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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Slezak, E.; Kneib, J.P.; Lima Neto, G.B.; Durret, F.; +16 Authors

    We have searched for diffuse intracluster light in the galaxy cluster Abell 2667 (z=0.233) from HST images in three filters. We have applied to these images an iterative multi-scale wavelet analysis and reconstruction technique, which allows to subtract stars and galaxies from the original images. We detect a zone of diffuse emission south west of the cluster center (DS1), and a second faint object (ComDif), within DS1. Another diffuse source (DS2) may be detected, at lower confidence level, north east of the center. These sources of diffuse light contribute to 10-15% of the total visible light in the cluster. Whether they are independent entities or are part of the very elliptical external envelope of the central galaxy remains unclear. VLT VIMOS integral field spectroscopy reveals a faint continuum at the positions of DS1 and ComDif but do not allow to compute a redshift. A hierarchical substructure detection method reveals the presence of several galaxy pairs and groups defining a similar direction as the one drawn by the DS1-central galaxy-DS2 axis. The analysis of archive XMM-Newton and Chandra observations shows X-ray emission elongated in the same direction. The X-ray temperature map shows the presence of a cool core, a broad cool zone stretching from north to south and hotter regions towards the north east, south west and north west. This possibly suggests shock fronts along these directions produced by infalling material. These various data are consistent with a picture in which diffuse sources are concentrations of tidal debris and harassed matter expelled from infalling galaxies by tidal stripping and undergoing an accretion process onto the central cluster galaxy; as such, they are expected to be found along the main infall directions. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2006
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2006
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Other literature type . 2006
    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carraz, Damien;

    Que les ordres militaires aient été capables d’intégrer les femmes par le biais de systèmes d’affiliations, au demeurant mal définis, est un fait déjà relevé par certains travaux anglo-saxons. Mais on n’a jamais évalué globalement la place du second sexe auprès des commanderies « ordinaires » de l’Hôpital et du Temple, en considérant toutes les formes de relations qui pouvaient se développer entre ces communautés religieuses masculines et leurs voisines laïques. La riche documentation rassemblée pour le Bas-Rhône des XIIe-XIIIe siècles montre d’abord des femmes pleinement impliquées dans les échanges fonciers avec les ordres militaires. Si elles vendent plus qu’elles ne donnent, les dames issues de la petite et moyenne aristocratie n’en fréquentent pas moins régulièrement des commanderies qui paraissent plus que jamais ouvertes aux laïcs. De fait, nombreuses sont celles qui prolongent ces liens matériels par une profonde dévotion envers les frères : celle-ci est révélée par la pratique testamentaire, comme par les affiliations, parmi lesquelles il faut distinguer les élections de sépulture, les contrats de consœurs puis de donates et enfin, pour l’Hôpital, les professions complètes. À une époque où l’Église répond encore assez mal aux attentes des pieuses laïques, les ordres militaires furent capables d’intégrer ces dernières dans de nouvelles formes de solidarité et de leur offrir un véritable modèle de vie chrétienne : chasteté dans le veuvage comme dans le mariage, participation aux prières et aux œuvres pieuses prodiguées par les commanderies, voire même adhésion à l’idéal de la chevalerie et de la guerre sainte. Presence and Devotion of Women around Lower-Rhone Commanderies (12th and 13th Centuries). Some English-speaking scholars have already put to the fore the fact that military orders were able to integrate women through a system of affiliation which was, incidentally, rather vague. But the overall implication of women within the commanderies of the Orders of the Temple and Hospitallers has never been assessed, taking into account the variety of relationships that could grow between the male religious communities and their lay female neighbours. The profusion of documents gathered dealing with 12th-13th century Lower-Rhone first shows that women were fully involved in the property trade with military orders. Even if they sold more than they gave away, the ladies who came from the lower and middle aristocracy could still often be seen in commanderies which seemed more than ever open to lay people. As a matter of fact, many of them extended the material links with the brothers to a deep devotion towards them. This can be seen through wills as well as affiliations among which elections to a sepulture should be distinguished from consores and donates contracts and, lastly, as regards the Hospitallers, full professions. At a time when the Church was still unable to fulfil entirely the demands of lay pious women, military orders were able to integrate them into new forms of solidarity and to offer them an actual model of Christian life : chastity in widowhood as in marriage, part taking in the prayers and pious deeds organised by commanderies and even supporting the ideal of the chivalry and of the crusades. Carraz Damien. Présences et dévotions féminines autour des commanderies du Bas-Rhône (XIIe -XIIIe siècle ). In: Les ordres religieux militaires dans le Midi (XIIe-XIVe siècle) Toulouse : Éditions Privat, 2006. pp. 71-99. (Cahiers de Fanjeaux, 41)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Reti Medievali Open ...arrow_drop_down
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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.3406/cafan....
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2020
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2020
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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      Other literature type . Preprint . 2020
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    Authors: Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; +196 Authors

    A search for excited leptons $\rm e^*,~\mu^*, ~\tau^*$ and $\nu_{\rm e}^*$ in $\rm e^+e^-$ collisions at $\rm \sqrt{s}$ = 161 GeV is performed using the $\rm 10.8 ~pb^{-1}$ of data collected by the L3 detector at LEP. No evidence has been found for their existence. From an analysis of the expected $\ell^*\ell^*$ pair production in the channels $\rm ee\gamma\gamma$, $\rm \mu\mu\gamma\gamma$, $\rm \tau\tau\gamma\gamma$, $\rm eeWW$, and $\rm \nu\nu\gamma\gamma$, the lower mass limits at 95\% C.L. are 79.7 GeV for $\rm e^{*}$, 79.9 GeV for $\mu^{*}$, 79.3 GeV for $\tau^{*}$ and 71.3 GeV for $\nu_{\rm e}^{*}$ assuming the same couplings as for standard leptons. From an analysis of the expected $\ell\ell^*$ single production in channels $\rm ee\gamma$, $\mu\mu\gamma$, $ \tau\tau\gamma$, $\rm \nu_{e}eW$ and $\nu\nu\gamma$, the upper limits on the couplings $\lambda/m_{\ell^*}$ up to $m_{\ell^{*}}$ = 161 GeV are determined.

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    Authors: Baptist, Florence;

    Les écosystèmes alpins, au même titre que les écosystèmes arctiques, séquestrent des quantités importantes de carbone dans leurs sols. Dans ces écosystèmes, la topographie locale détermine la répartition de la neige; un facteur qui, sur le court terme, affecte les paramètres physiques de l'environnement (effets directs) et qui, sur le long terme, a sélectionné des communautés végétales et microbiennes très différentes aux deux extrêmes du gradient de mésotopographie (effets indirects). Au regard des modifications futures des régimes d'enneigement prédits par les différents modèles climatiques, cette étude vise à explorer les contrôles directs et indirects exercés par l'enneigement sur la fixation du CO2 et la minéralisation du carbone organique dans les écosystèmes alpins. Les paramètres physiques des sols (eau et température) ont été mesurés pendant plusieurs années révélant les effets directs. Afin de quantifier les effets indirects de l'enneigement sur les flux biogéochimiques, nous avons utilisé les caractéristiques fonctionnelles des végétaux (leurs traits). Différentes approches (mesures in situ, manipulations expérimentales et modélisation) ont été employées. Cette étude démontre que la fixation du carbone le long des gradients de mésotopographie est à la fois déterminée par les traits fonctionnels végétaux, les propriétés des canopées et la longueur de la saison de végétation. Un allongement de la saison de végétation devrait entraîner une augmentation marquée de la production primaire si les événements de gel en début de saison de végétation demeurent limités. La minéralisation du carbone est au contraire largement dépendante de la qualité de la matière organique contenue dans les sols. Des changements de composition en traits fonctionnels de la végétation, notamment ceux affectant les concentrations en lignine des litières, devraient avoir un impact déterminant sur les vitesses de minéralisation de la matière organique. Enfin, l'étude des flux de carbone et d'azote dans les plantes dominantes et à l'interface plante – sol révèle un couplage temporel et spatial essentiel chez les espèces dont la croissance est limitée par la longueur de la saison de végétation. Ce couplage apparaît plus limité dans les communautés végétales bénéficiant d'une plus longue saison de végétation. L'évolution des flux et stocks de carbone au sein des écosystèmes alpins dans un contexte de changement climatique est discutée. Alpine tundra store large carbon stocks in their soils. In these ecosystems, the local mesotopography determines snow cover distribution, a key variable, which affect the edapho-climatic conditions on the short term (direct effects) and, in the longer-term, select for contrasting plant and microbial communities at both ends of the topographical gradient (indirect effects). In the context of global change, where large changes in snow precipitations are projected, this study explores the controls exerted by snow cover on carbon fixation and carbon mineralization in alpine tundra. Edapho-climatic variables (water and temperature) were measured during several years and we used vegetation functional characteristics (using plant functional traits) to quantify the indirect effects of snow cover on biogeochemical cycles. Various approaches (in situ measurements, experimental manipulations and modeling) were used. This study demonstrates that carbon fixation along mesotopographical gradients is determined by plant functional traits, canopy properties and growing season length. A longer growing season may lead to a marked increase in primary production, if freezing events at snowmelt remain infrequent. In contrast, carbon mineralization is mainly dependant over soil organic matter quality. Shifts in plant functional traits, in particular those related to litter lignin content, will strongly impact the degradation process. Finally, the quantification of carbon and nitrogen fluxes in plants and at the plant-soil interface reveals a tight spatial and temporal coupling which is essential for species whose growth is limited by growing vegetation length. This coupling is reduced in plant communities which benefit from a longer growing season. The evolution of carbon fluxes and stocks in alpine ecosystems is discussed in the context of climatic changes.

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    Authors: Bonnier-Rigny, Agnès; Krob, Daniel;

    in "Selected papers of the second international colloquium on words, languages and combinatorics", Kyoto, Août 1992, (M. Ito, Ed.); We give a complete system of rational identities for one-letter rational expressions with multiplicities in the tropical semiring.

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    Authors: Biza, Irene;

    International audience

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    Authors: Alvino, Arturo; Delfine, Sebastiano; Mori, Mauro;

    On a etudie en serre la formation des feuilles de plants de mais en pot soumis a des stress hydriques severes. Le cycle de stress hydrique a commence au debut du stade vegetatif (stade cinq feuilles). Les plants temoins et les plants stresses ont recu respectivement 100 et 50 % de l'eau d'evapotranspiration. Dix jours plus tard la moitie des plants subissant le stress hydrique ont ete irrigues au meme niveau que les temoins. Le stress hydrique a diminue le potentiel osmotique de toutes les feuilles le long du plant, ainsi que leur concentration en chlorophylle et le taux de photosynthese. La surface de la feuille des plants stresses etait reduite, tandis que la concentration des feuilles en azote etait plus elevee que chez les temoins a la fin du stade vegetatif. Apres avoir ete a nouveau arroses, les plants'ont recupere et leur taux de photosynthese foliaire ainsi que la turgescence des feuilles ont augmente, tout en restant inferieurs a ceux des temoins. A la fin du stade vegetatif, la concentration en azote des feuilles des plants re-arroses etait semblable a celles des plants stresses, mais la croissance foliaire n'avait pas repris bien que le taux relatif de mort soit descendu au niveau de celui des plants temoins. Ceci suggere que les plants ayant subi un stress hydrique severe sont capables, lorsqu'ils sont arroses a nouveau, de bien retablir les processus physiologiques, a un moindre niveau toutefois que celui des temoins parce que la concentration en chlorophylle n'est pas totalement recuperee.

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      Other literature type . 1999
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      Agronomie
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Ramsey, Jase; Abi Aad, Amine; Jiang, Chuandi; Lopes Barakat, Livia; +1 Authors

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to establish under which conditions researchers should use the constructs cultural intelligence (CQ) and global mindset (GM). The authors further seek to understand the process through which these constructs emerge to a higher level and link unit-level knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) capital to pertinent firm-level outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a conceptual study with a multilevel model. Findings This paper differentiates two similar lines of research occurring concordantly on the CQ and GM constructs. Next, the authors develop a multilevel model to better understand the process through which CQ and GM emerge at higher levels and their underlying mechanisms. Finally, this paper adds meaning to the firm-level KSAs by linking firm-level KSAs capital to pertinent firm-level outcomes. Research limitations/implications The conclusion implies that researchers should use CQ when the context is focused on interpersonal outcomes and GM when focused on strategic outcomes. The multilevel model is a useful tool for scholars to select which rubric to use in future studies that have international managers as the subjects. The authors argue that if the scholar is interested in an individual’s ability to craft policy and implement strategy, then GM may be more parsimonious than CQ. On the other hand, if the focus is on leadership, human resources or any other relationship dependent outcome, then CQ will provide a more robust measure. Practical implications For practitioners, this study provides a useful tool for managers to improve individual-level commitment by selecting and training individuals high in CQ. On the other hand, if the desired outcome is firm-level sales or performance, the focus should be on targeting individuals high in GM. Originality/value This is the first theoretical paper to examine how CQ and GM emerge to the firm level and describe when to use each measure.

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    Multinational Business Review
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Emerald Insight Site Policies
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Pontius Jr., R.G.; Boersma, W.T.; Castella, J.C.; Clarke, K.; +16 Authors

    This paper applies methods of multiple resolution map comparison to quantify characteristics for 13 applications of 9 different popular peer-reviewed land change models. Each modeling application simulates change of land categories in raster maps from an initial time to a subsequent time. For each modeling application, the statistical methods compare: (1) a reference map of the initial time, (2) a reference map of the subsequent time, and (3) a prediction map of the subsequent time. The three possible two-map comparisons for each application characterize: (1) the dynamics of the landscape, (2) the behavior of the model, and (3) the accuracy of the prediction. The three-map comparison for each application specifies the amount of the prediction's accuracy that is attributable to land persistence versus land change. Results show that the amount of error is larger than the amount of correctly predicted change for 12 of the 13 applications at the resolution of the raw data. The applications are summarized and compared using two statistics: the null resolution and the figure of merit. According to the figure of merit, the more accurate applications are the ones where the amount of observed net change in the reference maps is larger. This paper facilitates communication among land change modelers, because it illustrates the range of results for a variety of models using scientifically rigorous, generally applicable, and intellectually accessible statistical techniques. © Springer-Verlag 2007.

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    Research@WUR; The Annals of Regional Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2008 . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2008
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    The Annals of Regional Science
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      Research@WUR; The Annals of Regional Science
      Other literature type . Article . 2008 . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2008
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      The Annals of Regional Science
      Article . 2008
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    Authors: Slezak, E.; Kneib, J.P.; Lima Neto, G.B.; Durret, F.; +16 Authors

    We have searched for diffuse intracluster light in the galaxy cluster Abell 2667 (z=0.233) from HST images in three filters. We have applied to these images an iterative multi-scale wavelet analysis and reconstruction technique, which allows to subtract stars and galaxies from the original images. We detect a zone of diffuse emission south west of the cluster center (DS1), and a second faint object (ComDif), within DS1. Another diffuse source (DS2) may be detected, at lower confidence level, north east of the center. These sources of diffuse light contribute to 10-15% of the total visible light in the cluster. Whether they are independent entities or are part of the very elliptical external envelope of the central galaxy remains unclear. VLT VIMOS integral field spectroscopy reveals a faint continuum at the positions of DS1 and ComDif but do not allow to compute a redshift. A hierarchical substructure detection method reveals the presence of several galaxy pairs and groups defining a similar direction as the one drawn by the DS1-central galaxy-DS2 axis. The analysis of archive XMM-Newton and Chandra observations shows X-ray emission elongated in the same direction. The X-ray temperature map shows the presence of a cool core, a broad cool zone stretching from north to south and hotter regions towards the north east, south west and north west. This possibly suggests shock fronts along these directions produced by infalling material. These various data are consistent with a picture in which diffuse sources are concentrations of tidal debris and harassed matter expelled from infalling galaxies by tidal stripping and undergoing an accretion process onto the central cluster galaxy; as such, they are expected to be found along the main infall directions. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics

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