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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mathias Lühr Hansen; Simon Hyttel-Sorensen; Janus Christian Jakobsen; Christian Gluud; +7 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundMultiple clinical conditions are associated with cerebral hypoxia/ischaemia and thereby an increased risk of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring (NIRS) is a tool to monitor brain oxygenation and perfusion, and the clinical uptake of NIRS has expanded over recent years. Specifically, NIRS is used in the neonatal, paediatric, and adult perioperative and intensive care settings. However, the available literature suggests that clinical benefits and harms of cerebral NIRS monitoring are uncertain. As rates of clinically significant hypoxic-ischaemic brain injuries are typically low, it is difficult for randomised clinical trials to capture a sufficiently large number of events to evaluate the clinical effect of cerebral NIRS monitoring, when focusing on specific clinical settings. The aim of this systematic review will be to evaluate the benefits and harms of clinical care with access to cerebral NIRS monitoring versus clinical care without cerebral NIRS monitoring in children and adults across all clinical settings.MethodsWe will conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. We will only include randomised clinical trials. The primary outcomes are all-cause mortality, moderate or severe persistent cognitive or neurological deficit, and proportion of participants with one or more serious adverse events. We will search CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Science Citation Index Expanded from their inception and onwards. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and extract data. The risk of bias will be appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool version 2.0. If feasible, we will conduct both random-effects meta-analysis and fixed-effect meta-analysis of outcome data. Additional analysis will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g. risk of bias, clinical setting).DiscussionAs we include trials across multiple clinical settings, there is an increased probability of reaching a sufficient information size. However, heterogeneity between the included trials may impair our ability to interpret results to specific clinical settings. In this situation, we may have to depend on subgroup analyses with inherent increased risks of type I and II errors.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42020202986. This systematic review protocol has been submitted for registration in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) on the 12th of October 2020 and published on the 12th of November 2020 (registration IDCRD42020202986).

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    Article . 2021
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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    Contains fulltext : 251957.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) Human language stands out in the natural world as a biological signal that uses a structured system to combine the meanings of small linguistic units (e.g., words) into larger constituents (e.g., phrases and sentences). However, the physical dynamics of speech (or sign) do not stand in a one-to-one relationship with the meanings listeners perceive. Instead, listeners infer meaning based on their knowledge of the language. The neural readouts of the perceptual and cognitive processes underlying these inferences are still poorly understood. In the present study, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to compare the neural response to phrases (e.g., the red vase) and sentences (e.g., the vase is red), which were close in semantic meaning and had been synthesized to be physically indistinguishable. Differences in structure were well captured in the reorganization of neural phase responses in delta (approximately <2 Hz) and theta bands (approximately 2 to 7 Hz),and in power and power connectivity changes in the alpha band (approximately 7.5 to 13.5 Hz). Consistent with predictions from a computational model, sentences showed more power, more power connectivity, and more phase synchronization than phrases did. Theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling occurred, but did not differ between the syntactic structures. Spectral–temporal response function (STRF) modeling revealed different encoding states for phrases and sentences, over and above the acoustically driven neural response. Our findings provide a comprehensive description of how the brain encodes and separates linguistic structures in the dynamics of neural responses. They imply that phase synchronization and strength of connectivity are readouts for the constituent structure of language. The results provide a novel basis for future neurophysiological research on linguistic structure representation in the brain, and, together with our simulations, support time-based binding as a mechanism of structure encoding in neural dynamics. 40 p.

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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2022
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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2022
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      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Emilio Russo; Rita Citraro; Andrew Constanti; Antonio Leo; +3 Authors

    Item does not contain fulltext The WAG/Rij rat model has recently gathered attention as a suitable animal model of absence epileptogenesis. This latter term has a broad definition encompassing any possible cause that determines the development of spontaneous seizures; however, most of, if not all, preclinical knowledge on epileptogenesis is confined to the study of post-brain insult models such as traumatic brain injury or post-status epilepticus models. WAG/Rij rats, but also synapsin 2 knockout, Kv7 current-deficient mice represent the first examples of genetic models where an efficacious antiepileptogenic treatment (ethosuximide) was started before seizure onset. In this review, we have critically reconsidered all articles published regarding WAG/Rij rats, from the perspective that the period before SWD onset is considered as the latent period. In our new theory on seizure development, it is proposed that genes might be considered as the initial 'insult' responsible for all plastic changes underpinning the development of spontaneous seizures. According to this idea, in WAG/Rij rats, genetic predisposition would lead to the development of abnormal bilateral cortical epileptic foci, which would then non-genetically stimulate the rest of the brain to rearrange networks in order to phenotypically develop seizures similarly to what happens during electrical kindling. 21 p.

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    Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: John, Suckling; Matthew H, Davis; Cinly, Ooi; Alle Meije, Wink; +6 Authors

    AbstractThe block‐paradigm of the Functional Image Analysis Contest (FIAC) dataset was analysed with the Brain Activation and Morphological Mapping software. Permutation methods in the wavelet domain were used for inference on cluster‐based test statistics of orthogonal contrasts relevant to the factorial design of the study, namely: the average response across all active blocks, the main effect of speaker, the main effect of sentence, and the interaction between sentence and speaker. Extensive activation was seen with all these contrasts. In particular, different vs. same‐speaker blocks produced elevated activation in bilateral regions of the superior temporal lobe and repetition suppression for linguistic materials (same vs. different‐sentence blocks) in left inferior frontal regions. These are regions previously reported in the literature. Additional regions were detected in this study, perhaps due to the enhanced sensitivity of the methodology. Within‐block sentence suppression was tested post‐hoc by regression of an exponential decay model onto the extracted time series from the left inferior frontal gyrus, but no strong evidence of such an effect was found. The significance levels set for the activation maps are P‐values at which we expect <1 false‐positive cluster per image. Nominal type I error control was verified by empirical testing of a test statistic corresponding to a randomly ordered design matrix. The small size of the BOLD effect necessitates sensitive methods of detection of brain activation. Permutation methods permit the necessary flexibility to develop novel test statistics to meet this challenge. Hum Brain Mapp27:425–433, 2006. © 2006 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2006
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    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2006
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      Human Brain Mapping
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    Authors: Sebastian P.H. Speer; Ale Smidts; Maarten A. S. Boksem;

    Every day, we are faced with the conflict between the temptation to cheat for financial gains and maintaining a positive image of ourselves as being a “good person.” While it has been proposed that cognitive control is needed to mediate this conflict between reward and our moral self-image, the exact role of cognitive control in (dis)honesty remains elusive. Here we identify this role, by investigating the neural mechanism underlying cheating. We developed a task which allows for inconspicuously measuring spontaneous cheating on a trial-by-trial basis in the MRI scanner. We found that activity in the nucleus accumbens promotes cheating, particularly for individuals who cheat a lot, while a network consisting of posterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction, and medial prefrontal cortex promotes honesty, particularly in individuals who are generally honest. Finally, activity in areas associated with cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus) helped dishonest participants to be honest, whereas it enabled cheating for honest participants. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive control is not needed to be honest or dishonest per se but that it depends on an individual’s moral default. Significance Considering the immense economic costs associated with dishonest behavior, such as tax evasion or music piracy, reducing dishonesty is of great relevance to policy-makers. However, targeting dishonesty with interventions requires a thorough understanding of the underlying (neuro)cognitive processes. We combine neuroimaging with a task that pioneers in measuring the neural mechanisms underlying (dis)honesty. While replicating previous findings that greed drives dishonesty, we reveal that self-referential thinking processes promoted honest behavior. Moreover, we found that cognitive control does not serve the same purpose across individuals but facilitates honest decisions for cheaters, whereas it enables cheating for honest participants. We thus observe that different processes prevent dishonesty for different individuals, which can prove instrumental in the development of more effective interventions.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cyril Pernet; Marta I. Garrido; Alexandre Gramfort; Natasha M. Maurits; +6 Authors

    The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) has been active in advocating for the instantiation of best practices in neuroimaging data acquisition, analysis, reporting and sharing of both data and analysis code to deal with issues in science related to reproducibility and replicability. Here we summarize recommendations for such practices in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) research, recently developed by the OHBM neuroimaging community known by the abbreviated name of COBIDAS MEEG. We discuss the rationale for the guidelines and their general content, which encompass many topics under active discussion in the field. We highlight future opportunities and challenges to maximizing the sharing and exploitation of MEG and EEG data, and we also discuss how this 'living' set of guidelines will evolve to continually address new developments in neurophysiological assessment methods and multimodal integration of neurophysiological data with other data types.The Organization for Human Brain Mapping presents its best practices report for reproducible EEG and MEG research, highlighting issues and main recommendations in this Perspective.

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    Aaltodoc Publication Archive
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2020
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    Nature Neuroscience
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2020
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      Radboud Repository
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      Nature Neuroscience
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    Authors: Hofstee, Marissa; Huijding, Jorg; Cuevas, Kimberly; Dekovic, Maja; +2 Authors

    AbstractIntegrating behavioral and neurophysiological measures has created new and advanced ways to understand the development of self‐regulation. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to examine how self‐regulatory processes are related to frontal alpha power during infancy and early childhood. However, findings across previous studies have been inconsistent. To address this issue, the current meta‐analysis synthesized all prior literature examining associations between individual differences in self‐regulation and frontal EEG alpha power (baseline and/or task). In total, 23 studies consisting of 1275 participants between 1 month and 6 years of age were included, which yielded 149 effect sizes. Findings of the three‐level meta‐analytic model demonstrated a non‐significant overall association between self‐regulation and frontal alpha power. Yet, significant moderating effects were found for self‐regulation construct (emotion regulation, effortful control, executive function), self‐regulation measurement (behavioral task, computer assessment, lab observation, questionnaire), and children's mean age. Self‐regulation was only significantly correlated with frontal alpha power when studies focused on the executive functioning construct. Moreover, the use of behavioral tasks or questionnaires and a higher mean age of the children resulted in small but significant effect size estimates. Higher frontal alpha power values were related to higher order top‐down mechanisms of self‐regulation, indicating that these mechanisms might become stronger when the frontal cortex is sufficiently developed. The findings of the current meta‐analysis highlight the importance of longitudinal analyses and multimethod approaches in future work to reach a more comprehensive understanding of the role of frontal EEG alpha activity in the etiology of individual differences in early self‐regulation.Research Highlights The first meta‐analysis of individual differences in self‐regulation and frontal EEG alpha power during infancy and early childhood demonstrated a non‐significant overall association. Moderation analyses revealed that variations in frontal alpha power were significantly associated with executive function, but not with effortful control and emotion regulation. Frontal alpha power was related to variations in self‐regulation when measured by behavioral tasks and questionnaires, but not via computer assessments and lab observations. The association between individual differences in self‐regulation and frontal alpha power becomes significantly stronger with age.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2022
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    Developmental Science
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      Developmental Science
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    Authors: Szabolcs David; Anneriet M. Heemskerk; Francesco Corrivetti; Michel Thiebaut de Schotten; +12 Authors

    International audience; Fiber tractography (FT) using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used for investigating microstructural properties of white matter (WM) fiber-bundles and for mapping structural connections of the human brain. While studying the architectural configuration of the brain's circuitry with FT is not without controversy, recent progress in acquisition, processing, modeling, analysis, and visualization of dMRI data pushes forward the reliability in reconstructing WM pathways. Despite being aware of the well-known pitfalls in analyzing dMRI data and several other limitations of FT discussed in recent literature, we present the superoanterior fasciculus (SAF), a novel bilateral fiber tract in the frontal region of the human brain that-to the best of our knowledge-has not been documented. The SAF has a similar shape to the anterior part of the cingulum bundle, but it is located more frontally. To minimize the possibility that these FT findings are based on acquisition or processing artifacts, different dMRI data sets and processing pipelines have been used to describe the SAF. Furthermore, we evaluated the configuration of the SAF with complementary methods, such as polarized light imaging (PLI) and human brain dissections. The FT results of the SAF demonstrate a long pathway, consistent across individuals, while the human dissections indicate fiber pathways connecting the postero-dorsal with the antero-dorsal cortices of the frontal lobe.

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    Article . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
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    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
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      Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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      Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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    Authors: Tiesinga, P.H.E.;

    AbstractIdentifying the dominant dynamical motifs in cortical circuits and determining their functional relevance is of the utmost importance to understand the underlying mechanisms of psychiatric diseases and to develop effective therapies. Optogenetics can be used to interrogate cortical circuits to determine the dominant motif and thereby identify the relevant biophysical time scales that set the oscillation frequency. We review how computational models of cortical networks can help guide optogenetics experiments. We focus our attention on the pyramidal interneuron gamma motif, which is comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and determine how the different biophysical time scales of the circuit components are reflected in the resonance of the power in the local field potential at the frequency of stimulation as a function of that frequency. Cardin et al. [J.A. Cardin et al. (2009)Nature, 459, 663–667] find that periodic stimulation of inhibitory cells leads to a resonance at gamma frequencies (30–80 Hz), but that stimulation of excitatory cells does not lead to a resonance. We can account for these results when the pyramidal cells are endowed with an intrinsic frequency preference due to a slow hyperpolarizing current. Furthermore, when fast α‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)‐mediated excitatory currents are replaced by slow N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate (NMDA)‐mediated ones in inhibitory cells, the gamma frequency resonance is reduced; however, when the same replacement is made in excitatory cells, gamma oscillations are enhanced. The results are relevant to schizophrenia, because there is evidence that NMDA receptors on parvalbumin‐positive cells are primarily affected and that the regulation of gamma oscillations is impaired.

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    European Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2012
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      European Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Meteran, Hanieh; Vindbjerg, Erik; Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard; Glenthøj, Birte; +2 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundImpairments in mechanisms underlying early information processing have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, findings in the existing literature are inconsistent. This current study capitalizes on technological advancements of research on electroencephalographic event-related potential and applies it to a novel PTSD population consisting of trauma-affected refugees.MethodsA total of 25 trauma-affected refugees with PTSD and 20 healthy refugee controls matched on age, gender, and country of origin completed the study. In two distinct auditory paradigms sensory gating, indexed as P50 suppression, and sensorimotor gating, indexed as prepulse inhibition (PPI), startle reactivity, and habituation of the eye-blink startle response were examined. Within the P50 paradigm, N100 and P200 amplitudes were also assessed. In addition, correlations between psychophysiological and clinical measures were investigated.ResultsPTSD patients demonstrated significantly elevated stimuli responses across the two paradigms, reflected in both increased amplitude of the eye-blink startle response, and increased N100 and P200 amplitudes relative to healthy refugee controls. We found a trend toward reduced habituation in the patients, while the groups did not differ in PPI and P50 suppression. Among correlations, we found that eye-blink startle responses were associated with higher overall illness severity and lower levels of functioning.ConclusionsFundamental gating mechanisms appeared intact, while the pattern of deficits in trauma-affected refugees with PTSD point toward a different form of sensory overload, an overall neural hypersensitivity and disrupted the ability to down-regulate stimuli responses. This study represents an initial step toward elucidating sensory processing deficits in a PTSD subgroup.

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    Psychological Medicine
    Article . 2019
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    Psychological Medicine
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Psychological Medicine
      Article . 2019
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      Psychological Medicine
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