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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elena, Choleris; Liisa A M, Galea; Farida, Sohrabji; Karyn M, Frick;

    Abstract Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them. This information may provide readers with useful experimental tools to successfully address recently introduced regulations by granting agencies that either require (e.g. the National Institutes of Health in the United States and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in Canada) or recommend (e.g. Horizon 2020 in Europe) the inclusion of both sexes in biomedical research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience & Biobe...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience & Biobe...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Liang Wang; Yanfang Li; Paul D. Metzak; Yong He; +1 Authors

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related changes in large-scale brain functional networks during memory encoding and recognition in 12 younger and 16 older adults. For each participant, functional brain networks were constructed by computing temporal correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found the age-related changes mainly in the long-range connections with widespread reductions associated with aging in the fronto-temporal and temporo-parietal regions, and a few age-related increases in the posterior parietal regions. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that the older adults had longer path lengths linking different regions in the functional brain networks as compared to the younger adults. Further analysis indicated that the increases in shortest path length in the networks were combined with the loss of long-range connections. Finally, we showed that for older adults, frontal areas played reduced roles in the network (reduced regional centrality), whereas several default-mode regions played increased roles relative to younger subjects (increased regional centrality). Together, our results suggest that normal aging is associated with disruption of large-scale brain systems during the performance of memory tasks, which provides novel insights into the understanding of age-related decline in multiple cognitive functions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2009
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    Authors: Ruben Martins; France Simard; Oury Monchi;

    It is widely believed that language function tends to show little age-related performance decline. Indeed, some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain a high level of performance when submitted to lexical tasks. However, how these mechanisms affect cortical and subcortical activity during semantic and phonological processing has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of healthy aging on cortico-subcortical routes related to semantic and phonological processing using a lexical analogue of the Wisconsin Cart-Sorting Task. Our results indicate that while young adults tend to show increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the ventral temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus during semantic decisions and in the posterior Broca's area (area 44), the temporal lobe (area 37), the temporoparietal junction (area 40) and the motor cortical regions during phonological decisions, older individuals showed increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortical regions during both semantic and phonological decisions. Furthermore, when semantic and phonological decisions were contrasted with each other, younger individuals showed significant brain activity differences in several regions while older individuals did not. Therefore, in older individuals, the semantic and phonological routes seem to merge into a single pathway. These findings represent most probably neural reserve/compensation mechanisms, characterized by a decrease in specificity, on which the elderly rely to maintain an adequate level of performance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gemma B. Northam; Sophie Adler; Kathrin C. J. Eschmann; Wui K. Chong; +2 Authors

    ObjectiveImpairment of speech repetition following injury to the dorsal language stream is a feature of conduction aphasia, a well‐described “disconnection syndrome” in adults. The impact of similar lesions sustained in infancy has not been established.MethodsWe compared language outcomes in term‐born individuals with confirmed neonatal stroke (n = 30, age = 7–18 years, left‐sided lesions in 21 cases) to matched controls (n = 40). Injury to the dorsal and/or ventral language streams was assessed using T1‐ and T2‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tractography. Language lateralization was determined using functional MRI.ResultsAt the group level, left dorsal language stream injury was associated with selective speech repetition impairment for nonwords (p = 0.021) and sentences (p < 0.0001). The majority of children with significant repetition impairment had retained left hemisphere language representation, but right hemisphere dominance was correlated with minimal or absent repetition deficits. Post hoc analysis of the repetition‐impaired group revealed additional language‐associated deficits, but these were more subtle and variable.InterpretationWe conclude that (1) despite the considerable plasticity of the infant brain, early dorsal language stream injury can result in specific and long‐lasting problems with speech repetition that are similar to the syndrome of conduction aphasia seen in adults; and (2) language reorganization to the contralateral hemisphere has a protective effect. Ann Neurol 2018;83:664–675 Ann Neurol 2018;83:664–675

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2018
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Other literature type . 2018
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    Annals of Neurology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annals of Neurology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2018
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      Annals of Neurology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annals of Neurology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hannah Kiesow; Robin I. M. Dunbar; Joseph W. Kable; Tobias Kalenscher; +5 Authors

    In human and nonhuman primates, sex differences typically explain much interindividual variability. Male and female behaviors may have played unique roles in the likely coevolution of increasing brain volume and more complex social dynamics. To explore possible divergence in social brain morphology between men and women living in different social environments, we applied probabilistic generative modeling to ~10,000 UK Biobank participants. We observed strong volume effects especially in the limbic system but also in regions of the sensory, intermediate, and higher association networks. Sex-specific brain volume effects in the limbic system were linked to the frequency and intensity of social contact, such as indexed by loneliness, household size, and social support. Across the processing hierarchy of neural networks, different conditions for social interplay may resonate in and be influenced by brain anatomy in sex-dependent ways. Population variability in social lifestyle is reflected in brain morphology in sex-dependent ways.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Yasuyuki Taki; Benjamin Thyreau; Shigeo Kinomura; Kazunori Sato; +3 Authors

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2011
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2011
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    Authors: Chris B. Martin; Rosemary A. Cowell; Paul L. Gribble; Jessey Wright; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACTEvidence from a large body of research suggests that perirhinal cortex (PrC), which interfaces the medial temporal lobe with the ventral visual pathway for object identification, plays a critical role in item‐based recognition memory. The precise manner in which PrC codes for the prior occurrence of objects, however, remains poorly understood. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used multivoxel pattern analyses to examine whether the prior occurrence of faces is coded by distributed patterns of PrC activity that consist of voxels with decreases as well as increases in signal. We also investigated whether pertinent voxels are preferentially tuned to the specific object category to which judged stimuli belong. We found that, when no a priori constraints were imposed on the direction of signal change, activity patterns that allowed for successful classification of recognition‐memory decisions included some voxels with decreases and others with increases in signal in association with perceived prior occurrence. Moreover, successful classification was obtained in the absence of a mean difference in activity across the set of voxels in these patterns. Critically, we observed a positive relationship between classifier accuracy and behavioral performance across participants. Additional analyses revealed that voxels carrying diagnostic information for classification of memory decisions showed category specificity in their tuning for faces when probed with an independent functional localizer in a nonmnemonic task context. These voxels were spatially distributed in PrC, and extended beyond the contiguous voxel clusters previously described as the anterior temporal face patch. Our findings provide support for proposals, recently raised in the neurophysiological literature, that the prior occurrence of objects is coded by distributed PrC representations. They also suggest that the stimulus category to which an item belongs shapes the organization of these distributed representations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    Hippocampus
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2015
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    Authors: Hellen Weinschutz Mendes; Mariam Taktek; Thomas Duret; Marc Ekker;

    AbstractDysfunctions in the GABAergic system lead to various pathological conditions and impaired inhibitory function is one of the causes behind neuropathies characterized by neuronal hyper excitability. TheDlxhomeobox genes are involved in the development of nervous system, neural crest, brachial arches and developing appendages.Dlxgenes also take part in neuronal migration and differentiation during development, more precisely, in the migration and differentiation of GABAergic neurons. Functional analysis ofdlxgenes has mainly been carried out in developing zebrafish embryos and larvae; however information regarding the expression and roles of these genes in the adult zebrafish brain is still lacking. The extensive neurogenesis that takes place in the brain of adult zebrafish makes them a good model for the visualization of mechanisms involvingdlxgenes during adulthood in physiological conditions and during regeneration of the nervous system. We have identified the adult brain regions where transcripts ofdlx1a, dlx2a, dlx5aanddlx6agenes are normally found and have confirmed that within telencephalic domains, there is high overlapping expression of the fourdlxparalogs with a marker for GABAergic neurons. Co-localization analyses carried with the Tg(dlx6a-1.4kbdlx5a/dlx6a:GFP) reporter line have also shown that in some areas of the diencephalon, cells expressing thedlx5a/6abigene may have a neural stem cell identity by co-localizing with a Sox2 antibody. Furthermore, investigations in a response to stab wound lesions, have demonstrated a possible participation of thedlx5a/6abigene, most likely, ofdlx5aduring the regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain. These data suggest a possible participation ofdlx-expressing cells during brain regeneration in adult zebrafish and also provide information on the role ofdlxgenes under normal physiological conditions in adults.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Munger, Kassandra L.; Hartung, Hans peter; Freedman, Mark S.; +104 Authors

    ObjectiveTo assess whether a high‐salt diet, as measured by urinary sodium concentration, is associated with faster conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS activity and disability.MethodsBENEFIT was a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus delayed interferon beta‐1b treatment in 465 patients with a CIS. Each patient provided a median of 14 (interquartile range = 13–16) spot urine samples throughout the 5‐year follow‐up. We estimated 24‐hour urine sodium excretion level at each time point using the Tanaka equations, and assessed whether sodium levels estimated from the cumulative average of the repeated measures were associated with clinical (conversion to MS, Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes.ResultsAverage 24‐hour urine sodium levels were not associated with conversion to clinically definite MS over the 5‐year follow‐up (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67–1.24 per 1g increase in estimated daily sodium intake), nor were they associated with clinical or MRI outcomes (new active lesions after 6 months: HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.97–1.13; relative change in T2 lesion volume: −0.11, 95% CI = −0.25 to 0.04; change in EDSS: −0.01, 95% CI = −0.09 to 0.08; relapse rate: HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.56–1.07). Results were similar in categorical analyses using quintiles.InterpretationOur results, based on multiple assessments of urine sodium excretion over 5 years and standardized clinical and MRI follow‐up, suggest that salt intake does not influence MS disease course or activity. Ann Neurol 2017;82:20–29

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Annals of Neurology; HAL-Inserm
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ashley P L Marsh; Delphine Héron; Timothy J. Edwards; Angélique Quartier; +49 Authors

    International audience; Brain malformations involving the corpus callosum are common in children with developmental disabilities. We identified DCC mutations in four families and five sporadic individuals with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) without intellectual disability. DCC mutations result in variable dominant phenotypes with decreased penetrance, including mirror movements and ACC associated with a favorable developmental prognosis. Possible phenotypic modifiers include the type and location of mutation and the sex of the individual.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    Nature Genetics
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    Nature Genetics
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      Nature Genetics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elena, Choleris; Liisa A M, Galea; Farida, Sohrabji; Karyn M, Frick;

    Abstract Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them. This information may provide readers with useful experimental tools to successfully address recently introduced regulations by granting agencies that either require (e.g. the National Institutes of Health in the United States and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in Canada) or recommend (e.g. Horizon 2020 in Europe) the inclusion of both sexes in biomedical research.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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