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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Baptist, Florence;

    Les écosystèmes alpins, au même titre que les écosystèmes arctiques, séquestrent des quantités importantes de carbone dans leurs sols. Dans ces écosystèmes, la topographie locale détermine la répartition de la neige; un facteur qui, sur le court terme, affecte les paramètres physiques de l'environnement (effets directs) et qui, sur le long terme, a sélectionné des communautés végétales et microbiennes très différentes aux deux extrêmes du gradient de mésotopographie (effets indirects). Au regard des modifications futures des régimes d'enneigement prédits par les différents modèles climatiques, cette étude vise à explorer les contrôles directs et indirects exercés par l'enneigement sur la fixation du CO2 et la minéralisation du carbone organique dans les écosystèmes alpins. Les paramètres physiques des sols (eau et température) ont été mesurés pendant plusieurs années révélant les effets directs. Afin de quantifier les effets indirects de l'enneigement sur les flux biogéochimiques, nous avons utilisé les caractéristiques fonctionnelles des végétaux (leurs traits). Différentes approches (mesures in situ, manipulations expérimentales et modélisation) ont été employées. Cette étude démontre que la fixation du carbone le long des gradients de mésotopographie est à la fois déterminée par les traits fonctionnels végétaux, les propriétés des canopées et la longueur de la saison de végétation. Un allongement de la saison de végétation devrait entraîner une augmentation marquée de la production primaire si les événements de gel en début de saison de végétation demeurent limités. La minéralisation du carbone est au contraire largement dépendante de la qualité de la matière organique contenue dans les sols. Des changements de composition en traits fonctionnels de la végétation, notamment ceux affectant les concentrations en lignine des litières, devraient avoir un impact déterminant sur les vitesses de minéralisation de la matière organique. Enfin, l'étude des flux de carbone et d'azote dans les plantes dominantes et à l'interface plante – sol révèle un couplage temporel et spatial essentiel chez les espèces dont la croissance est limitée par la longueur de la saison de végétation. Ce couplage apparaît plus limité dans les communautés végétales bénéficiant d'une plus longue saison de végétation. L'évolution des flux et stocks de carbone au sein des écosystèmes alpins dans un contexte de changement climatique est discutée. Alpine tundra store large carbon stocks in their soils. In these ecosystems, the local mesotopography determines snow cover distribution, a key variable, which affect the edapho-climatic conditions on the short term (direct effects) and, in the longer-term, select for contrasting plant and microbial communities at both ends of the topographical gradient (indirect effects). In the context of global change, where large changes in snow precipitations are projected, this study explores the controls exerted by snow cover on carbon fixation and carbon mineralization in alpine tundra. Edapho-climatic variables (water and temperature) were measured during several years and we used vegetation functional characteristics (using plant functional traits) to quantify the indirect effects of snow cover on biogeochemical cycles. Various approaches (in situ measurements, experimental manipulations and modeling) were used. This study demonstrates that carbon fixation along mesotopographical gradients is determined by plant functional traits, canopy properties and growing season length. A longer growing season may lead to a marked increase in primary production, if freezing events at snowmelt remain infrequent. In contrast, carbon mineralization is mainly dependant over soil organic matter quality. Shifts in plant functional traits, in particular those related to litter lignin content, will strongly impact the degradation process. Finally, the quantification of carbon and nitrogen fluxes in plants and at the plant-soil interface reveals a tight spatial and temporal coupling which is essential for species whose growth is limited by growing vegetation length. This coupling is reduced in plant communities which benefit from a longer growing season. The evolution of carbon fluxes and stocks in alpine ecosystems is discussed in the context of climatic changes.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Pécout, Thierry;

    En Provence angevine, la création de la Chambre des comptes par l’ordonnance de Brignoles de 1297 sanctionne un processus de mise en place d’instances de contrôle des comptes et suscite l’émergence progressive de spécialistes du jugement des comptes, les maîtres rationaux. Leur fonction et leurs prérogatives s’élaborent face aux auditeurs et rationaux, elles se professionnalisent et prennent une dimension politique dans le courant du XIVe siècle. Le profil des maîtres rationaux les rapproche des juges plutôt que des hommes des comptes, leur recrutement procède principalement des oligarchies urbaines provençales mais aussi du Regno. Reti Medievali Rivista, Vol 20 No 2 (2019)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Reti Medievali Open ...arrow_drop_down
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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.6092/1593-2...
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Reti Medievali Rivista
    Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Reti Medievali Open ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Reti Medievali Open Archive
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.6092/1593-2...
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2019
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      Reti Medievali Rivista
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Billy, Dominique;

    "L’autrier cuidai aber druda" is one of a small group of texts written in a mixed linguistic variety that has both French and Occitan features and which includes the lais "Markiol" and "Nompar," that are moreover transmitted by the same French manuscript, the so-called Chansonnier du Roi, among a collection of troubadour poems, most of which are also copied in a mixed variety. The accommodation of this kind of text in trouvère songbooks would seem to point to a specific tradition in which troubadour songs would circulate not in their original language, but in a gallicized version, which allowed for the prestige of the source language to be retained as well as maintaining the most important formal features of the poem: versification and sophisticated rhyme schemes. This tradition seems to have encouraged some trouvères – who remain anonymous – to compose poetry directly in this mixed variety, in forms that tend to be characteristic of trouvère poetry. The present text is a lyric adaptation of a parody of Ovid’s "Amores", known as "De Vetula", the interpretation of which has given rise to different opinions, which will be discussed here along with a closer study of the language.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lecturae Tropatorumarrow_drop_down
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    Lecturae Tropatorum
    Article . 2015
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    Authors: Bocquentin, F.; Valla, François;

    International audience; Le Natoufien est connu au Levant entre 13000 et 9500 av, J.-C. environ. On le rencontre de la boucle de l'Euphrate au Néguev e t de la Méditerranée au désert syro-jordanien. Il est considéré comme le moment des premières expériences sédentaires et certains auteurs se demandent si l'on n'a pas procédé alors aux premières manipulations qui devaient conduire au contrôle des nourritures végétales et carnées. Parmi les indices de la sédentarité natoufienne, on mentionne la présence d'une architecture de constructions semi-enterrées circulaires ou ovalaires groupées en petits «villages», auxquelles sont associées dans le Carmel, la Galilée et le bassin du Jourdain un grand nombre de sépultures (N > 350) qui font la matière du présent exposé.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL Paris Nanterre; ...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2004
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    Authors: Feller, Laurent;

    International audience; L'article présente d'abord, d'un point de vue historiographique, l'évolution de la présentation de la question du fief entre 1978 et le début des années 2000. Il propose ensuite une lecture des grandes lignes d'évolution de l'histoire du fief en Italie où la question de la mutation féodale ne se pose pas.A la vision socio-juridique de l'école italienne s'oppose celle davantage sociale et économique des historiens français. Le problème essentiel qui se pose en Italie est le lien existant entre le développement de la seigneurie et celui des structures féodales. La relation entre les droits sur les terres et la construction des réseaux de pouvoir est au coeur de toute analyse des sociétés occidentales à la fin du haut Moyen Âge. L'Italie propose un cas d'espèce particulièrement passionnant dans la mesure où la nature des concessions royales ou seigneuriales excluent toute forme d'obligation juridique: l'exemple des dons faits par Louis II ou par Bérenger Ier est de ce côté tout à fait éclairant. Les bénéfices n'étant pas héréditaires, d'autre part, les dominations locales peinent à se construire et les pouvoirs à se patrimonialiser et à se territorialiser. La densification du réseau castral, enfin, montre la militarisation de l'espace et la réorganisation de la société tout entière autour de nouveaux pôles matériels du pouvoir politique, économique et militaire.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Reti Medievali Open ...arrow_drop_down
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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Brancier, Jeanne;

    Les recherches entreprises dans cette thèse visent à définir les processus de formation des anthroposols archéologiques précolombiens sur le territoire guyanais ainsi qu’à participer à la restitution des activités humaines passées. Elles sont fondées sur l’étude et l’analyse des propriétés intrinsèques des sédiments archéologiques, telles que, d’une part, leur nature et leur organisation pédo-sédimentaires, et d’autre part, leurs propriétés physico- chimiques. La possibilité de disposer d’un corpus de sites archéologiques de plein air dans différents contextes géomorphologiques (plaine alluviale, colline latéritique pour les montagnes couronnées), et la mise en place d’une approche géoarchéologique combinant observations micromorphologiques et analyses physico-chimiques, a permis d’investiguer différents types d’anthroposols précolombiens guyanais, et de les caractériser suivant plusieurs marqueurs anthropiques, directs et indirects. L’analyse géoarchéologique révèle que la pédogénèse naturelle a été impactée par l’anthropisation ancienne et indique une certaine résilience des sols. La micromorphologie des sols a permis de mettre en évidence des microtraces anthropiques telles que des charbons (micro et macro) et des céramiques, communs aux deux contextes, ainsi que différents types d’agrégats brûlés provenant de la surface des sols ayant subi la chauffe pour les montagnes couronnées. L’activité anthropique a aussi probablement favorisé les processus de lessivage des argiles par des apports anciens de cendres. La pédofaune a été transformée comme le laisse supposer, en lames minces, la présence de traits rapportés à Pontoscolex corethrurus. Les analyses archéo-environnementales complémentaires mises en place dans ce travail (anthracologie, phytolithes, susceptibilité magnétique) ont permis de compléter les données acquises sur la mise en place des anthroposols étudiés. Ces travaux, précurseurs pour le territoire guyanais, et en s’inspirant des études menées non loin, en Amazonie brésilienne sur les terra preta/mulata ou Amazonian Dark Earth, viennent compléter le référentiel des anthroposols archéologiques développés en Amazonie. Ils ont, en outre, permis d’émettre plusieurs hypothèses quant à l’origine des marqueurs d’activités, directs ou indirects, observés dans les anthroposols archéologiques, et de mettre ainsi en évidence les manifestations humaines anciennes qui auraient pu avoir lieu sur les sites étudiés. Des activités fondamentales telles que les foyers domestiques ou la mise en culture des sols semblent avoir pris place sur ces derniers. Des hypothèses sur les modèles d’occupation de l’espace ont été proposées en s’intéressant aux zones de rejet principalement, situées en retrait des maisons supposées et à proximité du fossé dans le cas des montagnes couronnées. Cette étude s’inscrit typiquement dans une approche archéo- environnementale qui vient préciser les liens étroits qu’entretenaient les populations précolombiennes avec leur environnement. The research undertaken in this thesis, aims to identify the formation processes of the pre- Columbian archaeological anthropogenic soils in the French Guiana territory as well as to contribute to revisiting ancient human activities. It is based on the study and analysis of the intrinsic properties of archaeological sediments, such as, on the one hand, their nature and their pedo-sedimentary composition, and on the other hand, their physicochemical properties. The availability of a corpus of open air archaeological sites in different geomorphological settings (e.g., floodplain; lateritic hill with circular ditch glossed in French montagne couronnée), and the implementation of a geoarchaeological approach combining micromorphological observations and physicochemical analyses, enabled to investigate different kinds of pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in French Guiana, and to characterize them according to several anthropogenic markers, both direct and indirect. Geoarchaeological analysis revealed that the natural pedogenesis has been impacted by the ancient anthropization and indicates a certain resilience of soils. The soil micromorphology demonstrated anthropogenic microtraces such as charcoal (micro and macro) and fragments of pottery, common to both contexts, as well as different kinds of heated aggregates originating from the surface of the soils having been burned, only for the montagnes couronnées sites. Anthropogenic activity probably also contributed to the process of leaching of clay via the formed ashes. The pedofaune has been transformed as one may assume, in thin sections, the presence of pedofeatures related to Pontoscolex corethrurus. Additional archaeo-environmental analyses implemented in this study (anthracology, phytoliths, magnetic susceptibility) allowed completing the data acquired on the implementation of the studied anthropogenic soils. These studies, pioneering for French Guiana, though inspired by studies in the near Brazilian Amazon on terra preta/mulata or Amazonian Dark Earth, complement the repository of archaeological anthropogenic soils developed in the Amazon. Furthermore, they allowed several hypotheses about the origins of the activity markers, either direct or indirect, observed in the archaeological anthropogenic soils, and evidenced ancient human events that could have taken place on the sites studied. Fundamental activities such as house fires or the cultivation of the land appear to have taken place on the latter. Assumptions about the models of occupation of space have been proposed mainly by refuse areas behind the supposed houses and near the ditch in the case of the montagnes couronnées. This study is situated in an archaeo-environmental approach demonstrating the close relations between pre-Columbian populations with their environment.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Menant, François;

    Paola Guglielmotti, Isabella Lazzarini, Gian Maria Varanini; International audience

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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Monnet, Pierre;

    dir Gerhard JARITZ; International audience

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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Goutierre, Laurent;

    La théologie naît de la parole de Dieu. Elle doit donc expliciter ce qui caractérise la parole de Dieu. Or, c’est dans le Christ que Dieu s’adresse en personne aux hommes. Il est en outre nécessaire de préciser quelle philosophie de la parole est capable de servir d’instrument à cette réflexion théologique. Dans le Christ, parole et geste sont relatifs à son Je Suis divin et sont portés par une intention et un jugement nouveaux, divins. On reprend ainsi quelques questions fondamentales : foi et intelligence ; histoire et métaphysique ; théologie et mystique : en terre chrétienne, elles sont inséparables et une sagesse théologique demande d’être à la fois savoureuse et rigoureuse du point de vue de la vérité ; ce qui le permet est une philosophie qui explicite la cause finale grâce à l’amour. Enfin, on aborde l’unité et l’organisation de la théologie : c’est à partir du Christ que s’explicite l’ordre de la théologie dans le développement organique de ses parties. Theology flows from the word of God. Its task, therefore, is to explicate what characterises that word. In Christ, God speaks in person to mankind, which is why we need to establish which philosophy of the human word is capable of serving theological reflection. Christ’s words and actions are relative to His divine I Am ; his words and actions are carried by a new, divine judgement and intention. This brings us to some fundamental questions : faith and intelligence ; history and metaphysics ; theology and the mystical. These pairs are inseparable in Christianity. A theological wisdom must be both appealing and rigorous as regards the truth ; what is it that allows it to be just that ? A philosophy which, thanks to love, explicates the final cause. Finally, we look at the unity and the organisation of theology : Christ himself determines the order of theology in the organic development of its different areas.

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    Authors: Papy, Fabrice; Bouhaï, Nasserddine; Saleh, Imad;

    L'information n'a jamais été aussi facile d'accès. Mais l'augmentation du volume d'informations s'est accompagnée d'un accroissement considérable d'outils destinés à aider ou assister l'utilisateur final à retrouver des informations. Les différentes logiques de fonctionnement de ces outils augmentent les problèmes cognitifs de l'utilisateur : lecteur, étudiant, apprenant... L'utilisateur doit d'une part trouver une cohérence dans les informations pléthoriques qu'il est amené à extraire des réseaux et d'autre part s'adapter aux mécanismes des outils qu'il est amené à utiliser. HyWebMap représente une nouvelle génération d'outils destinée à limiter les problèmes de désorientation et de surcharge cognitive des utilisateurs (étudiants) placés en situation d'apprentissage. L'objectif étant de leur permettre de reconstruire un espace de navigation personnalisé à partir d'éléments importés mais également d'éléments produits par eux. Information has never been as accessible as nowadays. But the increase of the volume of information has been accompanied by a considerable increase of tools that aim at helping and assisting the final user to find information. Different skills used in such tools increase cognitive problems of the user (reader, student, beginner). On the one hand, the user has to find a coherence in plethoric information as he browses through information networks, and on the other hand he has to adapt to the different logics of these tools. HyWebMap represents a new generation of tool designed to reduce disorientation and cognitive overhead of users being in a learning context, the goal being to allow them to organize a customized navigation space built around imported data and information produced by the user himself.

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    Authors: Baptist, Florence;

    Les écosystèmes alpins, au même titre que les écosystèmes arctiques, séquestrent des quantités importantes de carbone dans leurs sols. Dans ces écosystèmes, la topographie locale détermine la répartition de la neige; un facteur qui, sur le court terme, affecte les paramètres physiques de l'environnement (effets directs) et qui, sur le long terme, a sélectionné des communautés végétales et microbiennes très différentes aux deux extrêmes du gradient de mésotopographie (effets indirects). Au regard des modifications futures des régimes d'enneigement prédits par les différents modèles climatiques, cette étude vise à explorer les contrôles directs et indirects exercés par l'enneigement sur la fixation du CO2 et la minéralisation du carbone organique dans les écosystèmes alpins. Les paramètres physiques des sols (eau et température) ont été mesurés pendant plusieurs années révélant les effets directs. Afin de quantifier les effets indirects de l'enneigement sur les flux biogéochimiques, nous avons utilisé les caractéristiques fonctionnelles des végétaux (leurs traits). Différentes approches (mesures in situ, manipulations expérimentales et modélisation) ont été employées. Cette étude démontre que la fixation du carbone le long des gradients de mésotopographie est à la fois déterminée par les traits fonctionnels végétaux, les propriétés des canopées et la longueur de la saison de végétation. Un allongement de la saison de végétation devrait entraîner une augmentation marquée de la production primaire si les événements de gel en début de saison de végétation demeurent limités. La minéralisation du carbone est au contraire largement dépendante de la qualité de la matière organique contenue dans les sols. Des changements de composition en traits fonctionnels de la végétation, notamment ceux affectant les concentrations en lignine des litières, devraient avoir un impact déterminant sur les vitesses de minéralisation de la matière organique. Enfin, l'étude des flux de carbone et d'azote dans les plantes dominantes et à l'interface plante – sol révèle un couplage temporel et spatial essentiel chez les espèces dont la croissance est limitée par la longueur de la saison de végétation. Ce couplage apparaît plus limité dans les communautés végétales bénéficiant d'une plus longue saison de végétation. L'évolution des flux et stocks de carbone au sein des écosystèmes alpins dans un contexte de changement climatique est discutée. Alpine tundra store large carbon stocks in their soils. In these ecosystems, the local mesotopography determines snow cover distribution, a key variable, which affect the edapho-climatic conditions on the short term (direct effects) and, in the longer-term, select for contrasting plant and microbial communities at both ends of the topographical gradient (indirect effects). In the context of global change, where large changes in snow precipitations are projected, this study explores the controls exerted by snow cover on carbon fixation and carbon mineralization in alpine tundra. Edapho-climatic variables (water and temperature) were measured during several years and we used vegetation functional characteristics (using plant functional traits) to quantify the indirect effects of snow cover on biogeochemical cycles. Various approaches (in situ measurements, experimental manipulations and modeling) were used. This study demonstrates that carbon fixation along mesotopographical gradients is determined by plant functional traits, canopy properties and growing season length. A longer growing season may lead to a marked increase in primary production, if freezing events at snowmelt remain infrequent. In contrast, carbon mineralization is mainly dependant over soil organic matter quality. Shifts in plant functional traits, in particular those related to litter lignin content, will strongly impact the degradation process. Finally, the quantification of carbon and nitrogen fluxes in plants and at the plant-soil interface reveals a tight spatial and temporal coupling which is essential for species whose growth is limited by growing vegetation length. This coupling is reduced in plant communities which benefit from a longer growing season. The evolution of carbon fluxes and stocks in alpine ecosystems is discussed in the context of climatic changes.

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    Authors: Pécout, Thierry;

    En Provence angevine, la création de la Chambre des comptes par l’ordonnance de Brignoles de 1297 sanctionne un processus de mise en place d’instances de contrôle des comptes et suscite l’émergence progressive de spécialistes du jugement des comptes, les maîtres rationaux. Leur fonction et leurs prérogatives s’élaborent face aux auditeurs et rationaux, elles se professionnalisent et prennent une dimension politique dans le courant du XIVe siècle. Le profil des maîtres rationaux les rapproche des juges plutôt que des hommes des comptes, leur recrutement procède principalement des oligarchies urbaines provençales mais aussi du Regno. Reti Medievali Rivista, Vol 20 No 2 (2019)

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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.6092/1593-2...
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Reti Medievali Rivista
    Article . 2019
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      Reti Medievali Open Archive
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.6092/1593-2...
      Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2019
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      Reti Medievali Rivista
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Billy, Dominique;

    "L’autrier cuidai aber druda" is one of a small group of texts written in a mixed linguistic variety that has both French and Occitan features and which includes the lais "Markiol" and "Nompar," that are moreover transmitted by the same French manuscript, the so-called Chansonnier du Roi, among a collection of troubadour poems, most of which are also copied in a mixed variety. The accommodation of this kind of text in trouvère songbooks would seem to point to a specific tradition in which troubadour songs would circulate not in their original language, but in a gallicized version, which allowed for the prestige of the source language to be retained as well as maintaining the most important formal features of the poem: versification and sophisticated rhyme schemes. This tradition seems to have encouraged some trouvères – who remain anonymous – to compose poetry directly in this mixed variety, in forms that tend to be characteristic of trouvère poetry. The present text is a lyric adaptation of a parody of Ovid’s "Amores", known as "De Vetula", the interpretation of which has given rise to different opinions, which will be discussed here along with a closer study of the language.

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    Lecturae Tropatorum
    Article . 2015
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    Authors: Bocquentin, F.; Valla, François;

    International audience; Le Natoufien est connu au Levant entre 13000 et 9500 av, J.-C. environ. On le rencontre de la boucle de l'Euphrate au Néguev e t de la Méditerranée au désert syro-jordanien. Il est considéré comme le moment des premières expériences sédentaires et certains auteurs se demandent si l'on n'a pas procédé alors aux premières manipulations qui devaient conduire au contrôle des nourritures végétales et carnées. Parmi les indices de la sédentarité natoufienne, on mentionne la présence d'une architecture de constructions semi-enterrées circulaires ou ovalaires groupées en petits «villages», auxquelles sont associées dans le Carmel, la Galilée et le bassin du Jourdain un grand nombre de sépultures (N > 350) qui font la matière du présent exposé.

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    Other literature type . 2004
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    Authors: Feller, Laurent;

    International audience; L'article présente d'abord, d'un point de vue historiographique, l'évolution de la présentation de la question du fief entre 1978 et le début des années 2000. Il propose ensuite une lecture des grandes lignes d'évolution de l'histoire du fief en Italie où la question de la mutation féodale ne se pose pas.A la vision socio-juridique de l'école italienne s'oppose celle davantage sociale et économique des historiens français. Le problème essentiel qui se pose en Italie est le lien existant entre le développement de la seigneurie et celui des structures féodales. La relation entre les droits sur les terres et la construction des réseaux de pouvoir est au coeur de toute analyse des sociétés occidentales à la fin du haut Moyen Âge. L'Italie propose un cas d'espèce particulièrement passionnant dans la mesure où la nature des concessions royales ou seigneuriales excluent toute forme d'obligation juridique: l'exemple des dons faits par Louis II ou par Bérenger Ier est de ce côté tout à fait éclairant. Les bénéfices n'étant pas héréditaires, d'autre part, les dominations locales peinent à se construire et les pouvoirs à se patrimonialiser et à se territorialiser. La densification du réseau castral, enfin, montre la militarisation de l'espace et la réorganisation de la société tout entière autour de nouveaux pôles matériels du pouvoir politique, économique et militaire.

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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Brancier, Jeanne;

    Les recherches entreprises dans cette thèse visent à définir les processus de formation des anthroposols archéologiques précolombiens sur le territoire guyanais ainsi qu’à participer à la restitution des activités humaines passées. Elles sont fondées sur l’étude et l’analyse des propriétés intrinsèques des sédiments archéologiques, telles que, d’une part, leur nature et leur organisation pédo-sédimentaires, et d’autre part, leurs propriétés physico- chimiques. La possibilité de disposer d’un corpus de sites archéologiques de plein air dans différents contextes géomorphologiques (plaine alluviale, colline latéritique pour les montagnes couronnées), et la mise en place d’une approche géoarchéologique combinant observations micromorphologiques et analyses physico-chimiques, a permis d’investiguer différents types d’anthroposols précolombiens guyanais, et de les caractériser suivant plusieurs marqueurs anthropiques, directs et indirects. L’analyse géoarchéologique révèle que la pédogénèse naturelle a été impactée par l’anthropisation ancienne et indique une certaine résilience des sols. La micromorphologie des sols a permis de mettre en évidence des microtraces anthropiques telles que des charbons (micro et macro) et des céramiques, communs aux deux contextes, ainsi que différents types d’agrégats brûlés provenant de la surface des sols ayant subi la chauffe pour les montagnes couronnées. L’activité anthropique a aussi probablement favorisé les processus de lessivage des argiles par des apports anciens de cendres. La pédofaune a été transformée comme le laisse supposer, en lames minces, la présence de traits rapportés à Pontoscolex corethrurus. Les analyses archéo-environnementales complémentaires mises en place dans ce travail (anthracologie, phytolithes, susceptibilité magnétique) ont permis de compléter les données acquises sur la mise en place des anthroposols étudiés. Ces travaux, précurseurs pour le territoire guyanais, et en s’inspirant des études menées non loin, en Amazonie brésilienne sur les terra preta/mulata ou Amazonian Dark Earth, viennent compléter le référentiel des anthroposols archéologiques développés en Amazonie. Ils ont, en outre, permis d’émettre plusieurs hypothèses quant à l’origine des marqueurs d’activités, directs ou indirects, observés dans les anthroposols archéologiques, et de mettre ainsi en évidence les manifestations humaines anciennes qui auraient pu avoir lieu sur les sites étudiés. Des activités fondamentales telles que les foyers domestiques ou la mise en culture des sols semblent avoir pris place sur ces derniers. Des hypothèses sur les modèles d’occupation de l’espace ont été proposées en s’intéressant aux zones de rejet principalement, situées en retrait des maisons supposées et à proximité du fossé dans le cas des montagnes couronnées. Cette étude s’inscrit typiquement dans une approche archéo- environnementale qui vient préciser les liens étroits qu’entretenaient les populations précolombiennes avec leur environnement. The research undertaken in this thesis, aims to identify the formation processes of the pre- Columbian archaeological anthropogenic soils in the French Guiana territory as well as to contribute to revisiting ancient human activities. It is based on the study and analysis of the intrinsic properties of archaeological sediments, such as, on the one hand, their nature and their pedo-sedimentary composition, and on the other hand, their physicochemical properties. The availability of a corpus of open air archaeological sites in different geomorphological settings (e.g., floodplain; lateritic hill with circular ditch glossed in French montagne couronnée), and the implementation of a geoarchaeological approach combining micromorphological observations and physicochemical analyses, enabled to investigate different kinds of pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in French Guiana, and to characterize them according to several anthropogenic markers, both direct and indirect. Geoarchaeological analysis revealed that the natural pedogenesis has been impacted by the ancient anthropization and indicates a certain resilience of soils. The soil micromorphology demonstrated anthropogenic microtraces such as charcoal (micro and macro) and fragments of pottery, common to both contexts, as well as different kinds of heated aggregates originating from the surface of the soils having been burned, only for the montagnes couronnées sites. Anthropogenic activity probably also contributed to the process of leaching of clay via the formed ashes. The pedofaune has been transformed as one may assume, in thin sections, the presence of pedofeatures related to Pontoscolex corethrurus. Additional archaeo-environmental analyses implemented in this study (anthracology, phytoliths, magnetic susceptibility) allowed completing the data acquired on the implementation of the studied anthropogenic soils. These studies, pioneering for French Guiana, though inspired by studies in the near Brazilian Amazon on terra preta/mulata or Amazonian Dark Earth, complement the repository of archaeological anthropogenic soils developed in the Amazon. Furthermore, they allowed several hypotheses about the origins of the activity markers, either direct or indirect, observed in the archaeological anthropogenic soils, and evidenced ancient human events that could have taken place on the sites studied. Fundamental activities such as house fires or the cultivation of the land appear to have taken place on the latter. Assumptions about the models of occupation of space have been proposed mainly by refuse areas behind the supposed houses and near the ditch in the case of the montagnes couronnées. This study is situated in an archaeo-environmental approach demonstrating the close relations between pre-Columbian populations with their environment.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Menant, François;

    Paola Guglielmotti, Isabella Lazzarini, Gian Maria Varanini; International audience