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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ouhayoun, J.; Rouvier, R.; Delmas, Danièle; Jacquin, C.;

    International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Annales de Zootechnie
    Article . 1975 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annales de Zootechnie
      Article . 1975 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pope, George R.; Roberts, Emma M.; Lolait, Stephen J.; O’Carroll, Anne-Marie;

    The G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ) binds the endogenous peptide apelin and has been shown to have roles in many physiological systems. Thus far, distribution studies have predominantly been conducted in the rat and there is limited knowledge of the cellular distribution of APJ in mouse or human tissues. As recent functional studies have been conducted in APJ knock-out mice (APJ KO), in this study we undertook to characterize APJ mRNA and I125[Pyr1]apelin-13 binding site distribution in mouse tissues to enable correlation of distribution with function. We have utilized in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) using APJ riboprobes, which revealed strong hybridization specifically in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the anterior pituitary, with marginally lower levels in the posterior pituitary. In the periphery, strong hybridization was observed in the lung, heart, adrenal cortex, renal medulla, ovary and uterus. Autoradiographic binding to APJ with I125[Pyr1]apelin-13 exhibited significant binding in the anterior pituitary, while lower levels were observed in the posterior pituitary and PVN and SON. In the periphery, strong receptor binding was observed in tissues exhibiting intense riboprobe hybridization, indicating a good correlation between receptor transcription and translation. While the distribution of APJ mRNA and functional protein in the mouse shows similarities to that of the rat, we report a species difference in central APJ distribution and in the pituitary gland. Highlights ► APJ is well characterized in the rat but is not well described in mouse tissues. ► We show the first detailed anatomical distribution of APJ mRNA and protein in the mouse. ► There is a species difference in central APJ distribution and in the pituitary gland. APJ distribution in peripheral tissues appears comparable between rat and mouse. ► The apelin system may have a more wide-ranging central role in the rat than the mouse.

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    Peptides
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Peptides
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Michael P. Ewbank; Elisabeth A. H. von dem Hagen; Thomas E. Powell; Richard N. Henson; +1 Authors

    AbstractThere is substantial variation in the magnitude of the repetition suppression (RS) effects across individuals; however the causes of this variation remain unclear. In a recent study, we found that RS in occipitotemporal cortex was negatively related to individual variation in autistic traits in a neurotypical population. Recent proposals have considered autistic behaviours within a Bayesian framework, suggesting that individuals with autism may have ‘attenuated priors’ (i.e., their perception is less influenced by prior information). Predictive coding represents a neural instantiation of Bayesian inference, and characterises RS as reduction in prediction error between ‘top-down’ (prior beliefs) and ‘bottom-up’ (stimulus related) inputs. In accordance with this, evidence shows that RS is greater when repetition of a stimulus is expected relative to when it is unexpected. Here, using an established paradigm which manipulates the probability of stimulus repetition, we investigated the effect of perceptual expectation on RS in a group of neurotypical individuals varying on a measure of autistic traits. We predicted that the magnitude of the perceptual expectation effect would be negatively related to individual differences in autistic traits. We found a significant effect of perceptual expectation on RS in face-selective regions (i.e., greater RS when repetitions were expected relative to unexpected). However, there was no evidence of a relationship between autistic traits and the magnitude of this effect in any face-selective region of interest (ROI). These findings provide a challenge for the proposal that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may be associated with the attenuated influence of prior information.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2016
    License: CC BY
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2016
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Ruben Martins; France Simard; Oury Monchi;

    It is widely believed that language function tends to show little age-related performance decline. Indeed, some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain a high level of performance when submitted to lexical tasks. However, how these mechanisms affect cortical and subcortical activity during semantic and phonological processing has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of healthy aging on cortico-subcortical routes related to semantic and phonological processing using a lexical analogue of the Wisconsin Cart-Sorting Task. Our results indicate that while young adults tend to show increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the ventral temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus during semantic decisions and in the posterior Broca's area (area 44), the temporal lobe (area 37), the temporoparietal junction (area 40) and the motor cortical regions during phonological decisions, older individuals showed increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortical regions during both semantic and phonological decisions. Furthermore, when semantic and phonological decisions were contrasted with each other, younger individuals showed significant brain activity differences in several regions while older individuals did not. Therefore, in older individuals, the semantic and phonological routes seem to merge into a single pathway. These findings represent most probably neural reserve/compensation mechanisms, characterized by a decrease in specificity, on which the elderly rely to maintain an adequate level of performance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Article . 2014
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Sabine Heim; Naseem Choudhury; April A. Benasich;

    Detecting and discriminating subtle and rapid sound changes in the speech environment is a fundamental prerequisite of language processing, and deficits in this ability have frequently been observed in individuals with language-learning impairments (LLI). One approach to studying associations between dysfunctional auditory dynamics and LLI, is to implement a training protocol tapping into this potential while quantifying pre- and post-intervention status. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are highly sensitive to the brain correlates of these dynamic changes and are therefore ideally suited for examining hypotheses regarding dysfunctional auditory processes. In this study, ERP measurements to rapid tone sequences (standard and deviant tone pairs) along with behavioral language testing were performed in 6- to 9-year-old LLI children (n = 21) before and after audiovisual training. A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval. The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language. In terms of ERPs, we found evidence of changes in the LLI group specifically at the level of the P2 component, later than 250 ms after the onset of the second stimulus in the deviant tone pair. These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

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    Brain Topography
    Article
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    Brain Topography
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Brain Topography
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      Brain Topography
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ariel de Vidas, Anath;

    International audience; The marginality of the Teenek Indians of Mexico gives rise to discourses among this group that serve to justify its relegation to the fringes of modern life. Those discourses reflect a concrete, inexorable, social, economic, and political situation that is reformulated in the Teenek system of representation. This article explores the problem of constructing an ethnic identity as it is reflected in the realities and world views of the indigenous microcosm facing national society. (Mexico, Teenek [Huastec] Indians, ethnicity, world view)

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    Ethnology
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    Ethnology
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Neveu, Catherine;

    Citoyenneté et racisme en Europe : exception et complémentarité britanniques Catherine NEVEU Un certain nombre d'initiatives existent au niveau européen, visant à constituer des réseaux d'associations immigrées. Ces tentatives sont pourtant souvent confrontées à des difficultés quand il s'agit de déterminer les catégories de populations auxquelles il convient de s'adresser, ou les thèmes centraux de mobilisation européenne. Deux exemples sont alors analysés pour illustrer ces difficultés : celui du Forum des Migrants, mis en place par le Conseil des Communautés Européennes, et celui de SCORE (UK), lancé par des associations britanniques. Au-delà de la difficulté à constituer des catégories cohérentes face à la diversité des situations en Europe (en termes de populations, de statuts, etc.), la question fondamentale qui est posée est celle de savoir si l'enjeu central aujourd'hui est celui de la lutte contre le racisme ou celui de la citoyenneté. Racismo y ciudadanía en Europa : excepción y complementaridad britannicas Catherine NEVEU Un cierto número de iniciativas existen a nivel europeo, que tienen como objeto constituir redes de asociaciones de inmigrantes. Estas tentativas sin embargo estan confrontadas a dificultades cuando se trata de determinar las categorías de poblaciones a las cuales conviene dirigirse, o los temas centrales de mobilización europea. Dos ejemplos por consiguiente son analizados para ilustrar estas dificultades : el del Fórum de Migrantes, instalado por el Consejo de las Comunidades Europeas, y el de SCORE (UK), lanzado por asociaciones británicas. Más allá de la dificultad en constituir categorías coherentes ante la diversidad de las situaciones en Europa (en términos de poblaciones, de estatus, etc.), la cuestión fundamental que se plantea es la de saber si la problemática central hoy en día es la de la lucha contra el racismo o la de la ciudadanía. Racism or Citizenship in Europe: British Exception and Complementarity Catherine NEVEU Several initiatives have been launched at the European level with the aim of creating migrant associations networks. But these initiatives are often confronted to difficulties when it comes to defining which categories of populations should be included, or the themes for an European-wide mobilisation. Two examples are thus analysed to explain those difficulties: the Migrants Forum set up by the Council of European Communities, and SCORE (UK) launched by British associations. Apart from the difficulty to create coherent categories, considering the variety of situations in Europe (in terms of populations, status, etc.), a more fundamental issue is to discuss whether the central point at stake is the fight against racism, or the fight for citizenship. Neveu Catherine. Citoyenneté et racisme en Europe : exception et complémentarité britanniques. In: Revue européenne des migrations internationales, vol. 10, n°1,1994. Mobilisations des migrants en Europe. Du national au transversal. pp. 95-107.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 1994
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    Revue européenne de migrations internationales
    Article . 1994 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nora Bittner; Christiane Jockwitz; Katja Franke; Christian Gaser; +4 Authors

    Lifestyle may be one source of unexplained variance in the great interindividual variability of the brain in age-related structural differences. While physical and social activity may protect against structural decline, other lifestyle behaviors may be accelerating factors. We examined whether riskier lifestyle correlates with accelerated brain aging using the BrainAGE score in 622 older adults from the 1000BRAINS cohort. Lifestyle was measured using a combined lifestyle risk score, composed of risk (smoking, alcohol intake) and protective variables (social integration and physical activity). We estimated individual BrainAGE from T1-weighted MRI data indicating accelerated brain atrophy by higher values. Then, the effect of combined lifestyle risk and individual lifestyle variables was regressed against BrainAGE. One unit increase in combined lifestyle risk predicted 5.04 months of additional BrainAGE. This prediction was driven by smoking (0.6 additional months of BrainAGE per pack-year) and physical activity (0.55 less months in BrainAGE per metabolic equivalent). Stratification by sex revealed a stronger association between physical activity and BrainAGE in males than females. Overall, our observations may be helpful with regard to lifestyle-related tailored prevention measures that slow changes in brain structure in older adults. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00429-020-02184-6.

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    Brain Structure and Function
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      Brain Structure and Function
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    Authors: Götz Thomalla; Florent Boutitie; Henry Ma; Masatoshi Koga; +220 Authors

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data for trials published before Sept 21, 2020. Randomised trials of intravenous alteplase versus standard of care or placebo in adults with stroke with unknown time of onset with perfusion-diffusion MRI, perfusion CT, or MRI with diffusion weighted imaging-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch were eligible. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome (score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) at 90 days indicating no disability using an unconditional mixed-effect logistic-regression model fitted to estimate the treatment effect. Secondary outcomes were mRS shift towards a better functional outcome and independent outcome (mRS 0-2) at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death, severe disability or death (mRS score 4-6), and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166903. FINDINGS: Of 249 identified abstracts, four trials met our eligibility criteria for inclusion: WAKE-UP, EXTEND, THAWS, and ECASS-4. The four trials provided individual patient data for 843 individuals, of whom 429 (51%) were assigned to alteplase and 414 (49%) to placebo or standard care. A favourable outcome occurred in 199 (47%) of 420 patients with alteplase and in 160 (39%) of 409 patients among controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·49 [95% CI 1·10-2·03]; p=0·011), with low heterogeneity across studies (I(2)=27%). Alteplase was associated with a significant shift towards better functional outcome (adjusted common OR 1·38 [95% CI 1·05-1·80]; p=0·019), and a higher odds of independent outcome (adjusted OR 1·50 [1·06-2·12]; p=0·022). In the alteplase group, 90 (21%) patients were severely disabled or died (mRS score 4-6), compared with 102 (25%) patients in the control group (adjusted OR 0·76 [0·52-1·11]; p=0·15). 27 (6%) patients died in the alteplase group and 14 (3%) patients died among controls (adjusted OR 2·06 [1·03-4·09]; p=0·040). The prevalence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the alteplase group than among controls (11 [3%] vs two [\textless1%], adjusted OR 5·58 [1·22-25·50]; p=0·024). INTERPRETATION: In patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset with a DWI-FLAIR or perfusion mismatch, intravenous alteplase resulted in better functional outcome at 90 days than placebo or standard care. A net benefit was observed for all functional outcomes despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Although there were more deaths with alteplase than placebo, there were fewer cases of severe disability or death. FUNDING: None.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    The Lancet
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    The Lancet
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Lancet
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      The Lancet
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      The Lancet
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      VBN
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      The Lancet
      Article . 2020
      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Teng Leng Ooi; Zijiang J. He;

    Eye dominance refers to the preference to use one eye more than the fellow eye to accomplish a task. However, the dominant eye revealed can be task dependent especially when the tasks are as diverse as instructing the observer to sight a target through a ring, or to report which half-image is perceived more of during binocular rivalry stimulation. Conventionally, the former task is said to reveal motor eye dominance while the latter task reveals sensory eye dominance. While the consensus is that the motor and sensory-dominant eye could be different in some observers, the reason for it is still unclear and has not been much researched. This review mainly focuses on advances made in recent studies of sensory eye dominance. It reviews studies conducted to quantify and relate sensory eye dominance to other visual functions, in particular to stereopsis, as well as studies conducted to explore its plasticity. It is recognized that sensory eye dominance in observers with clinically normal vision shares some similarity with amblyopia at least at the behavioral level, in that both exhibit an imbalance of interocular inhibition. Furthermore, sensory eye dominance is probably manifested at multiple sites along the visual pathway, perhaps including the level of ocular dominance columns. But future studies with high-resolution brain imaging approaches are required to confirm this speculation in the human visual system.

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    Eye and Brain
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Eye and Brain
    Article
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Eye and Brain
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Eye and Brain
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    Authors: Ouhayoun, J.; Rouvier, R.; Delmas, Danièle; Jacquin, C.;

    International audience

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    Annales de Zootechnie
    Article . 1975 . Peer-reviewed
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