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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Dahlen, T.; +25 Authors

    We measure photometric redshifts and spectral types for galaxies in the COSMOS survey. We use template fitting technique combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to simultaneously estimate dust extinction (i.e. E(B-V)) for each galaxy.Our estimated redshifts are accurate to i<25 and z~1.2. Using simulations with sampling and noise characteristics similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios and the number of bands used. From the simulations we find that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the redshift probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. We compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z < 1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on using prior, no prior and/or extinction, we compare the photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for this sample. This corresponds to an rms scatter of 0.031, with a small number of outliers (<2.5%). We also find good agreement (rms=0.10) between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for Type II AGNs. We compare results from our photometric redshift procedure with three other independent codes and find them in excellent agreement. We show preliminary results, based on photometric redshifts for the entire COSMOS sample (to i < 25 mag.). 38 pages; 14 Figures; 7 Tables. Accepted for Publication in ApJS. COSMOS Special Issue

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Caltech Authorsarrow_drop_down
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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Caltech Authors
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    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2006
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2006
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Caltech Authorsarrow_drop_down
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      Caltech Authors
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2006
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Neal, C.; Whitehead, P. G.; Flynn, N.;

    International audience; This contribution brings to a close a special issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences concerning the assessment of nitrogen dynamics in catchments across Europe within a semi-distributed Integrated Nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in Catchments (INCA). The wide range of issues involved in relation to hydrology and within-catchment processes, scale (from small catchments to major river basins), climate (from sub-arctic to Mediterranean regimes) and pollution (atmospheric, agricultural and urban sources) is outlined. Consideration is then given to how well the model has performed and future research requirements are outlined. Keywords: nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, organic nitrogen, catchments, streams, rivers, river basins

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2002
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2002
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      Article . 2002
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Baiesi, M.; Paczuski, M.;

    We invoke a metric to quantify the correlation between any two earthquakes. This provides a simple and straightforward alternative to using space-time windows to detect aftershock sequences and obviates the need to distinguish main shocks from aftershocks. Directed networks of earthquakes are constructed by placing a link, directed from the past to the future, between pairs of events that are strongly correlated. Each link has a weight giving the relative strength of correlation such that the sum over the incoming links to any node equals unity for aftershocks, or zero if the event had no correlated predecessors. A correlation threshold is set to drastically reduce the size of the data set without losing significant information. Events can be aftershocks of many previous events, and also generate many aftershocks. The probability distribution for the number of incoming and outgoing links are both scale free, and the networks are highly clustered. The Omori law holds for aftershock rates up to a decorrelation time that scales with the magnitude, $m$, of the initiating shock as $t_{\rm cutoff} \sim 10^{\beta m}$ with $\beta \simeq 3/4$. Another scaling law relates distances between earthquakes and their aftershocks to the magnitude of the initiating shock. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of finite aftershock zones. We also find evidence that seismicity is dominantly triggered by small earthquakes. Our approach, using concepts from the modern theory of complex networks, together with a metric to estimate correlations, opens up new avenues of research, as well as new tools to understand seismicity. Comment: 12 pages, 12 figures, revtex4

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nonlinear Processes ...arrow_drop_down
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    Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2005
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    Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2004
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nonlinear Processes ...arrow_drop_down
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      Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2005
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      Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2004
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    Authors: Diana Rose; Birgit Wehner; Matthias Ketzel; C. Engler; +3 Authors

    International audience; Number fractions of externally mixed particles of four different sizes (30, 50, 80, and 150 nm in diameter) were measured using a Volatility Tandem DMA. The system was operated in a street canyon (Eisenbahnstrasse, EI) and at an urban background site (Institute for Tropospheric Research, IfT), both in the city of Leipzig, Germany as well as at a rural site (Melpitz (ME), a village near Leipzig). Intensive campaigns of 3?5 weeks each took place in summer 2003 as well as in winter 2003/2004. The data set thus obtained provides mean number fractions of externally mixed soot particles of atmospheric aerosols in differently polluted areas and different seasons (e.g. at 80 nm on working days, 60% (EI), 22% (IfT), and 6% (ME) in summer and 26% (IfT), and 13% (ME) in winter). Furthermore, a new method is used to calculate the size distribution of these externally mixed soot particles from parallel number size distribution measurements. A decrease of the externally mixed soot fraction with decreasing urbanity and a diurnal variation linked to the daily traffic changes demonstrate, that the traffic emissions have a significant impact on the soot fraction in urban areas. This influence becomes less in rural areas, due to atmospheric mixing and transformation processes. For estimating the source strength of soot particles emitted by vehicles (veh), soot particle emission factors were calculated using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The emission factor for an average vehicle was found to be (1.5±0.4)·1014 #/(km·veh). The separation of the emission factor into passenger cars ((5.8±2)·1013 #/(km·veh)) and trucks ((2.5±0.9)·1015 #/(km·veh)) yielded in a 40-times higher emission factor for trucks compared to passenger cars.

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    Other literature type . 2006
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    Other literature type . 2005
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-5...
    Preprint . 2005
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-5...
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    Authors: Spirig, C.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J. P.; Calanca, P.; +1 Authors

    Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed at Hyytiälä, a Boreal forest site in Southern Finland as part of the OSOA (origin and formation of secondary organic aerosol) project in August 2001. At this site, frequent formation of new particles has been observed and the role of biogenic VOCs in this process is still unclear. Tethered balloons served as platforms to collect VOC samples within the planetary boundary layer at heights up to 1.2 km above ground during daytime. Mean mixed layer concentrations of total monoterpenes varied between 10 and 170 pptv, with a-pinene, limonene and D3-carene as major compounds, isoprene was detected at levels of 2-35 pptv. A mixed layer gradient technique and a budget approach are applied to derive surface fluxes representative for areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometres. Effects of spatial heterogeneity in surface emissions are examined with a footprint analysis. Depending on the source area considered, mean afternoon emissions of the sum of terpenes range between 180 and 300 mg m-2 h-1 for the period of 2-12 August 2001. Surface fluxes close to Hyytiälä were higher than the regional average, and agree well with mean emissions predicted by a biogenic VOC emission model. Total rates of monoterpene oxidation were calculated with a photochemical model. The rates did not correlate with the occurrence of new particle formation, but the ozone pathway was of more importance on days with particle formation. Condensable vapour production from the oxidation of monoterpenes throughout the mixed layer can only account for a fraction of the increase in aerosol mass observed at the surface. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4 (1) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-3...
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Authors: Z. Y. Pu; Z. Y. Pu; R. H. W. Friedel; A. Korth; +4 Authors

    The flux asymmetries measured by spectrometers on board spacecraft contain information on particle parameters. The net flux intensity (NFI) method provides a tool to evaluate these parameters. The NFI method is valid when both the spin period of the spacecraft and the time resolution of the particle spectrometers are much shorter than the characteristic time-scale of the particle flux variations. We apply the NFI analysis to the flux asymmetry measurements made by GEOS 2 at the nightside geosynchronous orbit in the late substorm growth phase. The cross-tail current of energetic ions, their pressure gradient and average drift velocity, as well as a field-aligned flows are investigated. Current disruption at substorm onset and the "convection surge" mechanism during dipolarization of the magnetic field are directly observed.<br><br><b>Key words.</b> Flux asymmetry · Net flux intensity · GEOS 2 · Energetic particles</p>

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annales Geophysicae
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    Annales Geophysicae
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    Authors: Lasserre, F.; Cautenet, G.; Bouet, Christel; Dong, X.; +4 Authors

    International audience; In order to assess the complex mixing of atmospheric anthropogenic and natural pollutants over the East Asian region, we propose to take into account the main aerosols simultaneously present over China, Korea and Japan during the spring season. With the mesoscale RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) tool, we present a simulation of natural (desert) dust events along with some of the most critical anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: sulphur elements (SO2 and SO42-) and Black Carbon (BC). During a 2-week case study of dust events which occurred in April 2005 over an area extending from the Gobi deserts to the Japan surroundings, we retrieve the behaviours of the different aerosols plumes. We focus on possible dust mixing with the anthropogenic pollutants from megalopolis. For both natural and anthropogenic pollution, the model results are in general agreement with the horizontal and vertical distributions of concentrations as measured by remote data, in situ LIDAR, PM10 data and literature. In particular, we show that a simplified chemistry approach of this complex issue can be efficient enough to model this event, with a real-time step of 3 h. The model provides the good shapes and orders of magnitude for the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and species contributions (via the Angström Exponent) when compared with the AERONET data.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-7...
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      https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-7...
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    Authors: Loulergue, L.; Parrenin, F.; Blunier, T.; Barnola, J.-M.; +4 Authors

    International audience; Gas is trapped in polar ice sheets at ~50–120 m below the surface and is therefore younger than the surrounding ice. Firn densification models are used to evaluate this ice age-gas age difference (?age) in the past. However, such models need to be validated by data, in particular for periods colder than present day on the East Antarctic plateau. Here we bring new constraints to test a firn densification model applied to the EPICA Dome C (EDC) site for the last 50 kyr, by linking the EDC ice core to the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) ice core, both in the ice phase (using volcanic horizons) and in the gas phase (using rapid methane variations). We also use the structured 10Be peak, occurring 41 kyr before present (BP) and due to the low geomagnetic field associated with the Laschamp event, to experimentally estimate the ?age during this event. Our results seem to reveal an overestimate of the ?age by the firn densification model during the last glacial period at EDC. Tests with different accumulation rates and temperature scenarios do not entirely resolve this discrepancy. Although the exact reasons for the ?age overestimate at the two EPICA sites remain unknown at this stage, we conclude that current densification model simulations have deficits under glacial climatic conditions. Whatever the cause of the ?age overestimate, our finding suggests that the phase relationship between CO2 and EDC temperature previously inferred for the start of the last deglaciation (lag of CO2 by 800±600 yr) seems to be overestimated.

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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2007
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cpd-3-...
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    Authors: Beelen, A.; Cox, P.; Pety, J.; Carilli, C. L.; +5 Authors

    We report the detection of CO emission from the optically luminous, radio-quiet quasar J140955.5+562827, at a redshift z_CO =2.583. We also present VLA continuum mapping results and VLBA high spatial resolution observations at 1.4 GHz. Both the CO(3-2) and CO(7-6) emission lines are detected using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. The 3-2/7-6 line luminosity ratio is about 1/3 indicating the presence of warm and dense molecular gas with an estimated mass of 6x10^10 Msun. The infrared-to-CO luminosity ratio is L_FIR/L'_CO(1-0) \approx 500 Lsun (Kkms^-1 pc^2)^-1,comparable with values found for other high-z sources where CO line emission is seen. J1409+5628 is detected using the VLA with a 1.4 GHz rest-frame luminosity density of 4.0x10^25 W Hz^-1. The radio to far-infrared ratio, q, has a value of 2.0 which is consistent with the values found in star forming galaxies. At the 30 mas resolution of the VLBA, J1409+5628 is not detected with a 4 sigma upper limit to the surface brightness of 0.29 mJy beam^-1. This implies a limit to the intrinsic brightness temperature of 2x10^5 K at 8 GHz, typical for nuclear starbursts and two or more orders of magnitude weaker than typical radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Both the properties of the CO line emission and the radio emission from J1409+5628 are therefore consistent with those expected for a star forming galaxy. In J1409+5628 young massive stars are the dominant source of dust heating, accounting for most of the infrared luminosity, and the massive reservoir of molecular gas can sustain the star formation rate of a few 1000 \Msun yr^-1 implied by the far-infrared luminosity for about 10 million years. Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A, figures available in color

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Pavlakis, K. G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Matsoukas, C.; Drakakis, E.; +2 Authors

    International audience; Downwelling longwave fluxes, DLFs, have been derived for each month over a ten year period (1984-1993), on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 2.5x2.5 degrees and a monthly temporal resolution. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite and reanalysis data for the key atmospheric input parameters, i.e. cloud properties, and specific humidity and temperature profiles. The cloud climatologies were taken from the latest released and improved International Satellite Climatology Project D2 series. Specific humidity and temperature vertical profiles were taken from three different reanalysis datasets; NCEP/NCAR, GEOS, and ECMWF (acronyms explained in main text). DLFs were computed for each reanalysis dataset, with differences reaching values as high as 30 Wm-2 in specific regions, particularly over high altitude areas and deserts. However, globally, the agreement is good, with the rms of the difference between the DLFs derived from the different reanalysis datasets ranging from 5 to 7 Wm-2. The results are presented as geographical distributions and as time series of hemispheric and global averages. The DLF time series based on the different reanalysis datasets show similar seasonal and inter-annual variations, and similar anomalies related to the 86/87 El Niño and 89/90 La Niña events. The global ten-year average of the DLF was found to be between 342.2 Wm-2 and 344.3 Wm-2, depending on the dataset. We also conducted a detailed sensitivity analysis of the calculated DLFs to the key input data. Plots are given that can be used to obtain a quick assessment of the sensitivity of the DLF to each of the three key climatic quantities, for specific climatic conditions corresponding to different regions of the globe. Our model downwelling fluxes are validated against available data from ground-based stations distributed over the globe, as given by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network. There is a negative bias of the model fluxes when compared against BSRN fluxes, ranging from -7 to -9 Wm-2, mostly caused by low cloud amount differences between the station and satellite measurements, particularly in cold climates. Finally, we compare our model results with those of other deterministic models and general circulation models.

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    https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-3...
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