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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • NeuroImage

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pineda-Pardo, J; Brun tild a, R; Woolrich, M; Marcos, A; +3 Authors

    Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were multiple-domain amnestic MCI. An atlas-based anatomical parcellation of 66 regions was obtained for each subject, and time series were assigned to each of the regions. The fiber densities between the regions, obtained with deterministic tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI, were used to define the anatomical connectivity. Precision matrices were obtained with the region specific time series in five different frequency bands. We compared our method with the traditional GL and a functional adaptive version of the GL, in terms of log-likelihood and classification accuracies between the three groups. We conclude that introducing an anatomical prior improves the expressivity of the model and, in most cases, leads to a better classification between groups. Highlights • We propose an anatomy-driven method for functional connectivity estimation in MEG. • Structural prior contributes to a better representation of the functional connectivity. • The proposed method is shown to be useful as a biomarker for classification of MCI.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Raffelt, David A.; Smith, Robert E.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Tournier, J-Donald; +4 Authors

    In brain regions containing crossing fibre bundles, voxel-average diffusion MRI measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) are difficult to interpret, and lack within-voxel single fibre population specificity. Recent work has focused on the development of more interpretable quantitative measures that can be associated with a specific fibre population within a voxel containing crossing fibres (herein we use fixel to refer to a specific fibre population within a single voxel). Unfortunately, traditional 3D methods for smoothing and cluster-based statistical inference cannot be used for voxel-based analysis of these measures, since the local neighbourhood for smoothing and cluster formation can be ambiguous when adjacent voxels may have different numbers of fixels, or ill-defined when they belong to different tracts. Here we introduce a novel statistical method to perform whole-brain fixel-based analysis called connectivity-based fixel enhancement (CFE). CFE uses probabilistic tractography to identify structurally connected fixels that are likely to share underlying anatomy and pathology. Probabilistic connectivity information is then used for tract-specific smoothing (prior to the statistical analysis) and enhancement of the statistical map (using a threshold-free cluster enhancement-like approach). To investigate the characteristics of the CFE method, we assessed sensitivity and specificity using a large number of combinations of CFE enhancement parameters and smoothing extents, using simulated pathology generated with a range of test-statistic signal-to-noise ratios in five different white matter regions (chosen to cover a broad range of fibre bundle features). The results suggest that CFE input parameters are relatively insensitive to the characteristics of the simulated pathology. We therefore recommend a single set of CFE parameters that should give near optimal results in future studies where the group effect is unknown. We then demonstrate the proposed method by comparing apparent fibre density between motor neurone disease (MND) patients with control subjects. The MND results illustrate the benefit of fixel-specific statistical inference in white matter regions that contain crossing fibres. Highlights • We introduce the fixel—a specific fibre population within a voxel. • A novel method for whole-brain fixel-based analysis of diffusion MRI is presented. • Structural connectivity between fixels is derived from template-based tractography. • Connectivity information is used for tract-specific smoothing and enhancement. • Quantitative assessment and an in vivo demonstration is performed. Graphical abstract

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cury, Claire; Durrleman, Stanley; Cash, David; Lorenzi, Marco; +59 Authors

    Brain atrophy as measured from structural MR images, is one of the primary imaging biomarkers used to track neurodegenerative disease progression. In diseases such as frontotemporal dementia or Alzheimer's disease, atrophy can be observed in key brain structures years before any clinical symptoms are present. Atrophy is most commonly captured as volume change of key structures and the shape changes of these structures are typically not analysed despite being potentially more sensitive than summary volume statistics over the entire structure. In this paper we propose a spatiotemporal analysis pipeline based on Large Diffeomorphic Deformation Metric Mapping (LDDMM) to detect shape changes from volumetric MRI scans. We applied our framework to a cohort of individuals with genetic variants of frontotemporal dementia and healthy controls from the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) study. Our method, take full advantage of the LDDMM framework, and relies on the creation of a population specific average spatiotemporal trajectory of a relevant brain structure of interest, the thalamus in our case. The residuals from each patient data to the average spatiotemporal trajectory are then clustered and studied to assess when presymptomatic mutation carriers differ from healthy control subjects. We found statistical differences in shape in the anterior region of the thalamus at least five years before the mutation carrier subjects develop any clinical symptoms. This region of the thalamus has been shown to be predominantly connected to the frontal lobe, consistent with the pattern of cortical atrophy seen in the disease. Highlights • Clustering shape parametrisation allows local shape analysis. • Thalamic shape changes appear 5 years before onset of fronto temporal dementia. • Shape changes seem to occur before volume changes. • Pre-symptomatic shape changes in thalamus are dorsofrontal, where connecting to temporal lobes. Graphical abstract Image 1

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2018
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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2019
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      Article . 2018
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    In the absence of sensory stimulation, the brain transits between distinct functional networks. Network dynamics such as transition patterns and the time the brain stays in each network link to cognition and behavior and are subject to much investigation. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), the temporally fluctuating unprovoked experience of hearing voices, are associated with aberrant resting state network activity. However, we lack a clear understanding of how different networks contribute to aberrant activity over time. An accurate characterization of latent network dynamics and their relation to neurocognitive changes necessitates methods that capture the sub-second temporal fluctuations of the networks' functional connectivity signatures. Here, we critically evaluate the assumptions and sensitivity of several approaches commonly used to assess temporal dynamics of brain connectivity states in M/EEG and fMRI research, highlighting methodological constraints and their clinical relevance to AVH. Identifying altered brain connectivity states linked to AVH can facilitate the detection of predictive disease markers and ultimately be valuable for generating individual risk profiles, differential diagnosis, targeted intervention, and treatment strategies.

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    Authors: De Santis, Silvia; Drakesmith, Mark; Bells, Sonya; Assaf, Yaniv; +1 Authors

    Fundamental to increasing our understanding of the role of white matter microstructure in normal/abnormal function in the living human is the development of MR-based metrics that provide increased specificity to distinct attributes of the white matter (e.g., local fibre architecture, axon morphology, and myelin content). In recent years, different approaches have been developed to enhance this specificity, and the Tractometry framework was introduced to combine the resulting multi-parametric data for a comprehensive assessment of white matter properties. The present work exploits that framework to characterise the statistical properties, specifically the variance and covariance, of these advanced microstructural indices across the major white matter pathways, with the aim of giving clear indications on the preferred metric(s) given the specific research question. A cohort of healthy subjects was scanned with a protocol that combined multi-component relaxometry with conventional and advanced diffusion MRI acquisitions to build the first comprehensive MRI atlas of white matter microstructure. The mean and standard deviation of the different metrics were analysed in order to understand how they vary across different brain regions/individuals and the correlation between them. Characterising the fibre architectural complexity (in terms of number of fibre populations in a voxel) provides clear insights into correlation/lack of correlation between the different metrics and explains why DT-MRI is a good model for white matter only some of the time. The study also identifies the metrics that account for the largest inter-subject variability and reports the minimal sample size required to detect differences in means, showing that, on the other hand, conventional DT-MRI indices might still be the safest choice in many contexts. Highlights • We report an atlas of key white matter pathways in standard space. • CHARMED provide more specific measures of axonal properties than DT-MRI metrics. • Crossing fibres explain the correlation between myelin and diffusion indices. • DT-MRI metrics need the smallest sample size to detect differences between groups.

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    Article . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Rao, Anil; Monteiro, Joao M.; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina;

    When training predictive models from neuroimaging data, we typically have available non-imaging variables such as age and gender that affect the imaging data but which we may be uninterested in from a clinical perspective. Such variables are commonly referred to as ‘confounds’. In this work, we firstly give a working definition for confound in the context of training predictive models from samples of neuroimaging data. We define a confound as a variable which affects the imaging data and has an association with the target variable in the sample that differs from that in the population-of-interest, i.e., the population over which we intend to apply the estimated predictive model. The focus of this paper is the scenario in which the confound and target variable are independent in the population-of-interest, but the training sample is biased due to a sample association between the target and confound. We then discuss standard approaches for dealing with confounds in predictive modelling such as image adjustment and including the confound as a predictor, before deriving and motivating an Instance Weighting scheme that attempts to account for confounds by focusing model training so that it is optimal for the population-of-interest. We evaluate the standard approaches and Instance Weighting in two regression problems with neuroimaging data in which we train models in the presence of confounding, and predict samples that are representative of the population-of-interest. For comparison, these models are also evaluated when there is no confounding present. In the first experiment we predict the MMSE score using structural MRI from the ADNI database with gender as the confound, while in the second we predict age using structural MRI from the IXI database with acquisition site as the confound. Considered over both datasets we find that none of the methods for dealing with confounding gives more accurate predictions than a baseline model which ignores confounding, although including the confound as a predictor gives models that are less accurate than the baseline model. We do find, however, that different methods appear to focus their predictions on specific subsets of the population-of-interest, and that predictive accuracy is greater when there is no confounding present. We conclude with a discussion comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and the implications of our evaluation for building predictive models that can be used in clinical practice. Highlights • Definition of confound given from the point of view of predictive modelling. • Instance Weighting derived for dealing with confounding with continuous targets. • None of the evaluated methods performs better than a model that ignores confounding. • Different methods favourably predicted different strata of population-of-interest. • Predictive accuracy over population-of-interest reduced in presence of confounding.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2017
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Cherkaoui, Hamza; Moreau, Thomas; Halimi, Abderrahim; Leroy, Claire; +1 Authors

    Whole brain estimation of the haemodynamic response function (HRF) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is critical to get insight on the global status of the neurovascular coupling of an individual in healthy or pathological condition. Most of existing approaches in the literature works on task-fMRI data and relies on the experimental paradigm as a surrogate of neural activity, hence remaining inoperative on resting-stage fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. To cope with this issue, recent works have performed either a two-step analysis to detect large neural events and then characterize the HRF shape or a joint estimation of both the neural and haemodynamic components in an univariate fashion. In this work, we express the neural activity signals as a combination of piece-wise constant temporal atoms associated with sparse spatial maps and introduce an haemodynamic parcellation of the brain featuring a temporally dilated version of a given HRF model in each parcel with unknown dilation parameters. We formulate the joint estimation of the HRF shapes and spatio-temporal neural representations as a multivariate semi-blind deconvolution problem in a paradigm-free setting and introduce constraints inspired from the dictionary learning literature to ease its identifiability. A fast alternating minimization algorithm, along with its efficient implementation, is proposed and validated on both synthetic and real rs-fMRI data at the subject level. To demonstrate its significance at the population level, we apply this new framework to the UK Biobank data set, first for the discrimination of haemodynamic territories between balanced groups (n=24 individuals in each) patients with an history of stroke and healthy controls and second, for the analysis of normal aging on the neurovascular coupling. Overall, we statistically demonstrate that a pathology like stroke or a condition like normal brain aging induce longer haemodynamic delays in certain brain areas (e.g. Willis polygon, occipital, temporal and frontal cortices) and that this haemodynamic feature may be predictive with an accuracy of 74 % of the individual’s age in a supervised classification task performed on n=459 subjects.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2021
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    Other literature type . 2021
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2021
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    ResearchGate Data
    Preprint . 2020
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2021
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2020
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2021
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      Preprint . 2020
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    Authors: Winkler, Anderson M.; Webster, Matthew A.; Vidaurre, Diego; Nichols, Thomas E.; +1 Authors

    Under weak and reasonable assumptions, mainly that data are exchangeable under the null hypothesis, permutation tests can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of various non-standard statistics. There are, however, various common examples in which global exchangeability can be violated, including paired tests, tests that involve repeated measurements, tests in which subjects are relatives (members of pedigrees) — any dataset with known dependence among observations. In these cases, some permutations, if performed, would create data that would not possess the original dependence structure, and thus, should not be used to construct the reference (null) distribution. To allow permutation inference in such cases, we test the null hypothesis using only a subset of all otherwise possible permutations, i.e., using only the rearrangements of the data that respect exchangeability, thus retaining the original joint distribution unaltered. In a previous study, we defined exchangeability for blocks of data, as opposed to each datum individually, then allowing permutations to happen within block, or the blocks as a whole to be permuted. Here we extend that notion to allow blocks to be nested, in a hierarchical, multi-level definition. We do not explicitly model the degree of dependence between observations, only the lack of independence; the dependence is implicitly accounted for by the hierarchy and by the permutation scheme. The strategy is compatible with heteroscedasticity and variance groups, and can be used with permutations, sign flippings, or both combined. We evaluate the method for various dependence structures, apply it to real data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) as an example application, show that false positives can be avoided in such cases, and provide a software implementation of the proposed approach. Highlights • The presence of structured, non-independent data affects simple permutation testing. • Modelling full dependence obviated through definition of variance groups (minimal assumptions). • Implementation based on shuffling branches of a tree-like (hierarchical) structure. • Validity demonstrated with simulations, and exemplified with data from the HCP.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Oxford University Research Archive
    Other literature type . 2016
    License: CC BY
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2015
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      Other literature type . 2016
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Winkler, Anderson M.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Nichols, Thomas E.; +1 Authors

    AbstractPermutation tests are increasingly being used as a reliable method for inference in neuroimaging analysis. However, they are computationally intensive. For small, non-imaging datasets, recomputing a model thousands of times is seldom a problem, but for large, complex models this can be prohibitively slow, even with the availability of inexpensive computing power. Here we exploit properties of statistics used with the general linear model (GLM) and their distributions to obtain accelerations irrespective of generic software or hardware improvements. We compare the following approaches: (i) performing a small number of permutations; (ii) estimating the p-value as a parameter of a negative binomial distribution; (iii) fitting a generalised Pareto distribution to the tail of the permutation distribution; (iv) computing p-values based on the expected moments of the permutation distribution, approximated from a gamma distribution; (v) direct fitting of a gamma distribution to the empirical permutation distribution; and (vi) permuting a reduced number of voxels, with completion of the remainder using low rank matrix theory. Using synthetic data we assessed the different methods in terms of their error rates, power, agreement with a reference result, and the risk of taking a different decision regarding the rejection of the null hypotheses (known as the resampling risk). We also conducted a re-analysis of a voxel-based morphometry study as a real-data example. All methods yielded exact error rates. Likewise, power was similar across methods. Resampling risk was higher for methods (i), (iii) and (v). For comparable resampling risks, the method in which no permutations are done (iv) was the absolute fastest. All methods produced visually similar maps for the real data, with stronger effects being detected in the family-wise error rate corrected maps by (iii) and (v), and generally similar to the results seen in the reference set. Overall, for uncorrected p-values, method (iv) was found the best as long as symmetric errors can be assumed. In all other settings, including for familywise error corrected p-values, we recommend the tail approximation (iii). The methods considered are freely available in the tool PALM — Permutation Analysis of Linear Models.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Zhu, Yongjie; Liu, Jia; Ye, Chaoxiong; Mathiak, Klaus; +3 Authors

    NeuroImage : a journal of brain function 218, 116924 (2020). doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116924 Published by Academic Press, Orlando, Fla.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2019
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    Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2019
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      Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2020
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108 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pineda-Pardo, J; Brun tild a, R; Woolrich, M; Marcos, A; +3 Authors

    Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were multiple-domain amnestic MCI. An atlas-based anatomical parcellation of 66 regions was obtained for each subject, and time series were assigned to each of the regions. The fiber densities between the regions, obtained with deterministic tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI, were used to define the anatomical connectivity. Precision matrices were obtained with the region specific time series in five different frequency bands. We compared our method with the traditional GL and a functional adaptive version of the GL, in terms of log-likelihood and classification accuracies between the three groups. We conclude that introducing an anatomical prior improves the expressivity of the model and, in most cases, leads to a better classification between groups. Highlights • We propose an anatomy-driven method for functional connectivity estimation in MEG. • Structural prior contributes to a better representation of the functional connectivity. • The proposed method is shown to be useful as a biomarker for classification of MCI.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Raffelt, David A.; Smith, Robert E.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Tournier, J-Donald; +4 Authors

    In brain regions containing crossing fibre bundles, voxel-average diffusion MRI measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) are difficult to interpret, and lack within-voxel single fibre population specificity. Recent work has focused on the development of more interpretable quantitative measures that can be associated with a specific fibre population within a voxel containing crossing fibres (herein we use fixel to refer to a specific fibre population within a single voxel). Unfortunately, traditional 3D methods for smoothing and cluster-based statistical inference cannot be used for voxel-based analysis of these measures, since the local neighbourhood for smoothing and cluster formation can be ambiguous when adjacent voxels may have different numbers of fixels, or ill-defined when they belong to different tracts. Here we introduce a novel statistical method to perform whole-brain fixel-based analysis called connectivity-based fixel enhancement (CFE). CFE uses probabilistic tractography to identify structurally connected fixels that are likely to share underlying anatomy and pathology. Probabilistic connectivity information is then used for tract-specific smoothing (prior to the statistical analysis) and enhancement of the statistical map (using a threshold-free cluster enhancement-like approach). To investigate the characteristics of the CFE method, we assessed sensitivity and specificity using a large number of combinations of CFE enhancement parameters and smoothing extents, using simulated pathology generated with a range of test-statistic signal-to-noise ratios in five different white matter regions (chosen to cover a broad range of fibre bundle features). The results suggest that CFE input parameters are relatively insensitive to the characteristics of the simulated pathology. We therefore recommend a single set of CFE parameters that should give near optimal results in future studies where the group effect is unknown. We then demonstrate the proposed method by comparing apparent fibre density between motor neurone disease (MND) patients with control subjects. The MND results illustrate the benefit of fixel-specific statistical inference in white matter regions that contain crossing fibres. Highlights • We introduce the fixel—a specific fibre population within a voxel. • A novel method for whole-brain fixel-based analysis of diffusion MRI is presented. • Structural connectivity between fixels is derived from template-based tractography. • Connectivity information is used for tract-specific smoothing and enhancement. • Quantitative assessment and an in vivo demonstration is performed. Graphical abstract

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Article . 2015
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