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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shannon M, Boucousis; Craig A, Beers; Cameron J B, Cunningham; Ismael, Gaxiola-Valdez; +3 Authors

    Integrating intracranial EEG (iEEG) with functional MRI (iEEG-fMRI) may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the generation of seizures. However, the introduction of iEEG electrodes in the MR environment has inherent risk and data quality implications that require consideration prior to clinical use. Previous studies of subdural and depth electrodes have confirmed low risk under specific circumstances at 1.5T and 3T. However, no studies have assessed risk and image quality related to the feasibility of a full iEEG-fMRI protocol. To this end, commercially available platinum subdural grid/strip electrodes (4×5 grid or 1×8 strip) and 4 or 6-contact depth electrodes were secured to the surface of a custom-made phantom mimicking the conductivity of the human brain. Electrode displacement, temperature increase of electrodes and surrounding phantom material, and voltage fluctuations in electrode contacts were measured in a GE Discovery MR750 3T MR scanner during a variety of imaging sequences, typical of an iEEG-fMRI protocol. An electrode grid was also used to quantify the spatial extent of susceptibility artifact. The spatial extent of susceptibility artifact in the presence of an electrode was also assessed for typical imaging parameters that maximize BOLD sensitivity at 3T (TR=1500 ms; TE=30 ms; slice thickness=4mm; matrix=64×64; field-of-view=24 cm). Under standard conditions, all electrodes exhibited no measurable displacement and no clinically significant temperature increase (1°C) during scans employed in a typical iEEG-fMRI experiment, including 60 min of continuous fMRI. However, high SAR sequences, such as fast spin-echo (FSE), produced significant heating in almost all scenarios (2.0°C) that in some cases exceeded 10°C. Induced voltages in the frequency range that could elicit neuronal stimulation (10 kHz) were well below the threshold of 100 mV. fMRI signal intensity was significantly reduced within 20mm of the electrodes for the imaging parameters used in this study. Thus, for the conditions tested, a full iEEG-fMRI protocol poses a low risk at 3T; however, fMRI sensitivity may be reduced immediately adjacent to the electrodes. In addition, high SAR sequences must be avoided.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2011
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2011
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Neal C, Burton; Manishkumar, Patel; Stefan, Morscher; Wouter H P, Driessen; +7 Authors

    Brain research depends strongly on imaging for assessing function and disease in vivo. We examine herein multispectral opto-acoustic tomography (MSOT), a novel technology for high-resolution molecular imaging deep inside tissues. MSOT illuminates tissue with light pulses at multiple wavelengths and detects the acoustic waves generated by the thermoelastic expansion of the environment surrounding absorbing molecules. Using spectral unmixing analysis of the data collected, MSOT can then differentiate the spectral signatures of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of photo-absorbing agents and quantify their concentration. By being able to detect absorbing molecules up to centimeters deep in the tissue it represents an ideal modality for small animal brain imaging, simultaneously providing anatomical, hemodynamic, functional, and molecular information. In this work we examine the capacity of MSOT in cross-sectional brain imaging of mice. We find unprecedented optical imaging performance in cross-sectional visualization of anatomical and physiological parameters of the mouse brain. For example, the potential of MSOT to characterize ischemic brain areas was demonstrated through the use of a carbon dioxide challenge. In addition, indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously, and the kinetics of uptake and clearance in the vasculature of the brain was visualized in real-time. We further found that multiparameter, multispectral imaging of the growth of U87 tumor cells injected into the brain could be visualized through the intact mouse head, for example through visualization of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the growing tumor. We also demonstrate how MSOT offers several compelling features for brain research and allows time-dependent detection and quantification of brain parameters that are not available using other imaging methods without invasive procedures.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claes Nøhr Ladefoged; Ian Law; Udunna C. Anazodo; Keith St. Lawrence; +24 Authors

    Aim: To accurately quantify the radioactivity concentration measured by PET, emission data need to be corrected for photon attenuation; however, the MRI signal cannot easily be converted into attenuation values, making attenuation correction (AC) in PET/MRI challenging. In order to further improve the current vendor-implemented MR-AC methods for absolute quantification, a number of prototype methods have been proposed in the literature. These can be categorized into three types: template/atlas-based, segmentation-based, and reconstruction-based. These proposed methods in general demonstrated improvements compared to vendor-implemented AC, and many studies report deviations in PET uptake after AC of only a few percent from a gold standard CT-AC. Using a unified quantitative evaluation with identical metrics, subject cohort, and common CT-based reference, the aims of this study were to evaluate a selection of novel methods proposed in the literature, and identify the ones suitable for clinical use. Methods: In total, 11 AC methods were evaluated: two vendor-implemented (MR-ACDIXON and MR-ACUTE), five based on template/atlas information (MR-ACSEGBONE (Koesters et al., 2016), MR-ACONTARIO (Anazodo et al., 2014), MR-ACBOSTON (Izquierdo-Garcia et al., 2014), MR-ACUCL (Burgos et al., 2014), and MR-ACMAXPROB (Merida et al., 2015)), one based on simultaneous reconstruction of attenuation and emission (MR-ACMLAA (Benoit et al., 2015)), and three based on image-segmentation (MR-ACMUNICH (Cabello et al., 2015), MR-ACCAR-RiDR (Juttukonda et al., 2015), and MR-ACRESOLUTE (Ladefoged et al., 2015)). We selected 359 subjects who were scanned using one of the following radiotracers: [18F]FDG (210), [11C]PiB (51), and [18F]florbetapir (98). The comparison to AC with a gold standard CT was performed both globally and regionally, with a special focus on robustness and outlier analysis. Results: The average performance in PET tracer uptake was within ±5% of CT for all of the proposed methods, with the average±SD global percentage bias in PET FDG uptake for each method being: MR-ACDIXON (−11.3±3.5)%, MR-ACUTE (−5.7±2.0)%, MR-ACONTARIO (−4.3±3.6)%, MR-ACMUNICH (3.7±2.1)%, MR-ACMLAA (−1.9±2.6)%, MR-ACSEGBONE (−1.7±3.6)%, MR-ACUCL (0.8±1.2)%, MR-ACCAR-RiDR (−0.4±1.9)%, MR-ACMAXPROB (−0.4±1.6)%, MR-ACBOSTON (−0.3±1.8)%, and MR-ACRESOLUTE (0.3±1.7)%, ordered by average bias. The overall best performing methods (MR-ACBOSTON, MR-ACMAXPROB, MR-ACRESOLUTE and MR-ACUCL, ordered alphabetically) showed regional average errors within ±3% of PET with CT-AC in all regions of the brain with FDG, and the same four methods, as well as MR-ACCAR-RiDR, showed that for 95% of the patients, 95% of brain voxels had an uptake that deviated by less than 15% from the reference. Comparable performance was obtained with PiB and florbetapir. Conclusions: All of the proposed novel methods have an average global performance within likely acceptable limits (±5% of CT-based reference), and the main difference among the methods was found in the robustness, outlier analysis, and clinical feasibility. Overall, the best performing methods were MR-ACBOSTON, MR-ACMAXPROB, MR-ACRESOLUTE and MR-ACUCL, ordered alphabetically. These methods all minimized the number of outliers, standard deviation, and average global and local error. The methods MR-ACMUNICH and MR-ACCAR-RiDR were both within acceptable quantitative limits, so these methods should be considered if processing time is a factor. The method MR-ACSEGBONE also demonstrates promising results, and performs well within the likely acceptable quantitative limits. For clinical routine scans where processing time can be a key factor, this vendor-provided solution currently outperforms most methods. With the performance of the methods presented here, it may be concluded that the challenge of improving the accuracy of MR-AC in adult brains with normal anatomy has been solved to a quantitatively acceptable degree, which is smaller than the quantification reproducibility in PET imaging.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NeuroImage
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    UNC Dataverse
    Article . 2017
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    Article . 2017
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    Conference object . 2016
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      NeuroImage
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UNC Dataverse
      Article . 2017
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2017
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      Hal-Diderot
      Conference object . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rok Berlot; Claudia Metzler-Baddeley; Derek K. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan;

    Diffusion MRI is used widely to probe microstructural alterations in neurological and psychiatric disease. However, ageing and neurodegeneration are also associated with atrophy, which leads to artefacts through partial volume effects due to cerebrospinal-fluid contamination (CSFC). The aim of this study was to explore the influence of CSFC on apparent microstructural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at several spatial levels: individually reconstructed tracts; at the level of a whole white matter skeleton (tract-based spatial statistics); and histograms derived from all white matter. 25 individuals with MCI and 20 matched controls underwent diffusion MRI. We corrected for CSFC using a post-acquisition voxel-by-voxel approach of free-water elimination. Tracts varied in their susceptibility to CSFC. The apparent pattern of tract involvement in disease shifted when correction was applied. Both spurious group differences, driven by CSFC, and masking of true differences were observed. Tract-based spatial statistics were found to be robust across much of the skeleton but with some localised CSFC effects. Diffusivity measures were affected disproportionately in MCI, and group differences in fornix microstructure were exaggerated. Group differences in white matter histogram measures were also partly driven by CSFC. For diffusivity measures, up to two thirds of observed group differences were due to CSFC. Our results demonstrate that CSFC has an impact on quantitative differences between MCI and controls. Furthermore, it affects the apparent spatial pattern of white matter involvement. Free-water elimination provides a step towards disentangling intrinsic and volumetric alterations in individuals prone to atrophy. Highlights • We examine the effect of CSFC on perceived microstructural alterations in MCI. • We correct for CSFC with free-water elimination and assess at three spatial levels. • The pattern of individual tract involvement is shifted due to CSFC. • TBSS is robust to CSFC in much of the skeleton. • Group differences in white matter diffusion histograms are partly driven by CSFC. Graphical abstract

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Ville Raatikainen; Niko Huotari; Vesa Korhonen; Aleksi Rasila; +6 Authors

    This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach. A rigorous noise exclusion criterion was applied for tICs to remove physiological pulsations, motion and system artefacts. All the de-noised tICs were used to calculate the null-distributions both for expected lag variability over time and over subjects. Lag analysis was done for the three highest correlating denoised tICA pairs. Mean time lag of 0.6s (± 0.5 std) and mean absolute correlation of 0.69 (± 0.08) between the highest correlating tICA pairs of DMN nodes was observed throughout the whole analyzed period. In dynamic 2min window analysis, there was large variability over subjects as ranging between 1-10sec. Directionality varied between these highly correlating sources an average 28.8% of the possible number of direction changes. The null models show highly consistent correlation and lag structure between DMN nodes both in continuous and dynamic analysis. The mean time lag of a null-model over time between all denoised DMN nodes was 0.0s and, thus the probability of having either DMNpcc or DMNvmpf as a preceding component is near equal. All the lag values of highest correlating tICA pairs over subjects lie within the standard deviation range of a null-model in whole time window analysis, supporting the earlier findings that there is a consistent temporal lag structure across groups of individuals. However, in dynamic analysis, there are lag values exceeding the threshold of significance of a null-model meaning that there might be biologically meaningful variation in this measure. Taken together the variability in lag and the presence of high activity peaks during strong connectivity indicate that individual avalanches may play an important role in defining dynamic independence in resting state connectivity within networks.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shannon M, Boucousis; Craig A, Beers; Cameron J B, Cunningham; Ismael, Gaxiola-Valdez; +3 Authors

    Integrating intracranial EEG (iEEG) with functional MRI (iEEG-fMRI) may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the generation of seizures. However, the introduction of iEEG electrodes in the MR environment has inherent risk and data quality implications that require consideration prior to clinical use. Previous studies of subdural and depth electrodes have confirmed low risk under specific circumstances at 1.5T and 3T. However, no studies have assessed risk and image quality related to the feasibility of a full iEEG-fMRI protocol. To this end, commercially available platinum subdural grid/strip electrodes (4×5 grid or 1×8 strip) and 4 or 6-contact depth electrodes were secured to the surface of a custom-made phantom mimicking the conductivity of the human brain. Electrode displacement, temperature increase of electrodes and surrounding phantom material, and voltage fluctuations in electrode contacts were measured in a GE Discovery MR750 3T MR scanner during a variety of imaging sequences, typical of an iEEG-fMRI protocol. An electrode grid was also used to quantify the spatial extent of susceptibility artifact. The spatial extent of susceptibility artifact in the presence of an electrode was also assessed for typical imaging parameters that maximize BOLD sensitivity at 3T (TR=1500 ms; TE=30 ms; slice thickness=4mm; matrix=64×64; field-of-view=24 cm). Under standard conditions, all electrodes exhibited no measurable displacement and no clinically significant temperature increase (1°C) during scans employed in a typical iEEG-fMRI experiment, including 60 min of continuous fMRI. However, high SAR sequences, such as fast spin-echo (FSE), produced significant heating in almost all scenarios (2.0°C) that in some cases exceeded 10°C. Induced voltages in the frequency range that could elicit neuronal stimulation (10 kHz) were well below the threshold of 100 mV. fMRI signal intensity was significantly reduced within 20mm of the electrodes for the imaging parameters used in this study. Thus, for the conditions tested, a full iEEG-fMRI protocol poses a low risk at 3T; however, fMRI sensitivity may be reduced immediately adjacent to the electrodes. In addition, high SAR sequences must be avoided.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2011
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2011
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Neal C, Burton; Manishkumar, Patel; Stefan, Morscher; Wouter H P, Driessen; +7 Authors

    Brain research depends strongly on imaging for assessing function and disease in vivo. We examine herein multispectral opto-acoustic tomography (MSOT), a novel technology for high-resolution molecular imaging deep inside tissues. MSOT illuminates tissue with light pulses at multiple wavelengths and detects the acoustic waves generated by the thermoelastic expansion of the environment surrounding absorbing molecules. Using spectral unmixing analysis of the data collected, MSOT can then differentiate the spectral signatures of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of photo-absorbing agents and quantify their concentration. By being able to detect absorbing molecules up to centimeters deep in the tissue it represents an ideal modality for small animal brain imaging, simultaneously providing anatomical, hemodynamic, functional, and molecular information. In this work we examine the capacity of MSOT in cross-sectional brain imaging of mice. We find unprecedented optical imaging performance in cross-sectional visualization of anatomical and physiological parameters of the mouse brain. For example, the potential of MSOT to characterize ischemic brain areas was demonstrated through the use of a carbon dioxide challenge. In addition, indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously, and the kinetics of uptake and clearance in the vasculature of the brain was visualized in real-time. We further found that multiparameter, multispectral imaging of the growth of U87 tumor cells injected into the brain could be visualized through the intact mouse head, for example through visualization of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the growing tumor. We also demonstrate how MSOT offers several compelling features for brain research and allows time-dependent detection and quantification of brain parameters that are not available using other imaging methods without invasive procedures.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2012
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claes Nøhr Ladefoged; Ian Law; Udunna C. Anazodo; Keith St. Lawrence; +24 Authors

    Aim: To accurately quantify the radioactivity concentration measured by PET, emission data need to be corrected for photon attenuation; however, the MRI signal cannot easily be converted into attenuation values, making attenuation correction (AC) in PET/MRI challenging. In order to further improve the current vendor-implemented MR-AC methods for absolute quantification, a number of prototype methods have been proposed in the literature. These can be categorized into three types: template/atlas-based, segmentation-based, and reconstruction-based. These proposed methods in general demonstrated improvements compared to vendor-implemented AC, and many studies report deviations in PET uptake after AC of only a few percent from a gold standard CT-AC. Using a unified quantitative evaluation with identical metrics, subject cohort, and common CT-based reference, the aims of this study were to evaluate a selection of novel methods proposed in the literature, and identify the ones suitable for clinical use. Methods: In total, 11 AC methods were evaluated: two vendor-implemented (MR-ACDIXON and MR-ACUTE), five based on template/atlas information (MR-ACSEGBONE (Koesters et al., 2016), MR-ACONTARIO (Anazodo et al., 2014), MR-ACBOSTON (Izquierdo-Garcia et al., 2014), MR-ACUCL (Burgos et al., 2014), and MR-ACMAXPROB (Merida et al., 2015)), one based on simultaneous reconstruction of attenuation and emission (MR-ACMLAA (Benoit et al., 2015)), and three based on image-segmentation (MR-ACMUNICH (Cabello et al., 2015), MR-ACCAR-RiDR (Juttukonda et al., 2015), and MR-ACRESOLUTE (Ladefoged et al., 2015)). We selected 359 subjects who were scanned using one of the following radiotracers: [18F]FDG (210), [11C]PiB (51), and [18F]florbetapir (98). The comparison to AC with a gold standard CT was performed both globally and regionally, with a special focus on robustness and outlier analysis. Results: The average performance in PET tracer uptake was within ±5% of CT for all of the proposed methods, with the average±SD global percentage bias in PET FDG uptake for each method being: MR-ACDIXON (−11.3±3.5)%, MR-ACUTE (−5.7±2.0)%, MR-ACONTARIO (−4.3±3.6)%, MR-ACMUNICH (3.7±2.1)%, MR-ACMLAA (−1.9±2.6)%, MR-ACSEGBONE (−1.7±3.6)%, MR-ACUCL (0.8±1.2)%, MR-ACCAR-RiDR (−0.4±1.9)%, MR-ACMAXPROB (−0.4±1.6)%, MR-ACBOSTON (−0.3±1.8)%, and MR-ACRESOLUTE (0.3±1.7)%, ordered by average bias. The overall best performing methods (MR-ACBOSTON, MR-ACMAXPROB, MR-ACRESOLUTE and MR-ACUCL, ordered alphabetically) showed regional average errors within ±3% of PET with CT-AC in all regions of the brain with FDG, and the same four methods, as well as MR-ACCAR-RiDR, showed that for 95% of the patients, 95% of brain voxels had an uptake that deviated by less than 15% from the reference. Comparable performance was obtained with PiB and florbetapir. Conclusions: All of the proposed novel methods have an average global performance within likely acceptable limits (±5% of CT-based reference), and the main difference among the methods was found in the robustness, outlier analysis, and clinical feasibility. Overall, the best performing methods were MR-ACBOSTON, MR-ACMAXPROB, MR-ACRESOLUTE and MR-ACUCL, ordered alphabetically. These methods all minimized the number of outliers, standard deviation, and average global and local error. The methods MR-ACMUNICH and MR-ACCAR-RiDR were both within acceptable quantitative limits, so these methods should be considered if processing time is a factor. The method MR-ACSEGBONE also demonstrates promising results, and performs well within the likely acceptable quantitative limits. For clinical routine scans where processing time can be a key factor, this vendor-provided solution currently outperforms most methods. With the performance of the methods presented here, it may be concluded that the challenge of improving the accuracy of MR-AC in adult brains with normal anatomy has been solved to a quantitatively acceptable degree, which is smaller than the quantification reproducibility in PET imaging.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    NeuroImage
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2017
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    Article . 2017
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      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Rok Berlot; Claudia Metzler-Baddeley; Derek K. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan;

    Diffusion MRI is used widely to probe microstructural alterations in neurological and psychiatric disease. However, ageing and neurodegeneration are also associated with atrophy, which leads to artefacts through partial volume effects due to cerebrospinal-fluid contamination (CSFC). The aim of this study was to explore the influence of CSFC on apparent microstructural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at several spatial levels: individually reconstructed tracts; at the level of a whole white matter skeleton (tract-based spatial statistics); and histograms derived from all white matter. 25 individuals with MCI and 20 matched controls underwent diffusion MRI. We corrected for CSFC using a post-acquisition voxel-by-voxel approach of free-water elimination. Tracts varied in their susceptibility to CSFC. The apparent pattern of tract involvement in disease shifted when correction was applied. Both spurious group differences, driven by CSFC, and masking of true differences were observed. Tract-based spatial statistics were found to be robust across much of the skeleton but with some localised CSFC effects. Diffusivity measures were affected disproportionately in MCI, and group differences in fornix microstructure were exaggerated. Group differences in white matter histogram measures were also partly driven by CSFC. For diffusivity measures, up to two thirds of observed group differences were due to CSFC. Our results demonstrate that CSFC has an impact on quantitative differences between MCI and controls. Furthermore, it affects the apparent spatial pattern of white matter involvement. Free-water elimination provides a step towards disentangling intrinsic and volumetric alterations in individuals prone to atrophy. Highlights • We examine the effect of CSFC on perceived microstructural alterations in MCI. • We correct for CSFC with free-water elimination and assess at three spatial levels. • The pattern of individual tract involvement is shifted due to CSFC. • TBSS is robust to CSFC in much of the skeleton. • Group differences in white matter diffusion histograms are partly driven by CSFC. Graphical abstract

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ville Raatikainen; Niko Huotari; Vesa Korhonen; Aleksi Rasila; +6 Authors

    This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach. A rigorous noise exclusion criterion was applied for tICs to remove physiological pulsations, motion and system artefacts. All the de-noised tICs were used to calculate the null-distributions both for expected lag variability over time and over subjects. Lag analysis was done for the three highest correlating denoised tICA pairs. Mean time lag of 0.6s (± 0.5 std) and mean absolute correlation of 0.69 (± 0.08) between the highest correlating tICA pairs of DMN nodes was observed throughout the whole analyzed period. In dynamic 2min window analysis, there was large variability over subjects as ranging between 1-10sec. Directionality varied between these highly correlating sources an average 28.8% of the possible number of direction changes. The null models show highly consistent correlation and lag structure between DMN nodes both in continuous and dynamic analysis. The mean time lag of a null-model over time between all denoised DMN nodes was 0.0s and, thus the probability of having either DMNpcc or DMNvmpf as a preceding component is near equal. All the lag values of highest correlating tICA pairs over subjects lie within the standard deviation range of a null-model in whole time window analysis, supporting the earlier findings that there is a consistent temporal lag structure across groups of individuals. However, in dynamic analysis, there are lag values exceeding the threshold of significance of a null-model meaning that there might be biologically meaningful variation in this measure. Taken together the variability in lag and the presence of high activity peaks during strong connectivity indicate that individual avalanches may play an important role in defining dynamic independence in resting state connectivity within networks.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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