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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • Wellcome Trust
  • 10. No inequality

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matsushita, Futoshi; Kida, Hirotaka; Tabei, Ken‐ichi; Nakano, Chizuru; +8 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionThis study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS).MethodsA total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non‐CL. In‐house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region. Activities of daily living (ADL) were estimated using the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Cognitive function was assessed using the following tests: Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Z‐scores were used to assess significant differences in the neuropsychological test outcomes between the groups.ResultsSix of 19 patients had subcortical and deep WM lesions (non‐CL group; diagnosed with relapsing–remitting MS). Thirteen of 19 patients had both subcortical and cortical lesions (CL group; 9—relapsing–remitting MS; 4—primary/secondary progressive MS). There were no significant differences in age, education, and disease duration, but EDSS scores were significantly higher in the CL group compared to the non‐CL group. There were no significant differences in gray and white matter volume between the CL and the non‐CL groups, but the white matter lesion volume was significantly higher in the CL group compared to the non‐CL group. Neuropsychological tests showed significant performance worsening in the CL group as compared to the standard values for healthy individuals in their age group, especially in the TMT data.ConclusionsProgressive MS, which was associated with decreased physical functioning, ADL, and cognitive impairment, was found in patients in the CL group.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Brain and Behavior
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain and Behavior
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain and Behavior
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    Authors: Patricia M, Gough; Emily L, Connally; Peter, Howell; David, Ward; +2 Authors

    Purpose Previous studies have reported that the planum temporale – a language-related structure that normally shows a leftward asymmetry – had reduced asymmetry in people who stutter (PWS) and reversed asymmetry in those with severe stuttering. These findings are consistent with the theory that altered language lateralization may be a cause or consequence of stuttering. Here, we re-examined these findings in a larger sample of PWS. Methods We evaluated planum temporale asymmetry in structural MRI scans obtained from 67 PWS and 63 age-matched controls using: 1) manual measurements of the surface area; 2) voxel-based morphometry to automatically calculate grey matter density. We examined the influences of gender, age, and stuttering severity on planum temporale asymmetry. Results The size of the planum temporale and its asymmetry were not different in PWS compared with Controls using either the manual or the automated method. Both groups showed a significant leftwards asymmetry on average (about one-third of PWS and Controls showed rightward asymmetry). Importantly, and contrary to previous reports, the degree of asymmetry was not related to stuttering severity. In the manual measurements, women who stutter had a tendency towards rightwards asymmetry but men who stutter showed the same degree of leftwards asymmetry as male Controls. In the automated measurements, Controls showed a significant increase in leftwards asymmetry with age but this relationship was not observed in PWS. Conclusions We conclude that reduced planum temporale asymmetry is not a prominent feature of the brain in PWS and that the asymmetry is unrelated to stuttering severity. Highlights • Planum temporale asymmetry was compared in 67 people who stutter and 63 age-matched controls. • Size or asymmetry of the planum temporale did not differ between people who stutter and controls. • The asymmetry of the planum temporale was not affected by stuttering severity. • Differences in asymmetry of the planum temporale are not a cause, consequence or correlate of developmental stuttering.

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    Oxford University Research Archive
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY
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    Journal of Fluency Disorders
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Oxford University Research Archive
      Other literature type . 2017
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Fluency Disorders
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pope, George R.; Roberts, Emma M.; Lolait, Stephen J.; O’Carroll, Anne-Marie;

    The G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ) binds the endogenous peptide apelin and has been shown to have roles in many physiological systems. Thus far, distribution studies have predominantly been conducted in the rat and there is limited knowledge of the cellular distribution of APJ in mouse or human tissues. As recent functional studies have been conducted in APJ knock-out mice (APJ KO), in this study we undertook to characterize APJ mRNA and I125[Pyr1]apelin-13 binding site distribution in mouse tissues to enable correlation of distribution with function. We have utilized in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) using APJ riboprobes, which revealed strong hybridization specifically in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the anterior pituitary, with marginally lower levels in the posterior pituitary. In the periphery, strong hybridization was observed in the lung, heart, adrenal cortex, renal medulla, ovary and uterus. Autoradiographic binding to APJ with I125[Pyr1]apelin-13 exhibited significant binding in the anterior pituitary, while lower levels were observed in the posterior pituitary and PVN and SON. In the periphery, strong receptor binding was observed in tissues exhibiting intense riboprobe hybridization, indicating a good correlation between receptor transcription and translation. While the distribution of APJ mRNA and functional protein in the mouse shows similarities to that of the rat, we report a species difference in central APJ distribution and in the pituitary gland. Highlights ► APJ is well characterized in the rat but is not well described in mouse tissues. ► We show the first detailed anatomical distribution of APJ mRNA and protein in the mouse. ► There is a species difference in central APJ distribution and in the pituitary gland. APJ distribution in peripheral tissues appears comparable between rat and mouse. ► The apelin system may have a more wide-ranging central role in the rat than the mouse.

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    Peptides
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Peptides
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Michael P. Ewbank; Elisabeth A. H. von dem Hagen; Thomas E. Powell; Richard N. Henson; +1 Authors

    AbstractThere is substantial variation in the magnitude of the repetition suppression (RS) effects across individuals; however the causes of this variation remain unclear. In a recent study, we found that RS in occipitotemporal cortex was negatively related to individual variation in autistic traits in a neurotypical population. Recent proposals have considered autistic behaviours within a Bayesian framework, suggesting that individuals with autism may have ‘attenuated priors’ (i.e., their perception is less influenced by prior information). Predictive coding represents a neural instantiation of Bayesian inference, and characterises RS as reduction in prediction error between ‘top-down’ (prior beliefs) and ‘bottom-up’ (stimulus related) inputs. In accordance with this, evidence shows that RS is greater when repetition of a stimulus is expected relative to when it is unexpected. Here, using an established paradigm which manipulates the probability of stimulus repetition, we investigated the effect of perceptual expectation on RS in a group of neurotypical individuals varying on a measure of autistic traits. We predicted that the magnitude of the perceptual expectation effect would be negatively related to individual differences in autistic traits. We found a significant effect of perceptual expectation on RS in face-selective regions (i.e., greater RS when repetitions were expected relative to unexpected). However, there was no evidence of a relationship between autistic traits and the magnitude of this effect in any face-selective region of interest (ROI). These findings provide a challenge for the proposal that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may be associated with the attenuated influence of prior information.

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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2016
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Giulio Disanto; Pascal Benkert; Johannes Lorscheider; Stefanie Karin Mueller; +23 Authors

    The mechanisms leading to disability and the long-term efficacy and safety of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unclear. We aimed at building a prospective cohort of MS patients with standardized collection of demographic, clinical, MRI data and body fluids that can be used to develop prognostic indicators and biomarkers of disease evolution and therapeutic response. The Swiss MS Cohort (SMSC) is a prospective observational study performed across seven Swiss MS centers including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome or neuromyelitis optica. Neurological and radiological assessments and biological samples are collected every 6-12 months. We recruited 872 patients (clinically isolated syndrome [CIS] 5.5%, relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS] 85.8%, primary progressive MS [PPMS] 3.5%, secondary progressive MS [SPMS] 5.2%) between June 2012 and July 2015. We performed 2,286 visits (median follow-up 398 days) and collected 2,274 serum, plasma and blood samples, 152 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 1,276 brain MRI scans. 158 relapses occurred and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores increased in PPMS, SPMS and RRMS patients experiencing relapses. Most RRMS patients were treated with fingolimod (33.4%), natalizumab (24.5%) or injectable DMDs (13.6%). The SMSC will provide relevant information regarding DMDs efficacy and safety and will serve as a comprehensive infrastructure available for nested research projects.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2016
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    Article . 2016
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article
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    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2016
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
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    Authors: J, Horder; T, Lavender; M A, Mendez; R, O'Gorman; +5 Authors

    Dysfunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, relatively few studies have directly measured brain glutamate in ASD adults, or related variation in glutamate to clinical phenotype. We therefore set out to investigate brain glutamate levels in adults with an ASD, comparing these to healthy controls and also comparing results between individuals at different points on the spectrum of symptom severity. We recruited 28 adults with ASD and 14 matched healthy controls. Of those with ASD, 15 fulfilled the 'narrowly' defined criteria for typical autism, whereas 13 met the 'broader phenotype'. We measured the concentration of the combined glutamate and glutamine signal (Glx), and other important metabolites, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in two brain regions implicated in ASD--the basal ganglia (including the head of caudate and the anterior putamen) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--as well as in a parietal cortex 'control' region. Individuals with ASD had a significant decrease (P0.001) in concentration of Glx in the basal ganglia, and this was true in both the 'narrow' and 'broader' phenotype. Also, within the ASD sample, reduced basal ganglia Glx was significantly correlated with increased impairment in social communication (P=0.013). In addition, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of other metabolites such as choline, creatine (Cr) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the basal ganglia. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Cr and NAA were reduced (P0.05), although Glx was not. There were no detectable differences in Glx, or any other metabolite, in the parietal lobe control region. There were no significant between-group differences in age, gender, IQ, voxel composition or data quality. In conclusion, individuals across the spectrum of ASD have regionally specific abnormalities in subcortical glutamatergic neurotransmission that are associated with variation in social development.

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    Translational Psychiatry
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    Translational Psychiatry
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-79...
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      Translational Psychiatry
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      Translational Psychiatry
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Carles Falcon; Gemma C. Monté-Rubio; Oriol Grau-Rivera; Marc Suárez-Calvet; +6 Authors

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) YKL40 and sTREM2 are astroglial and microglial activity biomarkers, respectively. We assessed whether CSF YKL40 and sTREM2 baseline levels are associated with longitudinal brain volume and diffusivity changes in cognitively unimpaired adults. Two brain MRI scans of 36 participants (57 to 78-years old, 12 male) were acquired in a 2-year interval. Aβ42, p-tau, YKL40 and sTREM2 concentrations in CSF were determined at baseline. We calculated gray and white matter volume changes per year maps (ΔGM and ΔWM, respectively) by means of longitudinal pairwise registration, and mean diffusivity variation per year (ΔMD) by subtraction. We checked voxel-wise for associations between ΔGM, ΔWM and ΔMD and baseline CSF level of YKL40 and sTREM2 and verified to what extent these associations were modulated by age (YKL40xAGE and sTREM2xAGE interactions). We found a positive association between ΔGM and YKL40 in the left inferior parietal region and no association between sTREM2 and ΔGM. Negative associations were also observed between ΔGM and YKL40xAGE (bilateral frontal areas, left precuneus and left postcentral and supramarginal gyri) and sTREM2xAGE (bilateral temporal and frontal cortex, putamen and left middle cingulate gyrus). We found negative associations between ΔWM and YKL40xAGE (bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus) and sTREM2xAGE (bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, retrolenticular external capsule and forceps minor, among other regions) but none between ΔWM and neither YKL40 nor sTREM2. ΔMD was positively correlated with YKL40 in right orbital region and negatively with sTREM2 in left lingual gyrus and precuneus. In addition, significant associations were found between ΔMD and YKL40xAGE (tail of left hippocampus and surrounding areas and right anterior cingulate gyrus) and sTREM2xAGE (right superior temporal gyrus). Areas showing statistically significant differences were disjoint in analyses involving YKL40 and sTREM2. These results suggest that glial biomarkers exert a relevant and distinct influence in longitudinal brain macro- and microstructural changes in cognitively unimpaired adults, which appears to be modulated by age. In younger subjects increased glial markers (both YKL40 and sTREM2) predict a better outcome, as indicated by a decrease in ΔGM and ΔWM and an increase in ΔMD, whereas in older subjects this association is inverted and higher levels of glial markers are associated with a poorer neuroimaging outcome. Highlights • The CSF glial biomarkers predict brain longitudinal changes in cognitively healthy elderly. • The association of brain changes with glial biomarkers is modulated by age. • The presence of CSF glial biomarkers seems to be protective for younger subjects. • For elders, the increase in glial biomarkers is associated to a greater atrophy rate.

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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2019
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    UPF Digital Repository
    Article . 2019
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    DZNE Pub
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DZNE Pub
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2019
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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      DZNE Pub
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Eran S. Auday; Bradley C. Taber-Thomas; Koraly Pérez-Edgar;

    Background Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament trait and a robust predictor of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Both BI and anxiety may have distinct patterns of emotion processing marked by heightened neural responses to threat cues. BI and anxious children display similar frontolimbic patterns when completing an emotion-face attention bias task with supraliminal presentation. Anxious children also show a distinct neural response to the same task with subliminal face presentations, probing stimulus-driven attention networks. We do not have parallel data available for BI children, limiting our understanding of underlying affective mechanisms potentially linking early BI to the later emergence of anxiety. Method We examined the neural response to subliminal threat presentation during an emotion-face masked dot-probe task in children oversampled for BI (N = 67; 30 BI, 9–12 yrs). Results Non-BI children displayed greater activation versus BI children in several regions in response to threat faces versus neutral faces, including striatum, prefrontal and temporal lobes. When comparing congruent and incongruent trials, which require attention disengagement, BI children showed greater activation than non-BI children in the cerebellum, which is implicated in rapidly coordinating information processing, aversive conditioning, and learning the precise timing of anticipatory responses. Conclusions Non-BI children may more readily engage rapid coordinated frontolimbic circuitry to salient stimuli, whereas BI children may preferentially engage subcortical circuitry, in response to limbic “alarms” triggered by subliminal threat cues. These data help reveal the extent to which temperamental risk shares similar neurocircuitry previously documented in anxious adolescents and young adults in response to masked threat. Highlights • All children displayed amygdala activation in response to brief threat cues. • Non-BI children displayed activation in striatum, PFC and temporal lobes. • BI children showed greater activation in the cerebellum.

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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2018
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Nicolai Franzmeier; Emrah Düzel; Frank Jessen; Katharina Buerger; +52 Authors

    Abstract Patients with Alzheimer’s disease vary in their ability to sustain cognitive abilities in the presence of brain pathology. A major open question is which brain mechanisms may support higher reserve capacity, i.e. relatively high cognitive performance at a given level of Alzheimer’s pathology. Higher functional MRI-assessed functional connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex is a core candidate brain mechanism underlying reserve as it is associated with education (i.e. a protective factor often associated with higher reserve) and attenuated cognitive impairment in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. However, no study has yet assessed whether such hub connectivity of the left frontal cortex supports reserve throughout the evolution of pathological brain changes in Alzheimer’s disease, including the presymptomatic stage when cognitive decline is subtle. To address this research gap, we obtained cross-sectional resting state functional MRI in 74 participants with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, 55 controls from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network and 75 amyloid-positive elderly participants, as well as 41 amyloid-negative cognitively normal elderly subjects from the German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases multicentre study on biomarkers in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. For each participant, global left frontal cortex connectivity was computed as the average resting state functional connectivity between the left frontal cortex (seed) and each voxel in the grey matter. As a marker of disease stage, we applied estimated years from symptom onset in autosomal dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease and cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease cases. In both autosomal dominant and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease patients, higher levels of left frontal cortex connectivity were correlated with greater education. For autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, a significant left frontal cortex connectivity × estimated years of onset interaction was found, indicating slower decline of memory and global cognition at higher levels of connectivity. Similarly, in sporadic amyloid-positive elderly subjects, the effect of tau on cognition was attenuated at higher levels of left frontal cortex connectivity. Polynomial regression analysis showed that the trajectory of cognitive decline was shifted towards a later stage of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with higher levels of left frontal cortex connectivity. Together, our findings suggest that higher resilience against the development of cognitive impairment throughout the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease is at least partially attributable to higher left frontal cortex-hub connectivity. The neural basis of reserve capacity in Alzheimer’s disease is yet to be fully determined. Franzmeier et al. show that greater left frontal hub connectivity within the fronto-parietal control network is associated with greater resilience of cognitive performance during the early stages of autosomal dominant and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.

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    Brain
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    Brain
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    DZNE Pub
    Article . 2018
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      Brain
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      DZNE Pub
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Hideaki Kawabata; Semir Zeki;

    In an event-related fMRI study, we scanned eighteen normal human subjects while they viewed three categories of pictures (events, objects and persons) which they classified according to desirability (desirable, indifferent or undesirable). Each category produced activity in a distinct part of the visual brain, thus reflecting its functional specialization. We used conjunction analysis to learn whether there is a brain area which is always active when a desirable picture is viewed, regardless of the category to which it belongs. The conjunction analysis of the contrast desirable > undesirable revealed activity in the superior orbito-frontal cortex. This activity bore a positive linear relationship to the declared level of desirability. The conjunction analysis of desirable > indifferent revealed activity in the mid-cingulate cortex and in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the former, activity was greater for desirable and undesirable stimuli than for stimuli classed as indifferent. Other conjunction analyses produced no significant effects. These results show that categorizing any stimulus according to its desirability activates three different brain areas: the superior orbito-frontal, the mid-cingulate, and the anterior cingulate cortices.

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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matsushita, Futoshi; Kida, Hirotaka; Tabei, Ken‐ichi; Nakano, Chizuru; +8 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionThis study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS).MethodsA total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non‐CL. In‐house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region. Activities of daily living (ADL) were estimated using the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Cognitive function was assessed using the following tests: Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Z‐scores were used to assess significant differences in the neuropsychological test outcomes between the groups.ResultsSix of 19 patients had subcortical and deep WM lesions (non‐CL group; diagnosed with relapsing–remitting MS). Thirteen of 19 patients had both subcortical and cortical lesions (CL group; 9—relapsing–remitting MS; 4—primary/secondary progressive MS). There were no significant differences in age, education, and disease duration, but EDSS scores were significantly higher in the CL group compared to the non‐CL group. There were no significant differences in gray and white matter volume between the CL and the non‐CL groups, but the white matter lesion volume was significantly higher in the CL group compared to the non‐CL group. Neuropsychological tests showed significant performance worsening in the CL group as compared to the standard values for healthy individuals in their age group, especially in the TMT data.ConclusionsProgressive MS, which was associated with decreased physical functioning, ADL, and cognitive impairment, was found in patients in the CL group.

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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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