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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sydney Kaplan; Anders Perrone; Dimitrios Alexopoulos; Jeanette K. Kenley; +12 Authors

    T1- and T2-weighted (T1w and T2w) images are essential for tissue classification and anatomical localization in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) analyses. However, these anatomical data can be challenging to acquire in non-sedated neonatal cohorts, which are prone to high amplitude movement and display lower tissue contrast than adults. As a result, one of these modalities may be missing or of such poor quality that they cannot be used for accurate image processing, resulting in subject loss. While recent literature attempts to overcome these issues in adult populations using synthetic imaging approaches, evaluation of the efficacy of these methods in pediatric populations and the impact of these techniques in conventional MR analyses has not been performed. In this work, we present two novel methods to generate pseudo-T2w images: the first is based in deep learning and expands upon previous models to 3D imaging without the requirement of paired data, the second is based in nonlinear multi-atlas registration providing a computationally lightweight alternative. We demonstrate the anatomical accuracy of pseudo-T2w images and their efficacy in existing MR processing pipelines in two independent neonatal cohorts. Critically, we show that implementing these pseudo-T2w methods in resting-state functional MRI analyses produces virtually identical functional connectivity results when compared to those resulting from T2w images, confirming their utility in infant MRI studies for salvaging otherwise lost subject data.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2021
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2021
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David H, Zald; Neil D, Woodward; Ronald L, Cowan; Patrizia, Riccardi; +7 Authors

    Individual differences in dopamine D2-like receptor availability arise across all brain regions expressing D2-like receptors. However, the inter-relationships in receptor availability across brain regions are poorly understood. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between D2-like binding potential (BPND) across striatal and extrastriatal regions in a sample of healthy participants. PET imaging was performed with the high affinity D2/D3 ligand [18F]fallypride in 45 participants. BPND images were submitted to voxel-wise principal components analysis to determine the pattern of associations across brain regions. Individual differences in D2-like BPND were explained by three distinguishable components. A single component explained almost all of the variance within the striatum, indicating that individual differences in receptor availability vary in a homogenous manner across the caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum. Cortical BPND was only modestly related to striatal BPND, and mostly loaded on a distinct component. After controlling for the general level of cortical D2-like BPND, an inverse relationship emerged between receptor availability in the striatum and the ventral temporal and ventromedial frontal cortices, suggesting possible cross-regulation of D2-like receptors in these regions. The analysis additionally revealed evidence of: 1) a distinct component involving the midbrain and limbic areas; 2) a dissociation between BPND in the medial and lateral temporal regions; and 3) a dissociation between BPND in the medial/midline and lateral thalamus. In summary, individual differences in D2-like receptor availability reflect several distinct patterns. This conclusion has significant implications for neuropsychiatric models that posit global or regionally specific relationships between dopaminergic tone and behavior.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2010
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    NeuroImage
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2010
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nora D, Volkow; Joanna S, Fowler; Gene-Jack, Wang; Frank, Telang; +6 Authors

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-d-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3+/-3, post 6+/-3; p<0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3+/-2, post 3+/-3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p<0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p<0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r=-0.62, p<0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2009
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2009
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Georgia G, Gregoriou; Helen E, Savaki;

    Goal-directed reaching requires a precise neural representation of the arm position and the target location. Parietal and frontal cortical areas rely on visual, somatosensory, and motor signals to guide the reaching arm to the desired position in space. To dissociate the regions processing these signals, we applied the quantitative [(14)C]-deoxyglucose method on monkeys reaching either in the light or in the dark. Nonvisual (somatosensory and memory-related) guidance of the arm, during reaching in the dark, induced activation of discrete regions in the parietal, premotor, and motor cortices. These included the dorsal part of the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus, the ventral premotor area F4, the dorsal premotor area F2 below the superior precentral dimple, and the primary somatosensory and motor cortices. Additional parietal and premotor regions comprising the ventral intraparietal cortex, ventral premotor area F5, and the ventral part of dorsal premotor area F2 were activated by visual guidance of the arm during reaching in the light. This study provides evidence that different regions of the parieto-premotor circuit process the visual, somatosensory, and motor-memory-related signals which guide the moving arm.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2003
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2003
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      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Roxane J, Itier; Margot J, Taylor;

    Using ERPs in a face recognition task, we investigated whether inversion and contrast reversal, which seem to disrupt different aspects of face configuration, differentially affected encoding and memory for faces. Upright, inverted, and negative (contrast-reversed) unknown faces were either immediately repeated (0-lag) or repeated after 1 intervening face (1-lag). The encoding condition (new) consisted of the first presentation of items correctly recognized in the two repeated conditions. 0-lag faces were recognized better and faster than 1-lag faces. Inverted and negative pictures elicited longer reaction times, lower hit rates, and higher false alarm rates than upright faces. ERP analyses revealed that negative and inverted faces affected both early (encoding) and late (recognition) stages of face processing. Early components (N170, VPP) were delayed and enhanced by both inversion and contrast reversal which also affected P1 and P2 components. Amplitudes were higher for inverted faces at frontal and parietal sites from 350 to 600 ms. Priming effects were seen at encoding stages, revealed by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes of N170 for repeated stimuli, which did not differ depending on face type. Repeated faces yielded more positive amplitudes than new faces from 250 to 450 ms frontally and from 400 to 600 ms parietally. However, ERP differences revealed that the magnitude of this repetition effect was smaller for negative and inverted than upright faces at 0-lag but not at 1-lag condition. Thus, face encoding and recognition processes were affected by inversion and contrast-reversal differently.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2002
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2002
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    Authors: Wang, Qian; Jia, Hongjun; Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Guorong;

    Groupwise registration has become more and more popular due to its attractiveness for unbiased analysis of population data. One of the most popular approaches for groupwise registration is to iteratively calculate the group mean image and then register all subject images towards the latest estimated group mean image. However, its performance might be undermined by the fuzzy mean image estimated in the very beginning of groupwise registration procedure, because all subject images are far from being well-aligned at that moment. In this paper, we first point out the significance of always keeping the group mean image sharp and clear throughout the entire groupwise registration procedure, which is intuitively important but has not been explored in the literature yet. To achieve this, we resort to developing the robust mean-image estimator by the adaptive weighting strategy, where the weights are adaptive across not only the individual subject images but also all spatial locations in the image domain. On the other hand, we notice that some subjects might have large anatomical variations from the group mean image, which challenges most of the state-of-the-art registration algorithms. To ensure good registration results in each iteration, we explore the manifold of subject images and build a minimal spanning tree (MST) with the group mean image as the root of the MST. Therefore, each subject image is only registered to its parent node often with similar shapes, and its overall transformation to the group mean image space is obtained by concatenating all deformations along the paths connecting itself to the root of the MST (the group mean image). As a result, all the subjects will be well aligned to the group mean image adaptively. Our method has been evaluated in both real and simulated datasets. In all experiments, our method outperforms the conventional algorithm which generally produces a fuzzy group mean image throughout the entire groupwise registration.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2011
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    Article . 2011
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Floris P. de Lange; Rick C. Helmich; Ivan Toni;

    Contains fulltext : 56041.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Closed access) Motor imagery is widely used to study cognitive aspects of the neural control of action. However, what is exactly simulated during motor imagery is still a matter of debate. On the one hand, it is conceivable that motor imagery is an embodied cognitive process, involving a simulation of movements of one's own body. The alternative possibility is that, although motor imagery relies on knowledge of the motor processes, it does not entail an actual motor simulation that is influenced by the physical configuration of one's own body. Here we discriminate between these two hypotheses, in the context of an established motor imagery task: laterality judgments of rotated hand drawings. We found that reaction times of hand laterality judgments followed the biomechanical constraints of left or right hand movements. Crucially, the position of subjects' own left and right arm influenced laterality judgments of left and right hands. In neural terms, hand laterality judgments activated a parieto-frontal network. The activity within this network increased with increasing biomechanical complexity of the imagined hand movements, even when the amount of stimulus rotation was identical. Moreover, activity in the intraparietal sulcus was modulated by subjects' own hand position: a larger incongruence in orientation between the subjects' hand and the stimulus hand led to a selective increase in intraparietal activity. Our results indicate that motor imagery generates motor plans that depend on the current configuration of the limbs. This motor plan is calculated by a parieto-frontal network. Within this network, the posterior parietal cortex appears to incorporate proprioceptive information related to the current position of the body into the motor plan.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2006
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    Article . 2006
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      Article . 2006
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    Authors: De Luca, Alberto; Guo, Fenghua; Froeling, Martijn; Leemans, Alexander;

    AbstractIn diffusion MRI, spherical deconvolution approaches can estimate local white matter (WM) fiber orientation distributions (FOD) which can be used to produce fiber tractography reconstructions. The applicability of spherical deconvolution to grey matter (GM), however, is still limited, despite its critical role as start/endpoint of WM fiber pathways. The advent of multi-shell diffusion MRI data offers additional contrast to model the GM signal but, to date, only isotropic models have been applied to GM. Evidence from both histology and high-resolution diffusion MRI studies suggests a marked anisotropic character of the diffusion process in GM, which could be exploited to improve the description of the cortical organization. In this study, we investigated whether performing spherical deconvolution with tissue specific models of both WM and GM can improve the characterization of the latter while retaining state-of-the-art performances in WM. To this end, we developed a framework able to simultaneously accommodate multiple anisotropic response functions to estimate multiple, tissue-specific, fiber orientation distributions (mFODs). As proof of principle, we used the diffusion kurtosis imaging model to represent the WM signal, and the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model to represent the GM signal. The feasibility of the proposed approach is shown with numerical simulations and with data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The performance of our method is compared to the current state of the art, multi-shell constrained spherical deconvolution (MSCSD). The simulations show that with our new method we can accurately estimate a mixture of two FODs at SNR≥50. With HCP data, the proposed method was able to reconstruct both tangentially and radially oriented FODs in GM, and performed comparably well to MSCSD in computing FODs in WM. When performing fiber tractography, the trajectories reconstructed with mFODs reached the cortex with more spatial continuity and for a longer distance as compared to MSCSD and allowed to reconstruct short trajectories tangential to the cortical folding. In conclusion, we demonstrated that our proposed method allows to perform spherical deconvolution of multiple anisotropic response functions, specifically improving the performances of spherical deconvolution in GM tissue.HighlightsWe introduce a novel framework to perform spherical deconvolution with multiple anisotropic response functions (mFOD)We show that the proposed framework can be used to improve the FOD estimation in the cortical grey matterFiber tractography performed with mFOD reaches the cortical GM with more coverage and contiguity than with previous methodsThe proposed framework is a first step towards GM to GM fiber tractography

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    NeuroImage
    Article . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Article . 2020
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020
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      Article . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mante S. Nieuwland; Karl Magnus Petersson; Jos J. A. Van Berkum;

    In an event-related fMRI study, we examined the cortical networks involved in establishing. reference during language comprehension. We compared BOLD responses to sentences containing referentially ambiguous pronouns (e.g., "Ronald told Frank that he..."), referentially failing pronouns (e.g., "Rose told Emily that he...") or coherent pronouns. Referential ambiguity selectively recruited media[ prefrontal regions, suggesting that readers engaged in problemsolving to select a unique referent from the discourse model. Referential failure elicited activation increases in brain regions associated with mo rp ho -syntactic processing, and, for those readers who took failing pronouns to refer to unmentioned entities, additional regions associated with elaborative inferencing were observed. The networks activated by these two referential problems did not overlap with the network activated by a standard semantic anomaly. Instead, we observed a double dissociation, in that the systems activated by semantic anomaly are deactivated by referential ambiguity, and vice versa. This inverse coupling may reflect the dynamic recruitment of semantic and episodic processing to resolve semantically or referentially problematic situations. More generally, our findings suggest that neurocognitive accounts of language comprehension need to address not just how we parse a sentence and combine individual word meanings, but also how we determine who's who and what's what during language COmprehension. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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    Article . 2007
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      NARCIS
      Article . 2007
      Data sources: NARCIS
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sean A, Spence; Catherine, Kaylor-Hughes; Tom F D, Farrow; Iain D, Wilkinson;

    Behavioural and functional anatomical responses exhibited by humans support the hypothesis that deception involves the prefrontal executive. Functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (among other areas) is activated during lying, compared with telling the truth. However, despite some consistencies discernible across studies, problems remain concerning experimental validity, e.g., the expediencies of experimenter-sanctioned cued-deception (i.e., subjects being told when to lie); such 'lies' may not have comprised adequate proxies for 'real-life' deception. In this experiment, we attempted to address such confounding issues by designing an fMRI paradigm in which subjects chose when to lie (thereby minimising cue-dependency), using spoken words, concerning intimate material, which they regarded as 'embarrassing'; and where further control conditions required them to 'comply' with their examiners or to 'defy' them (by withholding pre-specified responses). The main effect of lying revealed significant activation of ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. These results replicate and extend our previous findings to those circumstances under which subjects are allowed to choose when to deceive.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2007
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2007
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sydney Kaplan; Anders Perrone; Dimitrios Alexopoulos; Jeanette K. Kenley; +12 Authors

    T1- and T2-weighted (T1w and T2w) images are essential for tissue classification and anatomical localization in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) analyses. However, these anatomical data can be challenging to acquire in non-sedated neonatal cohorts, which are prone to high amplitude movement and display lower tissue contrast than adults. As a result, one of these modalities may be missing or of such poor quality that they cannot be used for accurate image processing, resulting in subject loss. While recent literature attempts to overcome these issues in adult populations using synthetic imaging approaches, evaluation of the efficacy of these methods in pediatric populations and the impact of these techniques in conventional MR analyses has not been performed. In this work, we present two novel methods to generate pseudo-T2w images: the first is based in deep learning and expands upon previous models to 3D imaging without the requirement of paired data, the second is based in nonlinear multi-atlas registration providing a computationally lightweight alternative. We demonstrate the anatomical accuracy of pseudo-T2w images and their efficacy in existing MR processing pipelines in two independent neonatal cohorts. Critically, we show that implementing these pseudo-T2w methods in resting-state functional MRI analyses produces virtually identical functional connectivity results when compared to those resulting from T2w images, confirming their utility in infant MRI studies for salvaging otherwise lost subject data.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2021
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2021
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David H, Zald; Neil D, Woodward; Ronald L, Cowan; Patrizia, Riccardi; +7 Authors

    Individual differences in dopamine D2-like receptor availability arise across all brain regions expressing D2-like receptors. However, the inter-relationships in receptor availability across brain regions are poorly understood. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between D2-like binding potential (BPND) across striatal and extrastriatal regions in a sample of healthy participants. PET imaging was performed with the high affinity D2/D3 ligand [18F]fallypride in 45 participants. BPND images were submitted to voxel-wise principal components analysis to determine the pattern of associations across brain regions. Individual differences in D2-like BPND were explained by three distinguishable components. A single component explained almost all of the variance within the striatum, indicating that individual differences in receptor availability vary in a homogenous manner across the caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum. Cortical BPND was only modestly related to striatal BPND, and mostly loaded on a distinct component. After controlling for the general level of cortical D2-like BPND, an inverse relationship emerged between receptor availability in the striatum and the ventral temporal and ventromedial frontal cortices, suggesting possible cross-regulation of D2-like receptors in these regions. The analysis additionally revealed evidence of: 1) a distinct component involving the midbrain and limbic areas; 2) a dissociation between BPND in the medial and lateral temporal regions; and 3) a dissociation between BPND in the medial/midline and lateral thalamus. In summary, individual differences in D2-like receptor availability reflect several distinct patterns. This conclusion has significant implications for neuropsychiatric models that posit global or regionally specific relationships between dopaminergic tone and behavior.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2010
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NeuroImage
    Article
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2010
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg