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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Popov, Tzvetan; Gips, Bart; Weisz, Nathan; Jensen, Ole Alexander Askeland;

    AbstractSpatially selective modulation of alpha power (8–14 Hz) is a robust finding in electrophysiological studies of visual attention, and has been recently generalized to auditory spatial attention. This modulation pattern is interpreted as reflecting a top-down mechanism for suppressing distracting input from unattended directions of sound origin. The present study on auditory spatial attention extends this interpretation by demonstrating that alpha power modulation is closely linked to oculomotor action. We designed an auditory paradigm in which participants were required to attend to upcoming sounds from one of 24 loudspeakers arranged in a circular array around the head. Maintaining the location of an auditory cue was associated with a topographically modulated distribution of posterior alpha power resembling the findings known from visual attention. Multivariate analyses allowed the prediction of the sound location in the horizontal plane. Importantly, this prediction was also possible, when derived from signals capturing saccadic activity. A control experiment on auditory spatial attention confirmed that, in absence of any visual/auditory input, lateralization of alpha power is linked to the lateralized direction of gaze. Attending to an auditory target engages oculomotor and visual cortical areas in a topographic manner akin to the retinotopic organization associated with visual attention.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Zurich Open Repository and Archive
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Zurich Open Repository and Archive
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carolien G.F. de Kovel; Lyubomir I. Aftanas; André Aleman; Aaron Alexander-Bloch; +74 Authors

    Objective: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects.Methods: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T-1-weighted MRI data were processedwith a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1.Results: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset.Conclusions: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; American Jou...arrow_drop_down
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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2019
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    DZNE Pub
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; American Jou...arrow_drop_down
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      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      DZNE Pub
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Filippo Abbondanza; Philip S. Dale; Carol A. Wang; Marianna E. Hayiou‐Thomas; +29 Authors

    Funding: Royal Society - UF150663, RGF\EA\180141; Wellcome Trust - 217065/Z/19/Z; H2020 European Research Council - 694189; NWO - 451-15-017; National Health and Medical Research Council - 1173896; Canadian Institute for Health Research - MOP-133440. Handedness has been studied for association with language-related disorders because of its link with language hemispheric dominance. No clear pattern has emerged, possibly because of small samples, publication bias, and heterogeneous criteria across studies. Non-right-handedness (NRH) frequency was assessed in N = 2503 cases with reading and/or language impairment and N = 4316 sex-matched controls identified from 10 distinct cohorts (age range 6–19 years old; European ethnicity) using a priori set criteria. A meta-analysis (Ncases = 1994) showed elevated NRH % in individuals with language/reading impairment compared with controls (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06–1.39, p = .01). The association between reading/language impairments and NRH could result from shared pathways underlying brain lateralization, handedness, and cognitive functions. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2023
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
    Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2023
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
      Other literature type . 2023
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    Authors: Szabolcs David; Anneriet M. Heemskerk; Francesco Corrivetti; Michel Thiebaut de Schotten; +12 Authors

    International audience; Fiber tractography (FT) using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used for investigating microstructural properties of white matter (WM) fiber-bundles and for mapping structural connections of the human brain. While studying the architectural configuration of the brain's circuitry with FT is not without controversy, recent progress in acquisition, processing, modeling, analysis, and visualization of dMRI data pushes forward the reliability in reconstructing WM pathways. Despite being aware of the well-known pitfalls in analyzing dMRI data and several other limitations of FT discussed in recent literature, we present the superoanterior fasciculus (SAF), a novel bilateral fiber tract in the frontal region of the human brain that-to the best of our knowledge-has not been documented. The SAF has a similar shape to the anterior part of the cingulum bundle, but it is located more frontally. To minimize the possibility that these FT findings are based on acquisition or processing artifacts, different dMRI data sets and processing pipelines have been used to describe the SAF. Furthermore, we evaluated the configuration of the SAF with complementary methods, such as polarized light imaging (PLI) and human brain dissections. The FT results of the SAF demonstrate a long pathway, consistent across individuals, while the human dissections indicate fiber pathways connecting the postero-dorsal with the antero-dorsal cortices of the frontal lobe.

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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2019
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
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      Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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    Authors: Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Knierim, Iris; Kawabata Duncan, Keith; Devlin, Joseph T.;

    Behavioral studies have demonstrated that learning to read and write affects the processing of spoken language. The present study investigates the neural mechanism underlying the emergence of such orthographic effects during speech processing. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to tease apart two competing hypotheses that consider this orthographic influence to be either a consequence of a change in the nature of the phonological representations during literacy acquisition or a consequence of online coactivation of the orthographic and phonological representations during speech processing. Participants performed an auditory lexical decision task in which the orthographic consistency of spoken words was manipulated and repetitive TMS was used to interfere with either phonological or orthographic processing by stimulating left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) or left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOTC), respectively. The advantage for consistently spelled words was removed only when the stimulation was delivered to SMG and not to vOTC, providing strong evidence that this effect arises at a phonological, rather than an orthographic, level. We propose a possible mechanistic explanation for the role of SMG in phonological processing and how this is affected by learning to read. Copyright © 2010 the authors.

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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2010
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2010
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2010
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2010
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      MPG.PuRe
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2010
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2010
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2010
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Horn, Dorothea I.; Yu, Chunshui; Steiner, Johann; Buchmann, Julia; +9 Authors

    Glutamatergic mechanisms and resting state functional connectivity alterations have been recently described as factors contributing to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Furthermore, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) seems to play an important role for major depressive symptoms such as anhedonia and impaired emotion processing. We investigated 22 MDD patients and 22 healthy subjects using a combined Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Resting State functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) approach. Severity of depression was rated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and patients were divided into severely and mildly depressed subgroups according to HAMD scores. Because of their hypothesized role in depression we investigated the functional connectivity between pgACC and left anterior insular cortex (AI). The sum of Glutamate and Glutamine (Glx) in the pgACC, but not in left AI, predicted the resting state functional connectivity between the two regions exclusively in depressed patients. Furthermore, functional connectivity between these regions was significantly altered in the subgroup of severely depressed patients (HAMD>15) compared to healthy subjects and mildly depressed patients. Similarly the Glx ratios, relative to Creatine, in the pgACC were lowest in severely depressed patients. These findings support the involvement of glutamatergic mechanisms in severe MDD which are related to the functional connectivity between pgACC and AI and depression severity.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2010
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2010
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      Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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    Authors: Sara L. Bengtsson; John-Dylan Haynes; Katsuyuki Sakai; Mark J. Buckley; +1 Authors

    We have previously reported sustained activation in the ventral prefrontal cortex while participants prepared to perform 1 of 2 tasks as instructed. But there are studies that have reported activation reflecting task rules elsewhere in prefrontal cortex, and this is true in particular when it was left to the participants to decide which rule to obey. The aim of the present experiment was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to find whether there was activation in common, irrespective of the way that the task rules were established. On each trial, we presented a word after a variable delay, and participants had to decide either whether the word was abstract or concrete or whether it had 2 syllables. The participants either decided before the delay which task they would perform or were instructed by written cues. Comparing the self-generated with the instructed trials, there was early task set activation during the delay in the middle frontal gyrus. On the other hand, a conjunction analysis revealed sustained activation in the ventral prefrontal and polar cortex for both conditions. We argue that the ventral prefrontal cortex is specialized for handling conditional rules regardless of how the task rules were established.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2009
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2009
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    Oxford University Research Archive; Cerebral Cortex
    Other literature type . Article . 2008 . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2008
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2009
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      Cerebral Cortex
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2009
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      Oxford University Research Archive; Cerebral Cortex
      Other literature type . Article . 2008 . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lynne Krohn; Karl Heilbron; Cornelis Blauwendraat; Regina H. Reynolds; +102 Authors

    Abstract Rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), enactment of dreams during REM sleep, is an early clinical symptom of alpha-synucleinopathies and defines a more severe subtype. The genetic background of RBD and its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study of RBD, identifying five RBD risk loci near SNCA, GBA, TMEM175, INPP5F, and SCARB2 . Expression analyses highlight SNCA-AS1 and potentially SCARB2 differential expression in different brain regions in RBD, with SNCA-AS1 further supported by colocalization analyses. Polygenic risk score, pathway analysis, and genetic correlations provide further insights into RBD genetics, highlighting RBD as a unique alpha-synucleinopathy subpopulation that will allow future early intervention. Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research https://doi.org/10.13039/100000864 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health https://doi.org/10.13039/100000009 Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Société et Culture https://doi.org/10.13039/100008240 Parkinson Canada https://doi.org/10.13039/501100009307 Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research

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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Nature Communications
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hirschler, Lydiane; Sollmann, Nico; Schmitz‐Abecassis, Bárbara; Pinto, Joana; +37 Authors

    Preoperative clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for gliomas, brain tumors with dismal outcomes due to their infiltrative properties, still rely on conventional structural MRI, which does not deliver information on tumor genotype and is limited in the delineation of diffuse gliomas. The GliMR COST action wants to raise awareness about the state of the art of advanced MRI techniques in gliomas and their possible clinical translation or lack thereof. This review describes current methods, limits, and applications of advanced MRI for the preoperative assessment of glioma, summarizing the level of clinical validation of different techniques. In this first part, we discuss dynamic susceptibility contrast and dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI, arterial spin labeling, diffusion‐weighted MRI, vessel imaging, and magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The second part of this review addresses magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical exchange saturation transfer, susceptibility‐weighted imaging, MRI‐PET, MR elastography, and MR‐based radiomics applications.Evidence Level: 3Technical Efficacy: Stage 2

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    Authors: Tasneem Khanam; Carsten A Raabe; Martin Kiefmann; Sergej Handel; +2 Authors

    Dendritic localization of mRNA/RNA involves interaction of cis-elements and trans-factors. Small, non-protein coding dendritic BC1 RNA is thought to regulate translation in dendritic microdomains. Following microinjections into cultured cells, BC1 RNA fused to larger mRNAs appeared to impart transport competence to these chimeras, and its 5' ID region was proposed as the cis-acting dendritic targeting element. As these ID elements move around rodent genomes and, if transcribed, form a long RNA stem-loop, they might, thereby, lead to new localizations for targeted gene products. To test their targeting ability in vivo we created transgenic mice expressing various ID elements fused to the 3' UTR of reporter mRNA for Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein. In vivo, neither ID elements nor the BC1 RNA coding region were capable of transporting EGFP RNA to dendrites, although the 3' UTR of alpha-CaMKII mRNA, an established cis-acting element did produce positive results. Other mRNAs containing naturally inserted ID elements are also not found in neuronal dendrites. We conclude that the 5' ID domain from BC1 RNA is not a sufficient dendritic targeting element for mRNAs in vivo.

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