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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
    Preprint
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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      https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: de Berker, A.; Kurth-Nelson, Z.; Rutledge, R. ; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7337-5039; Bestmann, S.; +1 Authors

    How organisms learn the value of single stimuli through experience is well described. In many decisions, however, value estimates are computed “on the fly” by combining multiple stimulus attributes. The neural basis of this computation is poorly understood. Here we explore a common scenario in which decision-makers must combine information about quality and quantity to determine the best option. Using fMRI, we examined the neural representation of quality, quantity, and their integration into an integrated subjective value signal in humans of both genders. We found that activity within inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) correlated with offer quality, while activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically correlated with offer quantity. Several brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), were sensitive to an interaction of quality and quantity. However, the ACC was uniquely activated by quality, quantity, and their interaction, suggesting that this region provides a substrate for flexible computation of value from both quality and quantity. Furthermore, ACC signals across subjects correlated with the strength of quality and quantity signals in IFG and IPS, respectively. ACC tracking of subjective value also correlated with choice predictability. Finally, activity in the ACC was elevated for choice trials, suggesting that ACC provides a nexus for the computation of subjective value in multiattribute decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Would you prefer three apples or two oranges? Many choices we make each day require us to weigh up the quality and quantity of different outcomes. Using fMRI, we show that option quality is selectively represented in the inferior frontal gyrus, while option quantity correlates with areas of the intraparietal sulcus that have previously been associated with numerical processing. We show that information about the two is integrated into a value signal in the anterior cingulate cortex, and the fidelity of this integration predicts choice predictability. Our results demonstrate how on-the-fly value estimates are computed from multiple attributes in human value-based decision-making.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Laurel S. Morris; Benjaman To; Kwangyeol Baek; Yee-Chien Chang-Webb; +8 Authors

    Background Functional neurological disorder (FND) is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. Methods We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV). Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS +/CS −) information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance). Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. Results FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS + compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS +/CS −), persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. Conclusions FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND. We highlight a potential mechanism by which negative contexts interfere with adaptive behaviours in this under-explored disorder. Highlights • Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a relatively common but elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms and negative affect. • One theory of FND symptomology is related to unconscious harm avoidance, in which symptom expression occurs to avoid a stressful situation. • We show that FND patients were more sensitive to negative information. However, this did not translate to increased harm avoidance as patients were impaired at goal-directed avoidance learning. • This study suggests that excessive negative conditioning in this group may engender deficient, rather than increased, goal-directed cognitive ability and loss avoidance.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ullrich Bartsch; Nicholas A Donnelly; Hayley A Moulding; Christopher Eaton; +6 Authors

    Background:Young people living with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at increased risk of schizophrenia, intellectual disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In common with these conditions, 22q11.2DS is also associated with sleep problems. We investigated whether abnormal sleep or sleep-dependent network activity in 22q11.2DS reflects convergent, early signatures of neural circuit disruption also evident in associated neurodevelopmental conditions.Methods:In a cross-sectional design, we recorded high-density sleep EEG in young people (6–20 years) with 22q11.2DS (n=28) and their unaffected siblings (n=17), quantifying associations between sleep architecture, EEG oscillations (spindles and slow waves) and psychiatric symptoms. We also measured performance on a memory task before and after sleep.Results:22q11.2DS was associated with significant alterations in sleep architecture, including a greater proportion of N3 sleep and lower proportions of N1 and REM sleep than in siblings. During sleep, deletion carriers showed broadband increases in EEG power with increased slow-wave and spindle amplitudes, increased spindle frequency and density, and stronger coupling between spindles and slow-waves. Spindle and slow-wave amplitudes correlated positively with overnight memory in controls, but negatively in 22q11.2DS. Mediation analyses indicated that genotype effects on anxiety, ADHD and ASD were partially mediated by sleep EEG measures.Conclusions:This study provides a detailed description of sleep neurophysiology in 22q11.2DS, highlighting alterations in EEG signatures of sleep which have been previously linked to neurodevelopment, some of which were associated with psychiatric symptoms. Sleep EEG features may therefore reflect delayed or compromised neurodevelopmental processes in 22q11.2DS, which could inform our understanding of the neurobiology of this condition and be biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disorders.Funding:This research was funded by a Lilly Innovation Fellowship Award (UB), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 5UO1MH101724; MvdB), a Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund (ISSF) award (MvdB), the Waterloo Foundation (918-1234; MvdB), the Baily Thomas Charitable Fund (2315/1; MvdB), MRC grant Intellectual Disability and Mental Health: Assessing Genomic Impact on Neurodevelopment (IMAGINE) (MR/L011166/1; JH, MvdB and MO), MRC grant Intellectual Disability and Mental Health: Assessing Genomic Impact on Neurodevelopment 2 (IMAGINE-2) (MR/T033045/1; MvdB, JH and MO); Wellcome Trust Strategic Award ‘Defining Endophenotypes From Integrated Neurosciences’ Wellcome Trust (100202/Z/12/Z MO, JH). NAD was supported by a National Institute for Health Research Academic Clinical Fellowship in Mental Health and MWJ by a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Basic Biomedical Science (202810/Z/16/Z). CE and HAM were supported by Medical Research Council Doctoral Training Grants (C.B.E. 1644194, H.A.M MR/K501347/1). HMM and UB were employed by Eli Lilly & Co during the study; HMM is currently an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG. The views and opinions expressed are those of the author(s), and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health funders.

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    Article . 2022
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    eLife
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Data sources: Crossref
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    eLife
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      eLife
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      eLife
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Jerzy P, Szaflarski;

    Abnormal Temporal Lobe Morphology in Asymptomatic Relatives of Patients With Hippocampal Sclerosis: A Replication Study Yaakub SN, Barker GJ, Carr SJ, et al. Epilepsia. 2019;60(1):e1-e5. doi:10.1111/epi.14575. We investigated gray and white matter morphology in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE + HS) and first-degree asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we sought to replicate previously reported findings of structural surface abnormalities of the anterior temporal lobe in asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS in an independent cohort. We performed whole-brain MRI in 19 patients with mTLE+HS, 14 first-degree asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS, and 32 healthy control participants. Structural alterations in patients and relatives compared to controls were assessed using automated hippocampal volumetry and cortical surface-based morphometry. We replicated previously reported cortical surface area contractions in the ipsilateral anterior temporal lobe in both patients and relatives compared to healthy controls, with asymptomatic relatives showing similar but less extensive changes than patients. These findings suggest morphologic abnormality in asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS, suggesting an inherited brain structure endophenotype.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Epilepsy Currents
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    Epilepsy Currents
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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      Epilepsy Currents
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      Epilepsy Currents
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jesper L R, Andersson; Mark S, Graham; Ivana, Drobnjak; Hui, Zhang; +2 Authors

    Most motion correction methods work by aligning a set of volumes together, or to a volume that represents a reference location. These are based on an implicit assumption that the subject remains motionless during the several seconds it takes to acquire all slices in a volume, and that any movement occurs in the brief moment between acquiring the last slice of one volume and the first slice of the next. This is clearly an approximation that can be more or less good depending on how long it takes to acquire one volume and in how rapidly the subject moves. In this paper we present a method that increases the temporal resolution of the motion correction by modelling movement as a piecewise continous function over time. This intra-volume movement correction is implemented within a previously presented framework that simultaneously estimates distortions, movement and movement-induced signal dropout. We validate the method on highly realistic simulated data containing all of these effects. It is demonstrated that we can estimate the true movement with high accuracy, and that scalar parameters derived from the data, such as fractional anisotropy, are estimated with greater fidelity when data has been corrected for intra-volume movement. Importantly, we also show that the difference in fidelity between data affected by different amounts of movement is much reduced when taking intra-volume movement into account. Additional validation was performed on data from a healthy volunteer scanned when lying still and when performing deliberate movements. We show an increased correspondence between the “still” and the “movement” data when the latter is corrected for intra-volume movement. Finally we demonstrate a big reduction in the telltale signs of intra-volume movement in data acquired on elderly subjects. Highlights • We introduce a method to correct for intra-volume movement into an existing framework for movement and distortion correction. • It has been validated on realistic simulated data and on experimental data with deliberate movement. • The results indicate that one can reliably reverse the adverse effects of intra-volume movement.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Patricia M, Gough; Emily L, Connally; Peter, Howell; David, Ward; +2 Authors

    Purpose Previous studies have reported that the planum temporale – a language-related structure that normally shows a leftward asymmetry – had reduced asymmetry in people who stutter (PWS) and reversed asymmetry in those with severe stuttering. These findings are consistent with the theory that altered language lateralization may be a cause or consequence of stuttering. Here, we re-examined these findings in a larger sample of PWS. Methods We evaluated planum temporale asymmetry in structural MRI scans obtained from 67 PWS and 63 age-matched controls using: 1) manual measurements of the surface area; 2) voxel-based morphometry to automatically calculate grey matter density. We examined the influences of gender, age, and stuttering severity on planum temporale asymmetry. Results The size of the planum temporale and its asymmetry were not different in PWS compared with Controls using either the manual or the automated method. Both groups showed a significant leftwards asymmetry on average (about one-third of PWS and Controls showed rightward asymmetry). Importantly, and contrary to previous reports, the degree of asymmetry was not related to stuttering severity. In the manual measurements, women who stutter had a tendency towards rightwards asymmetry but men who stutter showed the same degree of leftwards asymmetry as male Controls. In the automated measurements, Controls showed a significant increase in leftwards asymmetry with age but this relationship was not observed in PWS. Conclusions We conclude that reduced planum temporale asymmetry is not a prominent feature of the brain in PWS and that the asymmetry is unrelated to stuttering severity. Highlights • Planum temporale asymmetry was compared in 67 people who stutter and 63 age-matched controls. • Size or asymmetry of the planum temporale did not differ between people who stutter and controls. • The asymmetry of the planum temporale was not affected by stuttering severity. • Differences in asymmetry of the planum temporale are not a cause, consequence or correlate of developmental stuttering.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2018
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    Oxford University Research Archive
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Journal of Fluency Disorders
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Oxford University Research Archive
      Other literature type . 2017
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      Journal of Fluency Disorders
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Grossmann, Tobias; Johnson, Mark H.; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Blasi, Anna; +3 Authors

    This study examined the brain bases of early human social cognitive abilities. Specifically, we investigated whether cortical regions implicated in adults' perception of facial communication signals are functionally active in early human development. Four-month-old infants watched two kinds of dynamic scenarios in which a face either established mutual gaze or averted its gaze, both of which were followed by an eyebrow raise with accompanying smile. Haemodynamic responses were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, permitting spatial localization of brain activation (experiment 1), and gamma-band oscillatory brain activity was analysed from electroencephalography to provide temporal information about the underlying cortical processes (experiment 2). The results revealed that perceiving facial communication signals activates areas in the infant temporal and prefrontal cortex that correspond to the brain regions implicated in these processes in adults. In addition, mutual gaze itself, and the eyebrow raise with accompanying smile in the context of mutual gaze, produce similar cortical activations. This pattern of results suggests an early specialization of the cortical network involved in the perception of facial communication cues, which is essential for infants' interactions with, and learning from, others.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2008
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    Article . 2008
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2008
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pineda-Pardo, J; Brun tild a, R; Woolrich, M; Marcos, A; +3 Authors

    Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were multiple-domain amnestic MCI. An atlas-based anatomical parcellation of 66 regions was obtained for each subject, and time series were assigned to each of the regions. The fiber densities between the regions, obtained with deterministic tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI, were used to define the anatomical connectivity. Precision matrices were obtained with the region specific time series in five different frequency bands. We compared our method with the traditional GL and a functional adaptive version of the GL, in terms of log-likelihood and classification accuracies between the three groups. We conclude that introducing an anatomical prior improves the expressivity of the model and, in most cases, leads to a better classification between groups. Highlights • We propose an anatomy-driven method for functional connectivity estimation in MEG. • Structural prior contributes to a better representation of the functional connectivity. • The proposed method is shown to be useful as a biomarker for classification of MCI.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Alexandra Lautarescu; Laila Hadaya; Michael C. Craig; Antonis Makropoulos; +5 Authors

    Background Exposure to maternal stress in utero is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. We previously observed an association between maternal stress and white matter microstructure in a sample of infants born prematurely. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal trait anxiety, stressful life events and brain volumes. Methods 221 infants (114 males, 107 females) born prematurely (median gestational age = 30.43 weeks [range 23.57–32.86]) underwent magnetic resonance imaging around term-equivalent age (mean = 42.20 weeks, SD = 1.60). Brain volumes were extracted for the following regions of interest: frontal lobe, temporal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus and normalized to total brain volume. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal anxiety/stress and brain volumes, controlling for gestational age at birth, postmenstrual age at scan, socioeconomic status, sex, days on total parenteral nutrition. Additional exploratory Tensor Based Morphometry analyses were performed to obtain voxel-wise brain volume changes from Jacobian determinant maps. Results and conclusion In this large prospective study, we did not find evidence of a relationship between maternal prenatal stress or trait anxiety and brain volumes. This was the case for both the main analysis using a region-of-interest approach, and for the exploratory analysis using Jacobian determinant maps. We discuss these results in the context of conflicting evidence from previous studies and highlight the need for further research on premature infants, particularly including term-born controls.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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      https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
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    Authors: de Berker, A.; Kurth-Nelson, Z.; Rutledge, R. ; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7337-5039; Bestmann, S.; +1 Authors