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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Etienne, Jocelyn;

    The Lagrange--Galerkin method is the coupling of a finite element method for space discretisation with the method of characteristics for the discretisation of the material derivative in some parabolic problems. We propose a new scheme of second-order accuracy in time, which in contrast with previous methods does not require a correction term. Numerical examples, including Burgers equation, illustrate the convergence rate and low computational cost of the method.

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    Other literature type . 2005
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      Other literature type . 2005
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    Authors: Houssay-Holzschuch, Myriam; Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, Céline;

    International audience; Territorial recompositions within South African cities bear the influence of global economic forces. The fragmented urban morphology inherited from apartheid composes today with the rapid development of malls. Designed to be cities within the city, or appeal to the exotic imaginary, some offer a new vitality to once decayed environment, and even a haven for desegregation. Other further urban fragmentation while participating in the globalisation of South African cities. Their use of architectural and toponymic references to international and/or vernacular styles can be analysed within the dialectic framework of africanisation/globalisation. We propose to explore these issues through the case study of three Cape Town malls: the Victoria & Albert Waterfront, Century City and Vangate Mall.

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    Authors: Toda, Martine;

    International audience; Both frication noise and vowel formants cue the place of articulation of sibilant fricatives (e.g., /s/ and / / in English).However, only few studies have examined the effect of speaker-specific factors. This acoustic study of sibilant fricatives examines how speaker-specific formant information can improve the distinctness of two phonemic categories of sibilants: /s/ vs. / / in French and /s/ vs. /sj/ in Japanese. The results show that the center of gravity of the frication noise, normalized with respect to the subject-specific coefficient of vowel onset or vowel center formants, provides an appreciable improvement in the sibilant distinctness in Japanese. While the distinctness score of the noise is generally higher in French than in Japanese, the F2 onset patterns (/s/

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    Other literature type . 2007
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    Authors: Padilla, Arturo;

    Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire traitent de l'identification des systèmes dynamiques représentés sous la forme de modèles linéaires continus à paramètres variant lentement au cours du temps. La complexité du problème d'identification provient d'une part du caractère inconnu de la loi de variation des paramètres et d'autre part de la présence de bruits de nature inconnue sur les signaux mesurés. Les solutions proposées s'appuient sur une combinaison judicieuse du filtre de Kalman en supposant que les variations des paramètres peuvent être représentées sous la forme d'une marche aléatoire et de la méthode de la variable instrumentale qui présente l'avantage d'être robuste vis à vis de la nature des bruits de mesure. Les algorithmes de type récursif sont développés dans un contexte d'identification en boucle ouverte et en boucle fermée. Les différentes variantes se distinguent par la manière dont est construit la variable instrumentale. Inspirée de la solution développée pour les systèmes linéaires à temps invariant, une construction adaptative de la variable instrumentale est suggérée pour pouvoir suivre au mieux l'évolution des paramètres. Les performances des méthodes développées sont évaluées à l'aide de simulations de Monte Carlo et montrent la suprématie des solutions proposées s'appuyant sur la variable instrumentale par rapport celles plus classiques des moindres carrés récursifs. Les aspects pratiques et d'implantation numérique sont d'une importance capitale pour obtenir de bonnes performances lorsque ces estimateurs sont embarqués. Ces aspects sont étudiés en détails et plusieurs solutions sont proposées non seulement pour robustifier les estimateurs vis à vis du choix des hyper-paramètres mais également vis à vis de leur implantation numérique. Les algorithmes développés sont venus enrichir les fonctions de la boîte à outils CONTSID pour Matlab. Enfin, les estimateurs développés sont exploités pour faire le suivi de paramètres de deux systèmes physiques : un benchmark disponible dans la littérature constitué d'un filtre électronique passe-bande et une vanne papillon équipant les moteurs de voiture. Les deux applications montrent le potentiel des approches proposées pour faire le suivi de paramètres physiques variant lentement dans le temps The work presented in this thesis deals with the identification of dynamic systems represented through continuous-time linear models with slowly time-varying parameters. The complexity of the identification problem comes on the one hand from the unknown character of the parameter variations and on the other hand from the presence of noises of unknown nature on the measured signals. The proposed solutions rely on a judicious combination of the Kalman filter assuming that the variations of the parameters can be represented in the form of a random walk, and the method of the instrumental variable which has the advantage of being robust with respect to the nature of the measurement noises. The recursive algorithms are developed in an open-loop and closed-loop identification setting. The different variants are distinguished by the way in which the instrumental variable is built. Inspired by the solution developed for time-invariant linear systems, an adaptive construction of the instrumental variable is suggested in order to be able to follow the evolution of the parameters as well as possible. The performance of the developed methods are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations and show the supremacy of the proposed solutions based on the instrumental variable compared with the more classical least squares based approaches. The practical aspects and implementation issues are of paramount importance to obtain a good performance when these estimators are used. These aspects are studied in detail and several solutions are proposed not only to robustify the estimators with respect to the choice of hyperparameters but also with respect to their numerical implementation. The algorithms developed have enhanced the functions of the CONTSID toolbox for Matlab. Finally, the developed estimators are considered in order to track parameters of two physical systems: a benchmark available in the literature consisting of a bandpass electronic filter and a throttle valve equipping the car engines. Both applications show the potential of the proposed approaches to track physical parameters that vary slowly over time

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    Other literature type . 2017
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    Doctoral thesis . 2017
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      Other literature type . 2017
      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2017
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    Authors: Bonnin, Grégory;

    International audience; no abstract

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
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    Authors: Blaya , Catherine; Alava , Seraphin;

    This report refers to findings for all 25 countries in the European survey; This report presents the Findings for France for the EU Kids Online project (see www.eukidsonline.net). Specifically, it includes selected findings, calculated and interpreted for the UK only, of the survey data and analysis reported in Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., and Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings. LSE, London: EU Kids Online.

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    Authors: Guan, Qianwen;

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception of L2 phonotactics relates to the perception of tones. Some studies of loanwords showed that speakers of languages preferring simple CV syllable structure insert an illusory vowel as well as an illusory tone inside illegal consonant clusters [5], [6]. Our study investigates experimentally the interaction of phonotactic and prosodic adaptation for Mandarin L1. For this purpose we tested the perception of non-native clusters by monolingual Mandarin speakers. The experiment was conducted in Beijing, with 24 participants especially recruited from among monolingual speakers with minimal exposure to a foreign language. The stimuli were non-words produced by a Russian native speaker, containing CC sequences and controls (see table 1). The participants were asked to transcribe each stimulus they heard in Pinyin, including tones. Different types of transcription errors (e.g. epenthesis, metathesis) were observed and analyzed statistically. In this abstract I report only the general result, and I focus on the transcription of tones. The most frequent transcription included vowel epenthesis in the clusters. The illusory vowel is always perceived as short central [ɤ] (akta->akɤta), except after a labial (ipta->iputa). In the controls, the vowel /a/ between clusters is perceived as /a/ when it precedes a stressed syllable (katápa). When it follows a stressed syllable (ákata), it is perceived as central /ɤ/. This response reflects the fact that in Russian, an unstressed vowel preceding stress is less reduced than an unstressed vowel elsewhere in the word [3]. Thus, Mandarin listeners can still perceive a moderately reduced [a] in pre-tonic position, but report a fully reduced vowel in post-tonic position. Of the 24 participants, only 8 could transcribe tones. This is because Pinyin transcription, though commonly used, rarely includes tones. Moreover, the participants do not have more than high school education and do not write regularly. The results of the 8 speakers are summarized and discussed below. Word position and position with respect to stress. In the Russian stimuli, the stressed syllable is realized with an F0 peak. The listeners' responses thus correspond to the low F0 in the pre-stressed syllable, and to the falling F0 on the post-stressed syllable, respectively (fig. 1). Vowel quality. Overall, vowel quality, whether of illusory vowels or of real vowels, does not influence the perception of illusory tones (p>0.05). Consonant type. There is a significant difference of tone perception in relation to phonotactics in initial, pre-stressed clusters. Listeners reported high tone on the illusory vowel significantly more often in stop-stop (e.g., ktápa) than in stop-nasal clusters (p0.05), on a real vowel. In the clusters, where no vowel is actually produced, the audible F0 movement is very fast, rising toward the peak of the stressed vowel. The start of the F0 rise is influenced by the consonant type [4]: after a voiceless stop F0 rises in the following vowel, while after a sonorant stop F0 falls. In the controls (katápa), F0 starts low on the unstressed vowel, and rises into the following stressed syllable. The participants seem to respond to this systematic rise, rather than to the subtler effects of consonant-type.

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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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    Authors: Moulin, Aimie;

    Cette thèse concerne l'étude de l'interaction air-mer, due aux échanges de mouvements, avec un modèle idéalisé mais consistant. Les études sont réalisées à partir d'un modèle shallow-water bicouches (une pour l'océan et une pour l'atmosphère), avec une fine résolution spatiale et temporelle. L'interaction est uniquement due à la friction de surface entre les deux couches.Elle est implémentée par une loi de friction quadratique. La force appliquée à l'océan est calculée en utilisant la différence de vitesse entre les vents et les courants. Pour la force appliquée à l'atmosphère on distingue deux cas l'interaction ``1way'' et ``2way''. Pour la première, la friction appliquée à l'atmosphère néglige la dynamique de l'océan; elle est calculée en utilisant uniquement les vents. Pour l'interaction ``2W'', la friction appliquée à l'atmosphère est l'opposée de celle appliquée à l'océan.Trois configurations idéalisées sont explorées ici.La première configuration explique la génération d'une instabilité barotrope dans l'océan due à la force de friction quadratique et la dissipation visqueuse horizontale de l'atmosphère. Dans le cas 1W le cisaillement entraîne une instabilité barotrope dans l'océan. Dans le cas 2W, l'instabilité est amplifiée en amplitude et en dimension et est transférée à l'atmosphère. L'échelle principale de cette instabilité correspond à celle du rayon de Rossby dans l'océan. Elle est uniquement visible dans les modèles numériques, lorsque la dynamique est résolue à cette échelle à la fois dans l'océan mais aussi dans l'atmosphère.Dans la deuxième configuration, des expériences pour différentes valeurs du coefficient de traînée de surface sont réalisées. Le forçage diffère de la première configuration, et permet d'avoir une dynamique turbulente dans l'océan et l'atmosphère. L'énergie perdue par l'atmosphère et gagnée par l'océan par cisaillement à l'interface sont déterminées et comparées aux estimations basées sur les vitesses moyennes. La corrélations entre la vorticité océanique et atmosphérique est déterminée à l'échelle synoptique et méso-échelle de l'atmosphère. L'océan a un rôle passif, et absorbe l'énergie cinétique à quasiment tout les instants et tous les lieux. Les résultats différent des études réalisées à l'échelle du bassin. De par les faibles vitesses de l'océan, le transfert d'énergie dépend que faiblement des courants. La dynamique de l'océan laisse cependant son empreinte dans la dynamique de l'atmosphère conduisant à un état `quenched disorder' du système océan-atmosphère, pour le plus fort coefficient de friction utilisé.La dernière configuration, considère l'échange de mouvements entre l'océan et l'atmosphère autour d'une île circulaire. Dans les simulations actuelles de la dynamique océanique, le champs du forçage atmosphérique est généralement trop grossier pour inclure la présence de petites îles (<100km). Dans les calculs présentés ici, l'île est représenté dans la couche atmosphérique par un coefficient de traînée cent fois plus fort au dessus de l'île que l'océan. Cela engendre de la vorticité dans l'atmosphère , autour et près du sillage de l'île. L'influence de la vorticité atmosphérique sur la vorticité de l'océan, l'upwelling, la turbulence et le transfert d'énergieest considéré en utilisant des simulations couplées océan-atmosphère.Les résultats sont comparés avec des simulations ayant un forçage atmosphérique constant dans le temps et l'espace (pas de sillage) et des simulations "1W" (pour lesquelles les courants n'ont pas d'influence sur l'atmosphère).Les résultats des simulations sont en accords avec les travaux et les observations précédemment réalisés, et confirment que le sillage atmosphérique est le principal processus générant des tourbillons océanique dans le lit de l'île. Il est aussi montré que la vorticité est injectée directement par le rotationel du vent, mais aussi par la force du vent perpendiculaireau gradient d'épaisseur de la couche de surface océanique. This thesis considers air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, in an idealized but consistent model. Two superposed one-layer fine-resolution shallow-water models are numerically integrated. The upper layer represents the atmosphere and the lower layer the ocean. The interaction is only due to the shear between the two layers. The shear applied to the ocean is calculated using the velocity difference between the ocean and the atmosphere.The frictional force between the two-layers is implemented using the quadratic drag law. Three idealized configurations are explored.First, a new mechanism that induces barotropic instability in the ocean is discussed. It is due to air-sea interaction with a quadratic drag law and horizontal viscous dissipation in the atmosphere. I show that the instability spreads to the atmosphere. The preferred spatial scale of the instability is that of the oceanic baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation.It can only be represented in numerical models, when the dynamics at this scale is resolved in the atmosphere and the ocean.In one-way interaction the shear applied to the atmosphere neglectsthe ocean dynamics, it is calculated using the atmospheric wind, only. In two-way interaction it is opposite to the shear applied to the ocean.In the one-way interaction the atmospheric shear leads to a barotropic instability in the ocean. The instability in the ocean is amplified, in amplitude and scale, in two-way interaction and also triggers an instability in the atmosphere.Second, the air-sea interaction at the atmospheric synoptic and mesoscale due to momentum transfer, only, is considered. Experiments with different values of the surface friction drag coefficient are performed, with a different atmospheric forcing from the first configuration, that leads to a turbulent dynamics in the atmosphere and the ocean. The actual energy loss of the atmosphere and the energy gain by the ocean, due to the inter-facial shear,is determined and compared to the estimates based on average speeds.The correlation between the vorticity in the atmosphere and the ocean is determined. Results differ from previous investigations where the exchange of momentum was considered at basin scale. It is shown that the ocean has a passive role, absorbing kinetic energy at nearly all times and locations.Due to the feeble velocities in the ocean, the energy transfer depends only weakly on the ocean velocity. The ocean dynamics leaves nevertheless its imprint in the atmospheric dynamics leading to a quenched disordered state of the atmosphere-ocean system, for the highest value of the friction coefficient considered. This finding questions the ergodic hypothesis, which is at the basis of a large number of experimental, observational and numericalresults in ocean, atmosphere and climate dynamics.The last configuration considers the air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, around a circular island. In todays simulations of the ocean dynamics, the atmospheric forcing fields are usually too coarse to include the presence of smaller islands (typically < 100km).In the calculations presented here, the island is represented in the atmospheric layer by a hundred fold increased drag coefficient above the island as compared to the ocean. It leads to an increased atmospheric vorticity in the vicinity and in the wake of the island. The influence of the atmospheric vorticity on the ocean vorticity, upwelling, turbulence and energy transfer is considered by performing fully coupled simulations of the atmosphere-oceandynamics. The results are compared to simulations with a constant, in space and time, atmospheric forcing (no wake) and simulations with one-waycoupling only (where the ocean velocity has no influence on the atmosphere).Results of our simulations agree with previous published work and observations, and confirm that the wind-wake is the main process leading to mesoscale oceanic eddies in the lee of an island.

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    Authors: Boltzmann, Melanie; Rüsseler, Jascha;

    Background Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated. Results Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills.

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    Authors: Moussaed, Carine; Wornom, Stephen, F.; Koobus, Bruno; Dervieux, Alain; +4 Authors

    International audience; Flows past bluff bodies show turbulent near wall behavior in various conditions. For example, for a high Reynolds incident flow, the boundary layer at front side of a circular cylinder may show a transition to a turbulent boundary layer. After separation, the back of the cylinder is in contact with the turbulent wake. Analogously, the turbulent wake of a first obstacle can hit the front of a second one.

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    Authors: Etienne, Jocelyn;

    The Lagrange--Galerkin method is the coupling of a finite element method for space discretisation with the method of characteristics for the discretisation of the material derivative in some parabolic problems. We propose a new scheme of second-order accuracy in time, which in contrast with previous methods does not require a correction term. Numerical examples, including Burgers equation, illustrate the convergence rate and low computational cost of the method.

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    Authors: Houssay-Holzschuch, Myriam; Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, Céline;

    International audience; Territorial recompositions within South African cities bear the influence of global economic forces. The fragmented urban morphology inherited from apartheid composes today with the rapid development of malls. Designed to be cities within the city, or appeal to the exotic imaginary, some offer a new vitality to once decayed environment, and even a haven for desegregation. Other further urban fragmentation while participating in the globalisation of South African cities. Their use of architectural and toponymic references to international and/or vernacular styles can be analysed within the dialectic framework of africanisation/globalisation. We propose to explore these issues through the case study of three Cape Town malls: the Victoria & Albert Waterfront, Century City and Vangate Mall.

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    Authors: Toda, Martine;

    International audience; Both frication noise and vowel formants cue the place of articulation of sibilant fricatives (e.g., /s/ and / / in English).However, only few studies have examined the effect of speaker-specific factors. This acoustic study of sibilant fricatives examines how speaker-specific formant information can improve the distinctness of two phonemic categories of sibilants: /s/ vs. / / in French and /s/ vs. /sj/ in Japanese. The results show that the center of gravity of the frication noise, normalized with respect to the subject-specific coefficient of vowel onset or vowel center formants, provides an appreciable improvement in the sibilant distinctness in Japanese. While the distinctness score of the noise is generally higher in French than in Japanese, the F2 onset patterns (/s/

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    Authors: Padilla, Arturo;

    Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire traitent de l'identification des systèmes dynamiques représentés sous la forme de modèles linéaires continus à paramètres variant lentement au cours du temps. La complexité du problème d'identification provient d'une part du caractère inconnu de la loi de variation des paramètres et d'autre part de la présence de bruits de nature inconnue sur les signaux mesurés. Les solutions proposées s'appuient sur une combinaison judicieuse du filtre de Kalman en supposant que les variations des paramètres peuvent être représentées sous la forme d'une marche aléatoire et de la méthode de la variable instrumentale qui présente l'avantage d'être robuste vis à vis de la nature des bruits de mesure. Les algorithmes de type récursif sont développés dans un contexte d'identification en boucle ouverte et en boucle fermée. Les différentes variantes se distinguent par la manière dont est construit la variable instrumentale. Inspirée de la solution développée pour les systèmes linéaires à temps invariant, une construction adaptative de la variable instrumentale est suggérée pour pouvoir suivre au mieux l'évolution des paramètres. Les performances des méthodes développées sont évaluées à l'aide de simulations de Monte Carlo et montrent la suprématie des solutions proposées s'appuyant sur la variable instrumentale par rapport celles plus classiques des moindres carrés récursifs. Les aspects pratiques et d'implantation numérique sont d'une importance capitale pour obtenir de bonnes performances lorsque ces estimateurs sont embarqués. Ces aspects sont étudiés en détails et plusieurs solutions sont proposées non seulement pour robustifier les estimateurs vis à vis du choix des hyper-paramètres mais également vis à vis de leur implantation numérique. Les algorithmes développés sont venus enrichir les fonctions de la boîte à outils CONTSID pour Matlab. Enfin, les estimateurs développés sont exploités pour faire le suivi de paramètres de deux systèmes physiques : un benchmark disponible dans la littérature constitué d'un filtre électronique passe-bande et une vanne papillon équipant les moteurs de voiture. Les deux applications montrent le potentiel des approches proposées pour faire le suivi de paramètres physiques variant lentement dans le temps The work presented in this thesis deals with the identification of dynamic systems represented through continuous-time linear models with slowly time-varying parameters. The complexity of the identification problem comes on the one hand from the unknown character of the parameter variations and on the other hand from the presence of noises of unknown nature on the measured signals. The proposed solutions rely on a judicious combination of the Kalman filter assuming that the variations of the parameters can be represented in the form of a random walk, and the method of the instrumental variable which has the advantage of being robust with respect to the nature of the measurement noises. The recursive algorithms are developed in an open-loop and closed-loop identification setting. The different variants are distinguished by the way in which the instrumental variable is built. Inspired by the solution developed for time-invariant linear systems, an adaptive construction of the instrumental variable is suggested in order to be able to follow the evolution of the parameters as well as possible. The performance of the developed methods are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations and show the supremacy of the proposed solutions based on the instrumental variable compared with the more classical least squares based approaches. The practical aspects and implementation issues are of paramount importance to obtain a good performance when these estimators are used. These aspects are studied in detail and several solutions are proposed not only to robustify the estimators with respect to the choice of hyperparameters but also with respect to their numerical implementation. The algorithms developed have enhanced the functions of the CONTSID toolbox for Matlab. Finally, the developed estimators are considered in order to track parameters of two physical systems: a benchmark available in the literature consisting of a bandpass electronic filter and a throttle valve equipping the car engines. Both applications show the potential of the proposed approaches to track physical parameters that vary slowly over time

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    Authors: Bonnin, Grégory;

    International audience; no abstract

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    Authors: Blaya , Catherine; Alava , Seraphin;

    This report refers to findings for all 25 countries in the European survey; This report presents the Findings for France for the EU Kids Online project (see www.eukidsonline.net). Specifically, it includes selected findings, calculated and interpreted for the UK only, of the survey data and analysis reported in Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., and Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings. LSE, London: EU Kids Online.

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    Authors: Guan, Qianwen;

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception of L2 phonotactics relates to the perception of tones. Some studies of loanwords showed that speakers of languages preferring simple CV syllable structure insert an illusory vowel as well as an illusory tone inside illegal consonant clusters [5], [6]. Our study investigates experimentally the interaction of phonotactic and prosodic adaptation for Mandarin L1. For this purpose we tested the perception of non-native clusters by monolingual Mandarin speakers. The experiment was conducted in Beijing, with 24 participants especially recruited from among monolingual speakers with minimal exposure to a foreign language. The stimuli were non-words produced by a Russian native speaker, containing CC sequences and controls (see table 1). The participants were asked to transcribe each stimulus they heard in Pinyin, including tones. Different types of transcription errors (e.g. epenthesis, metathesis) were observed and analyzed statistically. In this abstract I report only the general result, and I focus on the transcription of tones. The most frequent transcription included vowel epenthesis in the clusters. The illusory vowel is always perceived as short central [ɤ] (akta->akɤta), except after a labial (ipta->iputa). In the controls, the vowel /a/ between clusters is perceived as /a/ when it precedes a stressed syllable (katápa). When it follows a stressed syllable (ákata), it is perceived as central /ɤ/. This response reflects the fact that in Russian, an unstressed vowel preceding stress is less reduced than an unstressed vowel elsewhere in the word [3]. Thus, Mandarin listeners can still perceive a moderately reduced [a] in pre-tonic position, but report a fully reduced vowel in post-tonic position. Of the 24 participants, only 8 could transcribe tones. This is because Pinyin transcription, though commonly used, rarely includes tones. Moreover, the participants do not have more than high school education and do not write regularly. The results of the 8 speakers are summarized and discussed below. Word position and position with respect to stress. In the Russian stimuli, the stressed syllable is realized with an F0 peak. The listeners' responses thus correspond to the low F0 in the pre-stressed syllable, and to the falling F0 on the post-stressed syllable, respectively (fig. 1). Vowel quality. Overall, vowel quality, whether of illusory vowels or of real vowels, does not influence the perception of illusory tones (p>0.05). Consonant type. There is a significant difference of tone perception in relation to phonotactics in initial, pre-stressed clusters. Listeners reported high tone on the illusory vowel significantly more often in stop-stop (e.g., ktápa) than in stop-nasal clusters (p0.05), on a real vowel. In the clusters, where no vowel is actually produced, the audible F0 movement is very fast, rising toward the peak of the stressed vowel. The start of the F0 rise is influenced by the consonant type [4]: after a voiceless stop F0 rises in the following vowel, while after a sonorant stop F0 falls. In the controls (katápa), F0 starts low on the unstressed vowel, and rises into the following stressed syllable. The participants seem to respond to this systematic rise, rather than to the subtler effects of consonant-type.

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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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    Authors: Moulin, Aimie;

    Cette thèse concerne l'étude de l'interaction air-mer, due aux échanges de mouvements, avec un modèle idéalisé mais consistant. Les études sont réalisées à partir d'un modèle shallow-water bicouches (une pour l'océan et une pour l'atmosphère), avec une fine résolution spatiale et temporelle. L'interaction est uniquement due à la friction de surface entre les deux couches.Elle est implémentée par une loi de friction quadratique. La force appliquée à l'océan est calculée en utilisant la différence de vitesse entre les vents et les courants. Pour la force appliquée à l'atmosphère on distingue deux cas l'interaction ``1way'' et ``2way''. Pour la première, la friction appliquée à l'atmosphère néglige la dynamique de l'océan; elle est calculée en utilisant uniquement les vents. Pour l'interaction ``2W'', la friction appliquée à l'atmosphère est l'opposée de celle appliquée à l'océan.Trois configurations idéalisées sont explorées ici.La première configuration explique la génération d'une instabilité barotrope dans l'océan due à la force de friction quadratique et la dissipation visqueuse horizontale de l'atmosphère. Dans le cas 1W le cisaillement entraîne une instabilité barotrope dans l'océan. Dans le cas 2W, l'instabilité est amplifiée en amplitude et en dimension et est transférée à l'atmosphère. L'échelle principale de cette instabilité correspond à celle du rayon de Rossby dans l'océan. Elle est uniquement visible dans les modèles numériques, lorsque la dynamique est résolue à cette échelle à la fois dans l'océan mais aussi dans l'atmosphère.Dans la deuxième configuration, des expériences pour différentes valeurs du coefficient de traînée de surface sont réalisées. Le forçage diffère de la première configuration, et permet d'avoir une dynamique turbulente dans l'océan et l'atmosphère. L'énergie perdue par l'atmosphère et gagnée par l'océan par cisaillement à l'interface sont déterminées et comparées aux estimations basées sur les vitesses moyennes. La corrélations entre la vorticité océanique et atmosphérique est déterminée à l'échelle synoptique et méso-échelle de l'atmosphère. L'océan a un rôle passif, et absorbe l'énergie cinétique à quasiment tout les instants et tous les lieux. Les résultats différent des études réalisées à l'échelle du bassin. De par les faibles vitesses de l'océan, le transfert d'énergie dépend que faiblement des courants. La dynamique de l'océan laisse cependant son empreinte dans la dynamique de l'atmosphère conduisant à un état `quenched disorder' du système océan-atmosphère, pour le plus fort coefficient de friction utilisé.La dernière configuration, considère l'échange de mouvements entre l'océan et l'atmosphère autour d'une île circulaire. Dans les simulations actuelles de la dynamique océanique, le champs du forçage atmosphérique est généralement trop grossier pour inclure la présence de petites îles (<100km). Dans les calculs présentés ici, l'île est représenté dans la couche atmosphérique par un coefficient de traînée cent fois plus fort au dessus de l'île que l'océan. Cela engendre de la vorticité dans l'atmosphère , autour et près du sillage de l'île. L'influence de la vorticité atmosphérique sur la vorticité de l'océan, l'upwelling, la turbulence et le transfert d'énergieest considéré en utilisant des simulations couplées océan-atmosphère.Les résultats sont comparés avec des simulations ayant un forçage atmosphérique constant dans le temps et l'espace (pas de sillage) et des simulations "1W" (pour lesquelles les courants n'ont pas d'influence sur l'atmosphère).Les résultats des simulations sont en accords avec les travaux et les observations précédemment réalisés, et confirment que le sillage atmosphérique est le principal processus générant des tourbillons océanique dans le lit de l'île. Il est aussi montré que la vorticité est injectée directement par le rotationel du vent, mais aussi par la force du vent perpendiculaireau gradient d'épaisseur de la couche de surface océanique. This thesis considers air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, in an idealized but consistent model. Two superposed one-layer fine-resolution shallow-water models are numerically integrated. The upper layer represents the atmosphere and the lower layer the ocean. The interaction is only due to the shear between the two layers. The shear applied to the ocean is calculated using the velocity difference between the ocean and the atmosphere.The frictional force between the two-layers is implemented using the quadratic drag law. Three idealized configurations are explored.First, a new mechanism that induces barotropic instability in the ocean is discussed. It is due to air-sea interaction with a quadratic drag law and horizontal viscous dissipation in the atmosphere. I show that the instability spreads to the atmosphere. The preferred spatial scale of the instability is that of the oceanic baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation.It can only be represented in numerical models, when the dynamics at this scale is resolved in the atmosphere and the ocean.In one-way interaction the shear applied to the atmosphere neglectsthe ocean dynamics, it is calculated using the atmospheric wind, only. In two-way interaction it is opposite to the shear applied to the ocean.In the one-way interaction the atmospheric shear leads to a barotropic instability in the ocean. The instability in the ocean is amplified, in amplitude and scale, in two-way interaction and also triggers an instability in the atmosphere.Second, the air-sea interaction at the atmospheric synoptic and mesoscale due to momentum transfer, only, is considered. Experiments with different values of the surface friction drag coefficient are performed, with a different atmospheric forcing from the first configuration, that leads to a turbulent dynamics in the atmosphere and the ocean. The actual energy loss of the atmosphere and the energy gain by the ocean, due to the inter-facial shear,is determined and compared to the estimates based on average speeds.The correlation between the vorticity in the atmosphere and the ocean is determined. Results differ from previous investigations where the exchange of momentum was considered at basin scale. It is shown that the ocean has a passive role, absorbing kinetic energy at nearly all times and locations.Due to the feeble velocities in the ocean, the energy transfer depends only weakly on the ocean velocity. The ocean dynamics leaves nevertheless its imprint in the atmospheric dynamics leading to a quenched disordered state of the atmosphere-ocean system, for the highest value of the friction coefficient considered. This finding questions the ergodic hypothesis, which is at the basis of a large number of experimental, observational and numericalresults in ocean, atmosphere and climate dynamics.The last configuration considers the air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, around a circular island. In todays simulations of the ocean dynamics, the atmospheric forcing fields are usually too coarse to include the presence of smaller islands (typically < 100km).In the calculations presented here, the island is represented in the atmospheric layer by a hundred fold increased drag coefficient above the island as compared to the ocean. It leads to an increased atmospheric vorticity in the vicinity and in the wake of the island. The influence of the atmospheric vorticity on the ocean vorticity, upwelling, turbulence and energy transfer is considered by performing fully coupled simulations of the atmosphere-oceandynamics. The results are compared to simulations with a constant, in space and time, atmospheric forcing (no wake) and simulations with one-waycoupling only (where the ocean velocity has no influence on the atmosphere).Results of our simulations agree with previous published work and observations, and confirm that the wind-wake is the main process leading to mesoscale oceanic eddies in the lee of an island.

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    Other literature type . 2015
    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2015
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