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11 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
  • Open Access
  • Dutch; Flemish
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dagnino, Roberto; Freschi, Valentina; Paris, Franco;

    This article is a first-hand presentation of the history, the activities and the current developments of the Steunpunt Literair Vertalen (Literary Translation Support Office), which operates a coordinated training programme aimed at improving the linguistic skills of would-be as well as experienced translators. The Support Office is a co-operative venture involving the University of Utrecht and the Lessius Hogeschool in Antwerp and sponsored by the Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union). Among other activities, the Steunpunt organized a successful summer course on literary translation held at the Lessius Hogeschool in Antwerp aimed at improving the skills of young literary translators from Dutch into Italian. The first two authors of this contribution,in fact, were selected as young translators for the training and the seminars held during that course, while Paris was involved as an experienced teacher and translator in the development of the linguistic skills of the participants. In giving their presentation, the authors focus in particular on their experience during the 2006 summer course.

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    Article . 2009
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OpenstarTsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2009
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2008
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Klint, Paul;

    National audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2012
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    Other literature type . Article . 2012
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    Authors: Geuze, Reint H.;

    Book review of author: Erik Scherder; title Laat je hersenen niet zitten. Amsterdam, Atheneum-Polak & Van Gennep, 2014. ISBN: 97890 2530 4515

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    Review . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Review . 2015
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    Authors: de Jong, B M;

    Aletta H. Jacobs was the first female physician in the Netherlands. In 1879, she defended her thesis which addressed the subject of localising brain functions. In it she described three neurological patients using systematic conventions highly resembling those in use today. Moreover, she discussed whether or not functions were regionally represented. Her discussion concluded in favour of localisation. These days, the concept of distributed networks goes beyond simple topographical representation. This is illustrated in the cerebral organisation of vision. It is possible to discern visual centres that are specialised in processing specific qualities such as colour or visual motion. An additional feature of such segregated processing streams is the presence of underlying connections to specific brain areas at a distance. Functioning as a node in multiple networks, one single brain region may potentially be involved in multiple functions. This depends on the interactions with other regions and on the actual dominance of information processing within such networks.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2005
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2005
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Korteling, J.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Bosch, K. van den; Toet, A.;

    De door Nederland uitgevoerde militaire missies vinden vaak plaats in verstedelijkt gebied, in landen met minder bekende culturen en in regio’s met veel lokale groepen die ieder hun eigen belangen hebben. De vele actoren in combinatie met de toenemende onvoorspelbaarheid van de omgeving en situatie, en de complexiteit van missiedoelstellingen, zorgt er voor dat militaire operaties steeds ingewikkelder worden. Op alle niveaus moeten militaire professionals onder tijdsdruk complexe en kritische beslissingen nemen, met consequenties die het verschil kunnen maken tussen leven en dood. De hoofddoelstelling van militaire operaties is het veranderen van gedrag van de actoren in, of betrokken bij, het conflict. Om gedrag effectief te kunnen beïnvloeden, is kennis van gedrag en hoe dat, op basis van besluitvormingsprocessen, tot stand komt, noodzakelijk. Menselijk gedrag is het resultaat van besluitvormingsprocessen die veel sterker worden bepaald door onbewuste en gevoelsmatige en processen ('gut feeling') dan meestal wordt verondersteld. Bij de oordeels- en besluitvorming gebruiken mensen veelvuldig bepaalde denkwijzen en nemen zij beslissingen die afwijken van rationele analyse en logica. Deze denkwijzen heten 'heuristieken'. Ze zijn de mens eigen en komen systematisch en universeel voor, onder veel verschillende omstandigheden. Ze kunnen, afhankelijk van de specifieke situatie, goed dan wel verkeerd uitpakken. Als de denkwijze tot een aantoonbaar onjuiste of suboptimale uitkomst leidt, dan wordt dat 'bias' genoemd. Op die manier kunnen mensen met grote subjectieve zekerheid oordelen vormen of beslissingen nemen op grond van een consistente set indrukken en opvattingen die echter maar door weinig gegevens worden ondersteund, zelfs als we ons van het bestaan en de aard van heuristieken en biases bewust zijn ('Illusie van validiteit'). Heuristieken en biases zijn krachtige 'triggers' van oordeels- en besluitvorming; ze bepalen voor een groot deel hoe mensen zich (op basis van die beslissingen) gedragen. Dit kan op alle militaire niveaus en onder allerlei omstandigheden grote effecten hebben. Immers: besluiten nemen en handelen op basis van onbewuste (intuïtieve, gevoelsmatige, ongecontroleerde) processen ipv expliciete rationele overwegingen maakt kwetsbaar en beïnvloedbaar. Begrijpen hoe gedrag tot stand komt op basis van de onderliggende mechanismen van heuristieken en biases is daarom van groot belang, niet alleen voor jezelf maar ook voor anderen. Meer inzicht hierover kan een waardevolle bijdrage leveren aan de ontwikkeling van methoden om de eigen gelederen te beschermen tegen nadelige effecten ervan. Daarnaast kan het helpen bij de ontwikkeling van effectieve beïnvloedingsmethoden tegen opponenten en andere actoren. In dit rapport bespreken we de bestaande kennis hierover, analyseren en nuanceren deze en vullen dit verder aan op basis van inzichten over neurale informatieverwerking. We presenteren op basis hiervan een neuro-evolutionair raamwerk dat verklaringen en een categorisering oplevert van bias op basis van neurowetenschappelijke en evolutionaire mechanismen en principes. Door kenmerken van 'hogere' cognitieve besluitvorming te verklaren uit elementaire neurale basisprocessen slaan wij in dit rapport een nieuwe brug tussen de cognitieve- en de neurowetenschappen. De inzichten die oplevert kan waardevolle aanknopingspunten bieden om meer grip of invloed te krijgen op menselijke oordeels- en besluitvorming en daarmee op het menselijke gedrag. Tot slot beschrijven we de theoretische en praktische implicaties van de resultaten in relatie tot gedragsbeïnvloeding ten behoeve van de militaire praktijk. Samenvatting 3 1 Inleiding en achtergrond 13 2 Heuristieken en biases 17 2.1 Heuristieken 17 2.2 Biases 18 2.3 Relatie tussen heuristieken en biases 19 3 Bestaande verklarende perspectieven 21 3.1 Cognitief-psychologisch perspectief 21 3.2 Ecologisch perspectief 22 3.3 Evolutionair perspectief 24 3.4 Samenhang tussen de drie perspectieven 25 3.5 Beperkingen van de drie perspectieven 26 4 Een neurowetenschappelijk perspectief 31 4.1 Cognitie versus perceptief-motorische processen 32 4.2 Basiskenmerken van het brein als biologisch neuraal netwerk 34 5 Een neuro-evolutionair raamwerk 41 5.1 Neurale basismechanismen en Systeem 1 en 2 41 5.2 Evolutie 42 5.3 Neuro-evolutionaire indeling van heuristieken en biases 43 5.4 De meerwaarde van het neuro-evolutionair raamwerk ten opzichte van bestaande perspectieven 50 6 Conclusies en discussie 55 6.1 Wetenschappelijke bijdrage 55 6.2 Toegepaste bijdrage 57 6.3 Uitdagingen voor verdere innovatie en toepassing 61 7 Referenties 63 Bijlage(n) A Neuro-evolutionaire indeling van cognietieve heuristieken en biases

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; TNO Reposito...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Klint, Paul;

    National audience

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    Article . 2012
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    Authors: Luken, Tom;

    In this chapter it is argued that self-direction is currently well above the head of the majority of youngsters and even of many adults. Evidence for this conclusion stems from developmental and brain research. However, for various reasons it is important that people develop the competences that are necessary for self-direction. To what degree is it possible to develop these competences? Are they 'learnable'? What can education contribute?

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    Part of book or chapter of book . 2009
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    Authors: Basile, Valerio; Bos, Johan;

    International audience; We argue that Discourse Representation Structures form a suitable level of language-neutral meaning representation for micro planning and surface realisation. DRSs can be viewed as the output of macro planning, and form the rough plan and structure for generating a text. We present the first ideas of building a large DRS corpus that enables the development of broad-coverage, robust text generators. A DRS-based generator imposes various challenges on micro-planning and surface realisation, including generating referring expressions , lexicalisation and aggregation.

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    Authors: Klint, Paul;

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    Authors: Lambooij, B.; van der Werf, J.T.N.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Hindle, V.A.;

    Internationale en nationale wetgeving bepalen dat slachtdieren voorafgaand aan het doden door verbloeden op een adequate manier moeten worden verdoofd, waarbij een uitzondering wordt gemaakt voor ritueel slachten. Voor het verdoven dienen de dieren zodanig te worden gefixeerd, dat pijn, lijden, agitatie of beschadiging wordt vermeden. Toegestane methoden voor het verdoven zijn schietmasker, kopslag, elektronarcose en gassen. Wanneer dieren zonder bedwelming worden gedood moet gecontroleerd worden dat het dier bewusteloos is voordat het uit de fixatie mag worden vrij gelaten. Het doel van het onderzoek is het effect op de hersen- en hartactiviteit te beoordelen gedurende fixatie en 90, 120 of 180 graden draaien en vervolgens wel of niet bedwelmen voor het verbloeden. Neural and physiological assessment of welfare during restraining and rotation, after neck cutting, neck cutting followed by captive bolt stunning and electrical stunning followed by neck cutting in pink veal calves.

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    Report . Other literature type . 2010
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    Authors: Dagnino, Roberto; Freschi, Valentina; Paris, Franco;

    This article is a first-hand presentation of the history, the activities and the current developments of the Steunpunt Literair Vertalen (Literary Translation Support Office), which operates a coordinated training programme aimed at improving the linguistic skills of would-be as well as experienced translators. The Support Office is a co-operative venture involving the University of Utrecht and the Lessius Hogeschool in Antwerp and sponsored by the Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union). Among other activities, the Steunpunt organized a successful summer course on literary translation held at the Lessius Hogeschool in Antwerp aimed at improving the skills of young literary translators from Dutch into Italian. The first two authors of this contribution,in fact, were selected as young translators for the training and the seminars held during that course, while Paris was involved as an experienced teacher and translator in the development of the linguistic skills of the participants. In giving their presentation, the authors focus in particular on their experience during the 2006 summer course.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Klint, Paul;

    National audience

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    Authors: Geuze, Reint H.;

    Book review of author: Erik Scherder; title Laat je hersenen niet zitten. Amsterdam, Atheneum-Polak & Van Gennep, 2014. ISBN: 97890 2530 4515

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    Authors: de Jong, B M;

    Aletta H. Jacobs was the first female physician in the Netherlands. In 1879, she defended her thesis which addressed the subject of localising brain functions. In it she described three neurological patients using systematic conventions highly resembling those in use today. Moreover, she discussed whether or not functions were regionally represented. Her discussion concluded in favour of localisation. These days, the concept of distributed networks goes beyond simple topographical representation. This is illustrated in the cerebral organisation of vision. It is possible to discern visual centres that are specialised in processing specific qualities such as colour or visual motion. An additional feature of such segregated processing streams is the presence of underlying connections to specific brain areas at a distance. Functioning as a node in multiple networks, one single brain region may potentially be involved in multiple functions. This depends on the interactions with other regions and on the actual dominance of information processing within such networks.

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    Article . 2005
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    Authors: Korteling, J.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Bosch, K. van den; Toet, A.;

    De door Nederland uitgevoerde militaire missies vinden vaak plaats in verstedelijkt gebied, in landen met minder bekende culturen en in regio’s met veel lokale groepen die ieder hun eigen belangen hebben. De vele actoren in combinatie met de toenemende onvoorspelbaarheid van de omgeving en situatie, en de complexiteit van missiedoelstellingen, zorgt er voor dat militaire operaties steeds ingewikkelder worden. Op alle niveaus moeten militaire professionals onder tijdsdruk complexe en kritische beslissingen nemen, met consequenties die het verschil kunnen maken tussen leven en dood. De hoofddoelstelling van militaire operaties is het veranderen van gedrag van de actoren in, of betrokken bij, het conflict. Om gedrag effectief te kunnen beïnvloeden, is kennis van gedrag en hoe dat, op basis van besluitvormingsprocessen, tot stand komt, noodzakelijk. Menselijk gedrag is het resultaat van besluitvormingsprocessen die veel sterker worden bepaald door onbewuste en gevoelsmatige en processen ('gut feeling') dan meestal wordt verondersteld. Bij de oordeels- en besluitvorming gebruiken mensen veelvuldig bepaalde denkwijzen en nemen zij beslissingen die afwijken van rationele analyse en logica. Deze denkwijzen heten 'heuristieken'. Ze zijn de mens eigen en komen systematisch en universeel voor, onder veel verschillende omstandigheden. Ze kunnen, afhankelijk van de specifieke situatie, goed dan wel verkeerd uitpakken. Als de denkwijze tot een aantoonbaar onjuiste of suboptimale uitkomst leidt, dan wordt dat 'bias' genoemd. Op die manier kunnen mensen met grote subjectieve zekerheid oordelen vormen of beslissingen nemen op grond van een consistente set indrukken en opvattingen die echter maar door weinig gegevens worden ondersteund, zelfs als we ons van het bestaan en de aard van heuristieken en biases bewust zijn ('Illusie van validiteit'). Heuristieken en biases zijn krachtige 'triggers' van oordeels- en besluitvorming; ze bepalen voor een groot deel hoe mensen zich (op basis van die beslissingen) gedragen. Dit kan op alle militaire niveaus en onder allerlei omstandigheden grote effecten hebben. Immers: besluiten nemen en handelen op basis van onbewuste (intuïtieve, gevoelsmatige, ongecontroleerde) processen ipv expliciete rationele overwegingen maakt kwetsbaar en beïnvloedbaar. Begrijpen hoe gedrag tot stand komt op basis van de onderliggende mechanismen van heuristieken en biases is daarom van groot belang, niet alleen voor jezelf maar ook voor anderen. Meer inzicht hierover kan een waardevolle bijdrage leveren aan de ontwikkeling van methoden om de eigen gelederen te beschermen tegen nadelige effecten ervan. Daarnaast kan het helpen bij de ontwikkeling van effectieve beïnvloedingsmethoden tegen opponenten en andere actoren. In dit rapport bespreken we de bestaande kennis hierover, analyseren en nuanceren deze en vullen dit verder aan op basis van inzichten over neurale informatieverwerking. We presenteren op basis hiervan een neuro-evolutionair raamwerk dat verklaringen en een categorisering oplevert van bias op basis van neurowetenschappelijke en evolutionaire mechanismen en principes. Door kenmerken van 'hogere' cognitieve besluitvorming te verklaren uit elementaire neurale basisprocessen slaan wij in dit rapport een nieuwe brug tussen de cognitieve- en de neurowetenschappen. De inzichten die oplevert kan waardevolle aanknopingspunten bieden om meer grip of invloed te krijgen op menselijke oordeels- en besluitvorming en daarmee op het menselijke gedrag. Tot slot beschrijven we de theoretische en praktische implicaties van de resultaten in relatie tot gedragsbeïnvloeding ten behoeve van de militaire praktijk. Samenvatting 3 1 Inleiding en achtergrond 13 2 Heuristieken en biases 17 2.1 Heuristieken 17 2.2 Biases 18 2.3 Relatie tussen heuristieken en biases 19 3 Bestaande verklarende perspectieven 21 3.1 Cognitief-psychologisch perspectief 21 3.2 Ecologisch perspectief 22 3.3 Evolutionair perspectief 24 3.4 Samenhang tussen de drie perspectieven 25 3.5 Beperkingen van de drie perspectieven 26 4 Een neurowetenschappelijk perspectief 31 4.1 Cognitie versus perceptief-motorische processen 32 4.2 Basiskenmerken van het brein als biologisch neuraal netwerk 34 5 Een neuro-evolutionair raamwerk 41 5.1 Neurale basismechanismen en Systeem 1 en 2 41 5.2 Evolutie 42 5.3 Neuro-evolutionaire indeling van heuristieken en biases 43 5.4 De meerwaarde van het neuro-evolutionair raamwerk ten opzichte van bestaande perspectieven 50 6 Conclusies en discussie 55 6.1 Wetenschappelijke bijdrage 55 6.2 Toegepaste bijdrage 57 6.3 Uitdagingen voor verdere innovatie en toepassing 61 7 Referenties 63 Bijlage(n) A Neuro-evolutionaire indeling van cognietieve heuristieken en biases

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    Authors: Klint, Paul;

    National audience

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    Article . 2012
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    Other literature type . Article . 2012
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