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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jan Tuckermann; Anna Kleiman; Richard Moriggl; Rainer Spanbroek; +10 Authors

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used in the treatment of allergic skin conditions despite having numerous side effects. Here we use Cre/loxP-engineered tissue- and cell-specific and function-selective GC receptor (GR) mutant mice to identify responsive cell types and molecular mechanisms underlying the antiinflammatory activity of GCs in contact hypersensitivity (CHS). CHS was repressed by GCs only at the challenge phase, i.e., during reexposure to the hapten. Inactivation of the GR gene in keratinocytes or T cells of mutant mice did not attenuate the effects of GCs, but its ablation in macrophages and neutrophils abolished downregulation of the inflammatory response. Moreover, mice expressing a DNA binding-defective GR were also resistant to GC treatment. The persistent infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in these mice is explained by an impaired repression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as IL-1beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10. In contrast TNF-alpha repression remained intact. Consequently, injection of recombinant proteins of these cytokines and chemokines partially reversed suppression of CHS by GCs. These studies provide evidence that in contact allergy, therapeutic action of corticosteroids is in macrophages and neutrophils and that dimerization GR is required.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fachrepositorium Leb...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2007
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2007
    Data sources: NARCIS
    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 2007
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fachrepositorium Leb...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2007
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Journal of Clinical Investigation
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2007
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      Other literature type . Article . 2007
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eskildsen, S.F.; Coupe, P.; Fonov, V.; Manjon, J.V.; +8 Authors

    Brain extraction is an important step in the analysis of brain images. The variability in brain morphology and the difference in intensity characteristics due to imaging sequences make the development of a general purpose brain extraction algorithm challenging. To address this issue, we propose a new robust method (BEaST) dedicated to produce consistent and accurate brain extraction. This method is based on nonlocal segmentation embedded in a multi-resolution framework. A library of 80 priors is semi-automatically constructed from the NIH-sponsored MRI study of normal brain development, the International Consortium for Brain Mapping, and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases. In testing, a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.9834 ± 0.0053 was obtained when performing leave-one-out cross validation selecting only 20 priors from the library. Validation using the online Segmentation Validation Engine resulted in a top ranking position with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.9781 ± 0.0047. Robustness of BEaST is demonstrated on all baseline ADNI data, resulting in a very low failure rate. The segmentation accuracy of the method is better than two widely used publicly available methods and recent state-of-the-art hybrid approaches. BEaST provides results comparable to a recent label fusion approach, while being 40 times faster and requiring a much smaller library of priors. Data collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904). ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through generous contributions from the following: Abbott, AstraZeneca AB, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai Global Clinical Development, Elan Corporation, Genentech, GE Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline, Innogenetics, Johnson and Johnson, Eli Lilly and Co., Medpace, Inc., Merck and Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc, F. Hoffman-La Roche, Schering-Plough, Synarc, Inc., as well as non-profit partners the Alzheimer's Association and Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, with participation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Private sector contributions to ADNI are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (www.fnih.org). The grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study at the University of California, San Diego. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of California, Los Angeles. This research was also supported by NIH grants P30AG010129, K01 AG030514, and the Dana Foundation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Hal-Dide...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 2012
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . 2012
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    NeuroImage
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2011
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2012
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Hal-Dide...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2012
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      NeuroImage
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2011
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      Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Reinmar J. Kobler; Andreea Ioana Sburlea; Valeria Mondini; Masayuki Hirata; +1 Authors

    Objective. One of the main goals in brain-computer interface (BCI) research is the replacement or restoration of lost function in individuals with paralysis. One line of research investigates the inference of movement kinematics from brain activity during different volitional states. A growing number of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies suggest that information about directional (e.g., velocity) and nondirectional (e.g., speed) movement kinematics is accessible noninvasively. We sought to assess if the neural information associated with both types of kinematics can be combined to improve the decoding accuracy. Approach. In an offline analysis, we reanalyzed the data of two previous experiments containing the recordings of 34 healthy participants (15 EEG, 19 MEG). We decoded 2D movement trajectories from low-frequency M/EEG signals in executed and observed tracking movements, and compared the accuracy of an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) that explicitly modeled the nonlinear relation between directional and nondirectional kinematics to the accuracies of linear Kalman (KF) and Wiener filters (WF) which did not combine both types of kinematics. Main results. At the group level, posterior-parietal and parieto-occipital (executed and observed movements) and sensorimotor areas (executed movements) encoded kinematic information. Correlations between the recorded position and velocity trajectories and the UKF decoded ones were on average 0.49 during executed and 0.36 during observed movements. Compared to the other filters, the UKF could achieve the best trade-off between maximizing the signal to noise ratio and minimizing the amplitude mismatch between the recorded and decoded trajectories. Significance. We present direct evidence that directional and nondirectional kinematic information is simultaneously detectable in low-frequency M/EEG signals. Moreover, combining directional and nondirectional kinematic information significantly improves the decoding accuracy upon a linear KF.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2020
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    NARCIS; Journal of Neural Engineering
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2020
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      NARCIS; Journal of Neural Engineering
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hinne, M.; Meijers, A.; Bakker, R.; Tiesinga, P.H.E.; +3 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 169187.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) 1 p.

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    Article . 2017
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2017
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    PLoS Computational Biology
    Article . 2017
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    PLoS Computational Biology
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    Authors: Gutteling, T.P.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Medendorp, W.P.;

    Contains fulltext : 177245.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) Spatial updating is essential to maintain an accurate representation of our visual environment when we move. A neural mechanism that contributes to this ability is called remapping: the transfer of visual information from neural populations that code a location before the motion to those that encode it after the motion. While there is ample evidence for neural remapping in conjunction with eye movements, only recent findings suggest a role of this mechanism for whole-body motion updating, based on the observation that alpha band (10 Hz) activity is selectively reorganized during remapping. This study tested whether alpha oscillations directly contribute to whole-body motion updating using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). In a double blind sham controlled design, healthy volunteers received 10 Hz tACS at an intensity of 1 mA over either the left or right posterior hemisphere during a whole-body motion updating task. Updating performance was assessed psychometrically and indices of gain and precision were obtained. No tACS-related effects on updating gain were found, irrespective of whether the remapping was across or within the hemispheres. In contrast, updating precision was enhanced when a target representation had to be internally remapped to the stimulated hemisphere, but not in other remapping conditions. Our observations suggest that alpha band oscillations do not directly affect the transfer of target representations during remapping, but increase the fidelity of the updated representation by attenuating interference of afferent information. 8 p.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2017
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    Neuropsychologia
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2017
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    Neuropsychologia
    Article . 2017
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Neuropsychologia
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      Article . 2017
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      Neuropsychologia
      Article . 2017
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Carolien G.F. de Kovel; Lyubomir I. Aftanas; André Aleman; Aaron Alexander-Bloch; +74 Authors

    Objective: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects.Methods: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T-1-weighted MRI data were processedwith a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1.Results: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset.Conclusions: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2019
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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    DZNE Pub
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      DZNE Pub
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Lodewijk J.A. Toonen; Maurice Overzier; Melvin M. Evers; Leticia G. Leon; +10 Authors

    Background Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the ataxin-3 protein. Expression of mutant ataxin-3 is known to result in transcriptional dysregulation, which can contribute to the cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Since the exact causative mechanisms underlying this process have not been fully elucidated, gene expression analyses in brains of transgenic SCA3 mouse models may provide useful insights. Methods Here we characterised the MJD84.2 SCA3 mouse model expressing the mutant human ataxin-3 gene using a multi-omics approach on brain and blood. Gene expression changes in brainstem, cerebellum, striatum and cortex were used to study pathological changes in brain, while blood gene expression and metabolites/lipids levels were examined as potential biomarkers for disease. Results Despite normal motor performance at 17.5 months of age, transcriptional changes in brain tissue of the SCA3 mice were observed. Most transcriptional changes occurred in brainstem and striatum, whilst cerebellum and cortex were only modestly affected. The most significantly altered genes in SCA3 mouse brain were Tmc3, Zfp488, Car2, and Chdh. Based on the transcriptional changes, α-adrenergic and CREB pathways were most consistently altered for combined analysis of the four brain regions. When examining individual brain regions, axon guidance and synaptic transmission pathways were most strongly altered in striatum, whilst brainstem presented with strongest alterations in the pi-3 k cascade and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, reduced levels of tryptophan and increased levels of ceramides, di- and triglycerides were observed in SCA3 mouse blood. Conclusions The observed transcriptional changes in SCA3 mouse brain reveal parallels with previous reported neuropathology in patients, but also shows brain region specific effects as well as involvement of adrenergic signalling and CREB pathway changes in SCA3. Importantly, the transcriptional changes occur prior to onset of motor- and coordination deficits. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13024-018-0261-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2018
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    Molecular Neurodegeneration
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Molecular Neurodegeneration; NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      Molecular Neurodegeneration
      Article
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      Molecular Neurodegeneration; NARCIS
      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Anna, Gardumi; Dimo, Ivanov; Lars, Hausfeld; Giancarlo, Valente; +2 Authors

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) in fMRI has been used to extract information from distributed cortical activation patterns, which may go undetected in conventional univariate analysis. However, little is known about the physical and physiological underpinnings of MVPA in fMRI as well as about the effect of spatial smoothing on its performance. Several studies have addressed these issues, but their investigation was limited to the visual cortex at 3T with conflicting results. Here, we used ultra-high field (7T) fMRI to investigate the effect of spatial resolution and smoothing on decoding of speech content (vowels) and speaker identity from auditory cortical responses. To that end, we acquired high-resolution (1.1mm isotropic) fMRI data and additionally reconstructed them at 2.2 and 3.3mm in-plane spatial resolutions from the original k-space data. Furthermore, the data at each resolution were spatially smoothed with different 3D Gaussian kernel sizes (i.e. no smoothing or 1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4, or 8.8mm kernels). For all spatial resolutions and smoothing kernels, we demonstrate the feasibility of decoding speech content (vowel) and speaker identity at 7T using support vector machine (SVM) MVPA. In addition, we found that high spatial frequencies are informative for vowel decoding and that the relative contribution of high and low spatial frequencies is different across the two decoding tasks. Moderate smoothing (up to 2.2mm) improved the accuracies for both decoding of vowels and speakers, possibly due to reduction of noise (e.g. residual motion artifacts or instrument noise) while still preserving information at high spatial frequency. In summary, our results show that - even with the same stimuli and within the same brain areas - the optimal spatial resolution for MVPA in fMRI depends on the specific decoding task of interest.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2015
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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    NeuroImage
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2015
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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      NeuroImage
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    Authors: John, Suckling; Matthew H, Davis; Cinly, Ooi; Alle Meije, Wink; +6 Authors

    AbstractThe block‐paradigm of the Functional Image Analysis Contest (FIAC) dataset was analysed with the Brain Activation and Morphological Mapping software. Permutation methods in the wavelet domain were used for inference on cluster‐based test statistics of orthogonal contrasts relevant to the factorial design of the study, namely: the average response across all active blocks, the main effect of speaker, the main effect of sentence, and the interaction between sentence and speaker. Extensive activation was seen with all these contrasts. In particular, different vs. same‐speaker blocks produced elevated activation in bilateral regions of the superior temporal lobe and repetition suppression for linguistic materials (same vs. different‐sentence blocks) in left inferior frontal regions. These are regions previously reported in the literature. Additional regions were detected in this study, perhaps due to the enhanced sensitivity of the methodology. Within‐block sentence suppression was tested post‐hoc by regression of an exponential decay model onto the extracted time series from the left inferior frontal gyrus, but no strong evidence of such an effect was found. The significance levels set for the activation maps are P‐values at which we expect <1 false‐positive cluster per image. Nominal type I error control was verified by empirical testing of a test statistic corresponding to a randomly ordered design matrix. The small size of the BOLD effect necessitates sensitive methods of detection of brain activation. Permutation methods permit the necessary flexibility to develop novel test statistics to meet this challenge. Hum Brain Mapp27:425–433, 2006. © 2006 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2006
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2006
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2006
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Human Brain Mapping
      Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2006
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: de Paula, Demetrius Ribeiro; Ziegler, Erik; Abeyasinghe, Pubuditha M.; Das, Tushar K.; +14 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionIndependent component analysis (ICA) has been extensively used for reducing task‐free BOLD fMRI recordings into spatial maps and their associated time‐courses. The spatially identified independent components can be considered as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of non‐contiguous regions. To date, the spatial patterns of the networks have been analyzed with techniques developed for volumetric data.ObjectiveHere, we detail a graph building technique that allows these ICNs to be analyzed with graph theory.MethodsFirst, ICA was performed at the single‐subject level in 15 healthy volunteers using a 3T MRI scanner. The identification of nine networks was performed by a multiple‐template matching procedure and a subsequent component classification based on the network “neuronal” properties. Second, for each of the identified networks, the nodes were defined as 1,015 anatomically parcellated regions. Third, between‐node functional connectivity was established by building edge weights for each networks. Group‐level graph analysis was finally performed for each network and compared to the classical network.ResultsNetwork graph comparison between the classically constructed network and the nine networks showed significant differences in the auditory and visual medial networks with regard to the average degree and the number of edges, while the visual lateral network showed a significant difference in the small‐worldness.ConclusionsThis novel approach permits us to take advantage of the well‐recognized power of ICA in BOLD signal decomposition and, at the same time, to make use of well‐established graph measures to evaluate connectivity differences. Moreover, by providing a graph for each separate network, it can offer the possibility to extract graph measures in a specific way for each network. This increased specificity could be relevant for studying pathological brain activity or altered states of consciousness as induced by anesthesia or sleep, where specific networks are known to be altered in different strength.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Scholarship@Western
    Other literature type . 2017
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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