were written in different orthographies with no letters in common, evoked similar neural patterns in anterior left vOT. These results reveal a hierarchical, posterior-to-anterior gradient in vOT, in which representations of letters become increasingly invariant to position and are transformed to convey spoken language information. Significance Learning to read is the most important milestone in a child’s education. However, controversies remain regarding how readers’ brains transform written words into sounds and meanings. We address these by combining artificial language learning with neuroimaging to reveal how the brain represents written words. Participants learned to read new words written in 2 different alphabets. Following 2 wk of training, we found a hierarchy of brain areas that support reading. Letter position is represented more flexibly from lower to higher visual regions. Furthermore, higher visual regions encode information about word sounds and meanings. These findings advance our understanding of how the brain comprehends language from arbitrary visual symbols.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Apollo
      Article . 2020
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2019
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chan, Dennis; Shafto, Meredith; Kievit, Rogier; Matthews, Fiona; +4 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionThis study tested the hypothesis that mid-life intellectual, physical and social activities contribute to cognitive reserve (CR).Methods205 individuals (196 with MRI) aged 66-88 from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (www.cam-can.com) were studied, with cognitive ability and structural brain health measured as fluid IQ and total grey matter volume, respectively. Mid-life activities were measured using the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire.ResultsMultivariable linear regression found that mid-life activities (MA) made a unique contribution to late-life cognitive ability independent of education, occupation and late-life activities. Crucially, MA moderated the relationship between late-life cognitive ability and brain structure, with the cognitive ability of people with higher MA less dependent on their brain structure, consistent with the concept of CR.Conclusions. Mid-life intellectual, physical and social activities contribute uniquely to CR. The modifiability of these activities has implications for public health initiatives aimed at dementia prevention.

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    Apollo
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
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    https://www.biorxiv.org/conten...
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neurobiology of Aging
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Apollo
    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neurobiology of Aging
      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Taylor, J. S. H.; Davis, Matthew H.; Rastle, Kathleen;

    There is strong scientific consensus that emphasizing print-to-sound relationships is critical when learning to read alphabetic languages. Nevertheless, reading instruction varies across English-speaking countries, from intensive phonic training to multicuing environments that teach sound- and meaning-based strategies. We sought to understand the behavioral and neural consequences of these differences in relative emphasis. We taught 24 English-speaking adults to read 2 sets of 24 novel words (e.g., /buv/, /sig/), written in 2 different unfamiliar orthographies. Following pretraining on oral vocabulary, participants learned to read the novel words over 8 days. Training in 1 language was biased toward print-to-sound mappings while training in the other language was biased toward print-to-meaning mappings. Results showed striking benefits of print-sound training on reading aloud, generalization, and comprehension of single words. Univariate analyses of fMRI data collected at the end of training showed that print-meaning relative to print-sound relative training increased neural effort in dorsal pathway regions involved in reading aloud. Conversely, activity in ventral pathway brain regions involved in reading comprehension was no different following print-meaning versus print-sound training. Multivariate analyses validated our artificial language approach, showing high similarity between the spatial distribution of fMRI activity during artificial and English word reading. Our results suggest that early literacy education should focus on the systematicities present in print-to-sound relationships in alphabetic languages, rather than teaching meaning-based strategies, in order to enhance both reading aloud and comprehension of written words. (PsycINFO Database Record

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Experimen...arrow_drop_down
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    Apollo
    Article . 2018
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Journal of Experimental Psychology General
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Apollo
      Article . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2017
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      Journal of Experimental Psychology General
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R.; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; +2 Authors

    Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing.

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    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
      Article
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      Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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    Authors: Kevanne Louise, Sanger; Guillaume, Thierry; Dusana, Dorjee;

    AbstractIn a non‐randomized controlled study, we investigated the efficacy of a school‐based mindfulness curriculum delivered by schoolteachers to older secondary school students (16–18 years). We measured changes in emotion processing indexed by P3b event‐related potential (ERP) modulations in an affective oddball task using static human faces. ERPs were recorded to happy and sad face oddballs presented in a stimulus stream of frequent faces with neutral expression, before and after 8 weeks of mindfulness training. Whilst the mean amplitude of the P3b, an ERP component typically elicited by infrequent oddballs, decreased between testing sessions in the control group, it remained unchanged in the training group. Significant increases in self‐reported well‐being and fewer doctor visits for mental health support were also reported in the training group as compared to controls. The observed habituation to emotional stimuli in controls thus contrasted with maintained sensitivity in mindfulness‐trained students. These results suggest that in‐school mindfulness training for adolescents has scope for increasing awareness of socially relevant emotional stimuli, irrespective of valence, and thus may decrease vulnerability to depression.

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    Developmental Science
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Developmental Science
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      Developmental Science
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Developmental Science
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    Authors: Isabelle Dautriche; Hugh Rabagliati; Kenny Smith;

    International audience; Learning is often accompanied by a subjective sense of confidence in one’s knowledge, a feeling of knowing what you know and how well you know it. Subjective confidence has been shown to guide learning in other domains, but has received little attention so far in the word learning literature. Across three word learning experiments, we investigated whether and how a sense of confidence in having acquired a word meaning influences the word learning process itself. First, we show evidence for a confirmation bias during word learning in a cross-situational statistical learning task: Learners who are highly confident they know the meaning of a word are more likely to persist in their belief than learners who are not, even after observing objective evidence disconfirming their belief. Second, we show that subjective confidence in a word meaning modulates inferential processes based on that word, affecting learning over the whole lexicon: Learners who hold high confidence in a word meaning are more likely to use that word to make mutual exclusivity inferences about the meaning of other words. We conclude that confidence influences word learning by modulating both information selection processes and inferential processes and discuss the implications of these results for word learning models.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2021
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    Journal of Memory and Language
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.i...
    Preprint . 2021
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2021
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      Journal of Memory and Language
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.i...
      Preprint . 2021
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    Authors: Krishnan, Saloni; Leech, Robert; Mercure, Evelyne; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; +1 Authors

    In adults, patterns of neural activation associated with perhaps the most basic language skill--overt object naming--are extensively modulated by the psycholinguistic and visual complexity of the stimuli. Do children's brains react similarly when confronted with increasing processing demands, or they solve this problem in a different way? Here we scanned 37 children aged 7-13 and 19 young adults who performed a well-normed picture-naming task with 3 levels of difficulty. While neural organization for naming was largely similar in childhood and adulthood, adults had greater activation in all naming conditions over inferior temporal gyri and superior temporal gyri/supramarginal gyri. Manipulating naming complexity affected adults and children quite differently: neural activation, especially over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed complexity-dependent increases in adults, but complexity-dependent decreases in children. These represent fundamentally different responses to the linguistic and conceptual challenges of a simple naming task that makes no demands on literacy or metalinguistics. We discuss how these neural differences might result from different cognitive strategies used by adults and children during lexical retrieval/production as well as developmental changes in brain structure and functional connectivity.

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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kaushalya Jayaweera; Jeffrey M. Craig; Helena M. S. Zavos; Nihal Abeysinghe; +19 Authors

    IntroductionWorldwide, 10%–20% of children and adolescents experience mental health conditions. However, most such disorders remain undiagnosed until adolescence or adulthood. Little is known about the factors that influence mental health in children and adolescents, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where environmental threats, such as poverty and war, may affect optimal neurodevelopment. Cohort studies provide important information on risks and resilience across the life course by enabling tracking of the effects of early life environment on health during childhood and beyond. Large birth cohort studies, including twin cohorts that can be aetiologically informative, have been conducted within high-income countries but are not generalisable to LMIC. There are limited longitudinal birth cohort studies in LMIC.MethodsWe sought to enhance the volume of impactful research in Sri Lanka by establishing a Centre of Excellence for cohort studies. The aim is to establish a register of infant, child and adolescent twins, including mothers pregnant with twins, starting in the districts of Colombo (Western Province) and Vavuniya (Northern Province). We will gain consent from twins or parents for future research projects. This register will provide the platform to investigate the aetiology of mental illness and the impact of challenges to early brain development on future mental health. Using this register, we will be able to conduct research that will (1) expand existing research capacity on child and adolescent mental health and twin methods; (2) further consolidate existing partnerships and (3) establish new collaborations. The initiative is underpinned by three pillars: high-quality research, ethics, and patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE).Ethics and disseminationEthical approval for this study was obtained from the Ethics Review Committee of Sri Lanka Medical Association and Keele University’s Ethical Review Panel. In addition to journal publications, a range of PPIE activities have been conducted.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    BMJ Open
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Alessandro Di Nuovo; Tim Jay; Tim Jay;

    Numerical cognition is a distinctive component of human intelligence such that the observation of\ud its practice provides a window into high-level brain function. The modelling of numerical abilities in artificial\ud cognitive systems can help to confirm existing child development hypotheses and define new ones by\ud means of computational simulations. Meanwhile, new research will help to discover innovative principles\ud for the design of artificial agents with advanced reasoning capabilities and clarify the underlying algorithms\ud (e.g. deep learning) that can be highly effective but difficult to understand for humans.\ud This article promotes new investigation by providing a common resource for researchers with different\ud backgrounds, including computer science, robotics, neuroscience, psychology, and education, who are\ud interested in pursuing scientific collaboration on mutually stimulating research on this topic. The article\ud emphasises the fundamental role of embodiment in the initial development of numerical cognition in\ud children. This strong relationship with the body motivates the Cognitive Developmental Robotics (CDR)\ud approach for new research that can (among others) help to standardise data collection and provide open\ud databases for benchmarking computational models. Furthermore, we discuss the potential application of\ud robots in classrooms and argue that the CDR approach can be extended to assist educators and favour\ud mathematical education.

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    Cognitive Computation and Systems
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      Cognitive Computation and Systems
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Thomas, Michael S.C.; Ansari, Daniel; Knowland, Victoria C.P.;

    Educational neuroscience is an interdisciplinary research field that seeks to translate research findings on neural mechanisms of learning to educational practice and policy and to understand the effects of education on the brain. Neuroscience and education can interact directly, by virtue of considering the brain as a biological organ that needs to be in the optimal condition to learn (‘brain health’); or indirectly, as neuroscience shapes psychological theory and psychology influences education. In this article, we trace the origins of educational neuroscience, its main areas of research activity and the principal challenges it faces as a translational field. We consider how a pure psychology approach that ignores neuroscience is at risk of being misleading for educators. We address the major criticisms of the field comprising, respectively, a priori arguments against the relevance of neuroscience to education, reservations with the current practical operation of the field, and doubts about the viability of neuroscience methods for diagnosing disorders or predicting individual differences. We consider future prospects of the field and ethical issues it raises. Finally, we discuss the challenge of responding to the (welcome) desire of education policymakers to include neuroscience evidence in their policymaking, while ensuring recommendations do not exceed the limitations of current basic science. Read the Commentary on this article at doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13030

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    Scholarship@Western
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Scholarship@Western
      Article . 2019
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      Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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      Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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    Authors: Taylor, JSH; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen;

    Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies. Following 2 wk of training, participants read the trained words while neural activity was measured with functional MRI. Representational similarity analysis on item pairs from the same orthography revealed that right vOT and posterior regions of left vOT were sensitive to basic visual similarity. Left vOT encoded letter identity and representations became more invariant to position along a posterior-to-anterior hierarchy. Item pairs that shared sounds or meanings, but were written in different orthographies with no letters in common, evoked similar neural patterns in anterior left vOT. These results reveal a hierarchical, posterior-to-anterior gradient in vOT, in which representations of letters become increasingly invariant to position and are transformed to convey spoken language information. Significance Learning to read is the most important milestone in a child’s education. However, controversies remain regarding how readers’ brains transform written words into sounds and meanings. We address these by combining artificial language learning with neuroimaging to reveal how the brain represents written words. Participants learned to read new words written in 2 different alphabets. Following 2 wk of training, we found a hierarchy of brain areas that support reading. Letter position is represented more flexibly from lower to higher visual regions. Furthermore, higher visual regions encode information about word sounds and meanings. These findings advance our understanding of how the brain comprehends language from arbitrary visual symbols.

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    Apollo
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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