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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Dahlen, T.; +25 Authors

    We measure photometric redshifts and spectral types for galaxies in the COSMOS survey. We use template fitting technique combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to simultaneously estimate dust extinction (i.e. E(B-V)) for each galaxy.Our estimated redshifts are accurate to i<25 and z~1.2. Using simulations with sampling and noise characteristics similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios and the number of bands used. From the simulations we find that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the redshift probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. We compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z < 1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on using prior, no prior and/or extinction, we compare the photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for this sample. This corresponds to an rms scatter of 0.031, with a small number of outliers (<2.5%). We also find good agreement (rms=0.10) between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for Type II AGNs. We compare results from our photometric redshift procedure with three other independent codes and find them in excellent agreement. We show preliminary results, based on photometric redshifts for the entire COSMOS sample (to i < 25 mag.). 38 pages; 14 Figures; 7 Tables. Accepted for Publication in ApJS. COSMOS Special Issue

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    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2006
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2006
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Caltech Authorsarrow_drop_down
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      The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2006
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    Authors: Spirig, C.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J. P.; Calanca, P.; +1 Authors

    Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed at Hyytiälä, a Boreal forest site in Southern Finland as part of the OSOA (origin and formation of secondary organic aerosol) project in August 2001. At this site, frequent formation of new particles has been observed and the role of biogenic VOCs in this process is still unclear. Tethered balloons served as platforms to collect VOC samples within the planetary boundary layer at heights up to 1.2 km above ground during daytime. Mean mixed layer concentrations of total monoterpenes varied between 10 and 170 pptv, with a-pinene, limonene and D3-carene as major compounds, isoprene was detected at levels of 2-35 pptv. A mixed layer gradient technique and a budget approach are applied to derive surface fluxes representative for areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometres. Effects of spatial heterogeneity in surface emissions are examined with a footprint analysis. Depending on the source area considered, mean afternoon emissions of the sum of terpenes range between 180 and 300 mg m-2 h-1 for the period of 2-12 August 2001. Surface fluxes close to Hyytiälä were higher than the regional average, and agree well with mean emissions predicted by a biogenic VOC emission model. Total rates of monoterpene oxidation were calculated with a photochemical model. The rates did not correlate with the occurrence of new particle formation, but the ozone pathway was of more importance on days with particle formation. Condensable vapour production from the oxidation of monoterpenes throughout the mixed layer can only account for a fraction of the increase in aerosol mass observed at the surface. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4 (1) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    Other literature type . 2003
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-3...
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2004
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Opin visindi
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2020
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2020
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Chetehouna, Khaled; Barboni, Toussaint; Zarguili, I.; Leoni, Eric; +2 Authors

    An experimental study is conducted on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Rosmarinus officinalis plants when exposed to an external radiant flux. The thermal radiation heats the plant and causes the emission of VOCs. The thermal radiation simulates the radiant flux received by vegetation in a forest fire. The results of the experiments are used in a simplified analysis to determine if the emissions of VOCs in an actual forest fire situation could produce a flammable gas mixture and potentially lead to the onset of an accelerating forest fire. The experiments consist of placing a plant in a hermetic enclosure and heating it with a radiant panel. The VOCs produced are collected and analyzed with an automatic thermal desorber coupled with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (ATD-GC/MS). The effects of the fire intensity (radiant panel heat flux) and the fire retardant on the VOCs emission are then investigated. Two thresholds of the VOCs emission are observed. The first is for plant temperatures of around 120 degrees C and appears to be caused by the evaporation of the water in the plant, which carries with it a certain amount of VOCs. The second one is around 175 degrees C, which is due to the vaporization of the major parts of VOCs. The application of a fire retardant increases the emission of VOCs due to the presence of the water (80%) in the fire retardant. However, the use of the retardant results in a lower production of VOCs than using water alone. The measurements are used to estimate the concentration of VOCs potentially produced during the propagation of a specific fire and compared to the flammability limits of a-pinene. It is concluded that the quantities of VOCs emitted by Rosmarinus officinalis shrubs under certain fire conditions are capable of creating an accelerating forest fire.

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    Combustion Science and Technology
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2009
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    Authors: Chisham, G.; Freeman, M. P.; Sotirelis, T.; Greenwald, R. A.; +2 Authors

    The open-closed magnetic field line boundary (OCB) is best measured at the foot points of the boundary in the Earth's ionosphere where continuous and extensive spatiotemporal measurements can be made. The ability to make routine observations of this type is crucial if accurate global measurements of energy transfer processes occurring at the boundary, such as magnetic reconnection, are to become a reality. The spectral width boundary (SWB) measured by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) has been shown to be a reliable ionospheric proxy for the OCB at certain magnetic local times (MLTs). However, the reliability of the SWB proxy in the afternoon sector ionosphere (12:00-18:00 MLT) has been questionable. In this paper we undertake a statistical comparison of the latitudinal locations of SWBs measured by SuperDARN and particle precipitation boundaries (PPBs) measured by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, concentrating on the PPB which best approximates the location of the OCB. The latitudes of SWBs and PPBs were identified using automated algorithms applied to 5 years (1997-2001) of data measured in the 12:00-18:00 MLT range. A latitudinal difference was measured between each PPB and the nearest SWB within a ±10 min universal time (UT) window and within a ±1 h MLT window. The results show that when the SWB is identified at higher geomagnetic latitudes (poleward of ~74), it is a good proxy for the OCB, with 76% of SWBs lying within 3 of the OCB. At lower geomagnetic latitudes (equatorward of ~74), the correlation is poor and the results suggest that most of the SWBs being identified represent ionospheric variations unassociated with the OCB, with only 32% of SWBs lying within 3 of the OCB. We propose that the low level of precipitating electron energy flux, typical of latitudes well equatorward of the OCB in the afternoon sector, may be a factor in enhancing spectral width values at these lower latitudes. A consequence of this would be low latitude SWBs unrelated to the OCB.

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    Annales Geophysicae
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2005
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
    Other literature type . 2018
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      Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2005
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Beelen, A.; Cox, P.; Pety, J.; Carilli, C. L.; +5 Authors

    We report the detection of CO emission from the optically luminous, radio-quiet quasar J140955.5+562827, at a redshift z_CO =2.583. We also present VLA continuum mapping results and VLBA high spatial resolution observations at 1.4 GHz. Both the CO(3-2) and CO(7-6) emission lines are detected using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. The 3-2/7-6 line luminosity ratio is about 1/3 indicating the presence of warm and dense molecular gas with an estimated mass of 6x10^10 Msun. The infrared-to-CO luminosity ratio is L_FIR/L'_CO(1-0) \approx 500 Lsun (Kkms^-1 pc^2)^-1,comparable with values found for other high-z sources where CO line emission is seen. J1409+5628 is detected using the VLA with a 1.4 GHz rest-frame luminosity density of 4.0x10^25 W Hz^-1. The radio to far-infrared ratio, q, has a value of 2.0 which is consistent with the values found in star forming galaxies. At the 30 mas resolution of the VLBA, J1409+5628 is not detected with a 4 sigma upper limit to the surface brightness of 0.29 mJy beam^-1. This implies a limit to the intrinsic brightness temperature of 2x10^5 K at 8 GHz, typical for nuclear starbursts and two or more orders of magnitude weaker than typical radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Both the properties of the CO line emission and the radio emission from J1409+5628 are therefore consistent with those expected for a star forming galaxy. In J1409+5628 young massive stars are the dominant source of dust heating, accounting for most of the infrared luminosity, and the massive reservoir of molecular gas can sustain the star formation rate of a few 1000 \Msun yr^-1 implied by the far-infrared luminosity for about 10 million years. Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A, figures available in color

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    Other literature type . Article . 2004
    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2004
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    Authors: Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Puig, Kendra L.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.; +1 Authors

    Exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter, results in activation of the brain inflammatory response and Alzheimer disease (AD)-like pathology in dogs and humans. However, the length of time required for inhalation of ambient particulate matter to influence brain inflammation and AD pathology is less clear. Here, we studied the effect of 3 and 9 months of air particulate matter (<2.5 μm diameter, PM2.5) exposure on brain inflammatory phenotype and pathological hallmarks of AD in C57BL/6 mice. Using western blot, ELISA, and cytokine array analysis we quantified brain APP, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE), oligomeric protein, total Aβ 1–40 and Aβ 1–42 levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, HNE-Michael adducts, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), glial markers (GFAP, Iba-1), pre- and post- synaptic markers (synaptophysin and PSD-95), cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) levels, and the cytokine profile in PM2.5 exposed and filtered air control mice. Only 9 month PM2.5 exposure increased BACE protein levels, APP processing, and Aβ 1–40 levels. This correlated with a concomitant increase in COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels and a modest alteration in the cytokine profile. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to airborne particulate matter has the potential to alter brain inflammatory phenotype and promote development of early AD-like pathology.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2015
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: S. M. Ward; E. R. Humphreys; B. W. Heumann; P. M. Lafleur; +4 Authors

    We used satellite remote sensing data; fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (fPAR) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in combination with tower eddy covariance and meteorological measurements to characterise the Light Use Efficiency parameter (ε) variability and the maximum ε (εmax) for two contrasting Canadian peatlands. Eight-day MODIS fPAR data were acquired for the Mer Bleue (2000 to 2003) and Western Peatland (2004). Flux tower eddy covariance and meteorological measurements were integrated to the same eight-day time stamps as the MODIS fPAR data. A light use efficiency model: GPP = ε×APAR (where GPP is Gross Primary Productivity and APAR is absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) was used to calculate ε. The εmax value for each year (2000 to 2003) at the Mer Bleue bog ranged from 0.58 g C MJ−1 to 0.78 g C MJ−1 and was 0.91 g C MJ−1 in 2004, for the Western Peatland. The average growing season ε for the Mer Bleue bog for the four year period was 0.35 g C MJ−1 and for the Western Peatland in 2004 was 0.57 g C MJ−1. The average snow free period for the Mer Bleue bog over the four years was 0.27 g C MJ−1 and for the Western Peatland in 2004 was 0.39 g C MJ−1. Using the light use efficiency method we calculated the εmax and the annual variability in ε for two Canadian peatlands. We determined that temperature was a growth-limiting factor at both sites Vapour Pressure Deficit (VPD) however was not. MODIS fPAR is a useful tool for the characterization of ε at flux tower sites.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2009
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    Article . 2008
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2009
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    Authors: Travis Beckwith; Kim M. Cecil; Mekibib Altaye; Rachel Severs; +7 Authors

    Early life exposure to air pollution poses a significant risk to brain development from direct exposure to toxicants or via indirect mechanisms involving the circulatory, pulmonary or gastrointestinal systems. In children, exposure to traffic related air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on cognitive, behavioral and psychomotor development. We aimed to determine whether childhood exposure to traffic related air pollution is associated with regional differences in brain volume and cortical thickness among children enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of traffic related air pollution and child health. We used magnetic resonance imaging to obtain anatomical brain images from a nested subset of 12 year old participants characterized with either high or low levels of traffic related air pollution exposure during their first year of life. We employed voxel-based morphometry to examine group differences in regional brain volume, and with separate analyses, changes in cortical thickness. Smaller regional gray matter volumes were determined in the left pre- and post-central gyri, the cerebellum, and inferior parietal lobe of participants in the high traffic related air pollution exposure group relative to participants with low exposure. Reduced cortical thickness was observed in participants with high exposure relative to those with low exposure, primarily in sensorimotor regions of the brain including the pre- and post-central gyri and the paracentral lobule, but also within the frontal and limbic regions. These results suggest that significant childhood exposure to traffic related air pollution is associated with structural alterations in brain.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020
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      PLoS ONE
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: K. Oksavik; K. Oksavik; K. Oksavik; F. Søraas; +6 Authors

    Abstract. In this paper we discuss counterstreaming electrons, electric field turbulence, HF radar spectral width enhancements, and field-aligned currents in the southward IMF cusp region. Electric field and particle observations from the FAST spacecraft are compared with CUTLASS Finland spectral width enhancements and ground-based optical data from Svalbard during a meridional crossing of the cusp. The observed 630nm rayed arc (Type-1 cusp aurora) is associated with stepped cusp ion signatures. Simultaneous counterstreaming low-energy electrons on open magnetic field lines lead us to propose that such electrons may be an important source for rayed red arcs through pitch angle scattering in collisions with the upper atmosphere. The observed particle precipitation and electric field turbulence are found to be nearly collocated with the equatorward edge of the optical cusp, in a region where CUTLASS Finland also observed enhanced spectral width. The electric field turbulence is observed to extend far poleward of the optical cusp. The broad-band electric field turbulence corresponds to spatial scale lengths down to 5m. Therefore, we suggest that electric field irregularities are directly responsible for the formation of HF radar backscatter targets and may also explain the observed wide spectra. FAST also encountered two narrow highly structured field-aligned current pairs flowing near the edges of cusp ion steps. Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents). Magnetosphere physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; auroral phenomena)

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2004
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    Annales Geophysicae
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      Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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