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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pinheiro, Ana P.; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Sampaio, Adriana; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; +1 Authors

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder due to microdeletion in chromosome 7, has been described as a syndrome with an intriguing socio-cognitive phenotype. Cognitively, the relative preservation of language and face processing abilities coexists with severe deficits in visual-spatial tasks, as well as in tasks involving abstract reasoning. However, in spite of early claims of the independence of language from general cognition in WS, a detailed investigation of language subcomponents has demonstrated several abnormalities in lexical-semantic processing. Nonetheless, the neurobiological processes underlying language processing in Williams syndrome remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the electrophysiological correlates of semantic processing in WS, taking typical development as a reference. A group of 12 individuals diagnosed with Williams syndrome, with age range between 9 and 31 years, was compared with a group of typically developing participants, individually matched in chronological age, gender and handedness. Participants were presented with sentences that ended with words incongruent (50%) with the previous sentence context or with words judged to be its best completion (50%), and they were asked to decide if the sentence made sense or not. Results in WS suggest atypical sensory ERP components (N100 and P200), preserved N400 amplitude, and abnormal P600 in WS, with the latter being related to late integration and re-analysis processes. These results may represent a physiological signature of underlying impaired on-line language processing in this disorder This research was supported by a Doctoral Grant (SFRH/BD/35882/2007) awarded to the first author, as well as by the grant PIC/IC/83290/2007, both from FCT (Fundação para a Cieˆncia e a Tecnologia), in Portugal.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LAReferencia - Red F...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gemma B. Northam; Sophie Adler; Kathrin C. J. Eschmann; Wui K. Chong; +2 Authors

    ObjectiveImpairment of speech repetition following injury to the dorsal language stream is a feature of conduction aphasia, a well‐described “disconnection syndrome” in adults. The impact of similar lesions sustained in infancy has not been established.MethodsWe compared language outcomes in term‐born individuals with confirmed neonatal stroke (n = 30, age = 7–18 years, left‐sided lesions in 21 cases) to matched controls (n = 40). Injury to the dorsal and/or ventral language streams was assessed using T1‐ and T2‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tractography. Language lateralization was determined using functional MRI.ResultsAt the group level, left dorsal language stream injury was associated with selective speech repetition impairment for nonwords (p = 0.021) and sentences (p < 0.0001). The majority of children with significant repetition impairment had retained left hemisphere language representation, but right hemisphere dominance was correlated with minimal or absent repetition deficits. Post hoc analysis of the repetition‐impaired group revealed additional language‐associated deficits, but these were more subtle and variable.InterpretationWe conclude that (1) despite the considerable plasticity of the infant brain, early dorsal language stream injury can result in specific and long‐lasting problems with speech repetition that are similar to the syndrome of conduction aphasia seen in adults; and (2) language reorganization to the contralateral hemisphere has a protective effect. Ann Neurol 2018;83:664–675 Ann Neurol 2018;83:664–675

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2018
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Other literature type . 2018
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    Annals of Neurology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Annals of Neurology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2018
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      Annals of Neurology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Annals of Neurology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Peeva, M.G.; Tourville, J.A.; Agam, Y.; Holland, B.; +2 Authors

    Impairments in language and communication are core features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and a substantial percentage of children with ASD do not develop speech. ASD is often characterized as a disorder of brain connectivity, and a number of studies have identified white matter impairments in affected individuals. The current study investigated white matter integrity in the speech network of high-functioning adults with ASD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were collected from 18 participants with ASD and 18 neurotypical participants. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate the connection strength between ventral premotor cortex (vPMC), a cortical region responsible for speech motor planning, and five other cortical regions in the network of areas involved in speech production. We found a weaker connection between the left vPMC and the supplementary motor area in the ASD group. This pathway has been hypothesized to underlie the initiation of speech motor programs. Our results indicate that a key pathway in the speech production network is impaired in ASD, and that this impairment can occur even in the presence of normal language abilities. Therapies that result in normalization of this pathway may hold particular promise for improving speech output in ASD. Highlights • We used diffusion tensor imaging to measure white matter (WM) tracts in autism. • Autistic participants were high-functioning individuals with normal language skills. • WM between left supplementary motor and premotor areas is impaired in autism. • This tract is believed to be involved in the initiation of speech articulation. • Speech production may be impaired in the absence of language deficits in autism.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2013
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Giovanni Mento; Antonino Vallesi;

    Temporal orienting (TO) is the allocation of attentional resources in time based on the a priori generation of temporal expectancy of relevant stimuli as well as the a posteriori updating of this expectancy as a function of both sensory-based evidence and elapsing time. These processes rely on dissociable cognitive mechanisms and neural networks. Yet, although there is evidence that TO may be a core mechanism for cognitive functioning in childhood, the developmental spatiotemporal neural dynamics of this mechanism are little understood. In this study we employed a combined approach based on the application of distributed source reconstruction on a high spatial resolution ERP data array obtained from eighteen 8- to 12-year-old children completing a TO paradigm in which both the cue (Temporal vs. Neutral) and the SOA (Short vs. Long) were manipulated. Results show both cue (N1) and SOA (CNV, Omission Detection Potential and Anterior Anticipatory Index) ERP effects, which were associated with expectancy generation and updating, respectively. Only cue-related effects were correlated with age, as revealed by a reduction of the N1 delta effect with increasing age. Our data suggest that the neural correlates underlying TO are already established at least from 8 to 12 years of age. Highlights • 8–12-year-old children can generate and update expectancy over time. • Cue- and SOA-related ERPs reflect expectancy generation and updating, respectively. • Only cue-related ERPs are correlated with age. • Distinct cortical networks underlie cue- and SOA-related ERP effects. • The neural bases of temporal expectation only partially differ in children and adults.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Tiffany A, Ito; Silvia, Tomelleri;

    Abstract Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here, we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either explicitly attending to the race of face primes or directing attention away from their semantic nature. We find a dissociation between the perceptual encoding of race and subsequent activation of associated stereotypes, with race perception occurring in both task conditions, but implicit stereotyping occurring only when attention is directed to the race of the face primes. These results support a clear conceptual distinction between categorization and stereotyping and show that the encoding of racial category need not result in stereotype activation.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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      Article . 2017
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      Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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      Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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    Authors: Michel, Baulac; Hanneke, de Boer; Christian, Elger; Mike, Glynn; +6 Authors

    SummaryThe European Forum on Epilepsy Research (ERF2013), which took place in Dublin, Ireland, on May 26–29, 2013, was designed to appraise epilepsy research priorities in Europe through consultation with clinical and basic scientists as well as representatives of lay organizations and health care providers. The ultimate goal was to provide a platform to improve the lives of persons with epilepsy by influencing the political agenda of the EU. The Forum highlighted the epidemiologic, medical, and social importance of epilepsy in Europe, and addressed three separate but closely related concepts. First, possibilities were explored as to how the stigma and social burden associated with epilepsy could be reduced through targeted initiatives at EU national and regional levels. Second, ways to ensure optimal standards of care throughout Europe were specifically discussed. Finally, a need for further funding in epilepsy research within the European Horizon 2020 funding programme was communicated to politicians and policymakers participating to the forum. Research topics discussed specifically included (1) epilepsy in the developing brain; (2) novel targets for innovative diagnostics and treatment of epilepsy; (3) what is required for prevention and cure of epilepsy; and (4) epilepsy and comorbidities, with a special focus on aging and mental health. This report provides a summary of recommendations that emerged at ERF2013 about how to (1) strengthen epilepsy research, (2) reduce the treatment gap, and (3) reduce the burden and stigma associated with epilepsy.Half of the 6 million European citizens with epilepsy feel stigmatized and experience social exclusion, stressing the need for funding trans‐European awareness campaigns and monitoring their impact on stigma, in line with the global commitment of the European Commission and with the recommendations made in the 2011 Written Declaration on Epilepsy. Epilepsy care has high rates of misdiagnosis and considerable variability in organization and quality across European countries, translating into huge societal cost (0.2% GDP) and stressing the need for cost‐effective programs of harmonization and optimization of epilepsy care throughout Europe. There is currently no cure or prevention for epilepsy, and 30% of affected persons are not controlled by current treatments, stressing the need for pursuing research efforts in the field within Horizon 2020. Priorities should include (1) development of innovative biomarkers and therapeutic targets and strategies, from gene and cell‐based therapies to technologically advanced surgical treatment; (2) addressing issues raised by pediatric and aging populations, as well as by specific etiologies and comorbidities such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive dysfunction, toward more personalized medicine and prevention; and (3) translational studies and clinical trials built upon well‐established European consortia.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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    Epilepsia
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Epilepsia
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Denicolaï, Emilie; Tabouret, Emeline; Colin, Carole; Metellus, Philippe; +7 Authors

    International audience; Glioblastomas in adults are highly heterogeneous tumors that can develop throughout the brain. To date no predictive-location marker has been identified. We previously derived two glioblastoma cell lines from cortical and periventricular locations and demonstrated distinct transcriptomic profiles. Based on these preliminary results, the aim of this study was to correlate glioblastoma locations with the expression of ten selected genes (VEGFC, FLT4, MET, HGF, CHI3L1, PROM1, NOTCH1, DLL3, PDGFRA, BCAN). Fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas were retrospectively included. Tumors were classified into cortical and periventricular locations, which were subsequently segregated according to cerebral lobes involved: cortical fronto-parietal (C-FP), cortical temporal (C-T), periventricular fronto-parietal (PV-FP), periventricular temporal (PV-T), and periventricular occipital (PV-O). Gene expression levels were determined using RT-qPCR. Compared to cortical glioblastomas, periventricular glioblastomas were characterized by a higher expression of two mesenchymal genes, VEGFC (p = 0.001) and HGF (p = 0.001). Among cortical locations, gene expressions were homogeneous. In contrast, periventricular locations exhibited distinct expression profiles. PV-T tumors were associated with higher expression of two proneural and cancer stem cell genes, NOTCH1 (p = 0.028) and PROM1 (p = 0.033) while PV-FP tumors were characterized by high expression of a mesenchymal gene, CHI3L1 (p = 0.006). Protein expression of NOTCH1 was correlated with RNA expression levels. PV-O glioblastomas were associated with lower expression of VEGFC (p = 0.032) than other periventricular locations, whereas MET overexpression remained exceptional. These data suggest a differential gene expression profile according to initial glioblastoma location.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2016
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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    Oncotarget
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2016
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      Other literature type . Article . 2016
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      Oncotarget
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    Authors: Hjalmar Jochem van Ommen; Aurore Thibaut; Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse; Lizette Heine; +5 Authors

    Resistance to eye opening (REO) is a commonly encountered phenomenon in clinical practice. We aim to investigate whether REO is a sign of consciousness or a reflex in severely brain-injured patients. We recorded REO in chronic patients with disorders of consciousness during a multimodal diagnostic assessment. REO evaluations were performed daily in each patient and clinical diagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), minimally conscious state with (MCS+) or without (MCS−) preserved language processing was made using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Out of 150 consecutive patients, 79 patients fit inclusion criteria. REO was seen in 19 patients (24.1%). At the group level, there was a significant relationship between the presence of REO and the level of consciousness. We also observed a difference in the repeatability of REO between patients in UWS, MCS− and MCS+. Out of 23 patients in UWS, six showed REO, in whom five showed atypical brain patterns activation. Our findings suggest a voluntary basis for REO and stress the need for multiple serial assessments of REO in these patients, especially since most patients show fluctuating levels of consciousness.

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    Journal of Neurology
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Neurology
      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Fabien Balezeau; Benjamin P. Wilson; Guillermo Gallardo; Fred Dick; +5 Authors

    The human arcuate fasciculus pathway is crucial for language, interconnecting the posterior temporal and inferior frontal areas. Whether a monkey homolog exists is controversial and the nature of human-specific specialization unclear. Using monkey, ape and human auditory functional fields and diffusion-weighted MRI, we identified homologous pathways originating from the auditory cortex. This discovery establishes a primate auditory prototype for the arcuate fasciculus, reveals an earlier phylogenetic origin and illuminates its remarkable transformation.

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    Nature Neuroscience
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Nature Neuroscience
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hannah Kiesow; Robin I. M. Dunbar; Joseph W. Kable; Tobias Kalenscher; +5 Authors

    In human and nonhuman primates, sex differences typically explain much interindividual variability. Male and female behaviors may have played unique roles in the likely coevolution of increasing brain volume and more complex social dynamics. To explore possible divergence in social brain morphology between men and women living in different social environments, we applied probabilistic generative modeling to ~10,000 UK Biobank participants. We observed strong volume effects especially in the limbic system but also in regions of the sensory, intermediate, and higher association networks. Sex-specific brain volume effects in the limbic system were linked to the frequency and intensity of social contact, such as indexed by loneliness, household size, and social support. Across the processing hierarchy of neural networks, different conditions for social interplay may resonate in and be influenced by brain anatomy in sex-dependent ways. Population variability in social lifestyle is reflected in brain morphology in sex-dependent ways.

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    Article . 2020
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    Authors: Pinheiro, Ana P.; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Sampaio, Adriana; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; +1 Authors

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder due to microdeletion in chromosome 7, has been described as a syndrome with an intriguing socio-cognitive phenotype. Cognitively, the relative preservation of language and face processing abilities coexists with severe deficits in visual-spatial tasks, as well as in tasks involving abstract reasoning. However, in spite of early claims of the independence of language from general cognition in WS, a detailed investigation of language subcomponents has demonstrated several abnormalities in lexical-semantic processing. Nonetheless, the neurobiological processes underlying language processing in Williams syndrome remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the electrophysiological correlates of semantic processing in WS, taking typical development as a reference. A group of 12 individuals diagnosed with Williams syndrome, with age range between 9 and 31 years, was compared with a group of typically developing participants, individually matched in chronological age, gender and handedness. Participants were presented with sentences that ended with words incongruent (50%) with the previous sentence context or with words judged to be its best completion (50%), and they were asked to decide if the sentence made sense or not. Results in WS suggest atypical sensory ERP components (N100 and P200), preserved N400 amplitude, and abnormal P600 in WS, with the latter being related to late integration and re-analysis processes. These results may represent a physiological signature of underlying impaired on-line language processing in this disorder This research was supported by a Doctoral Grant (SFRH/BD/35882/2007) awarded to the first author, as well as by the grant PIC/IC/83290/2007, both from FCT (Fundação para a Cieˆncia e a Tecnologia), in Portugal.

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