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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chevaldonné, P.; Sket, B.; Marschal, C.; Lejeusne, C.; +1 Authors

    Dark littoral submarine caves can act as enclaves of the deep aphotic zone in shallow coastal areas, and their survey has revealed the existence of a very particular fauna of specialized and poorly known organisms among which crustaceans are particularly well represented. In these particular habitats, the use of conventional sampling techniques, such as hand nets, is often not recommended since they disturb bottom sediments causing hazardous situations to scientific divers. The use of baited traps, while technically possible, is not. always practical is such remote habitats. The present work describes a simple and inexpensive manual device that can be operated by divers ill submarine caves and other cryptic habitats to recurrently catch small motile organisms such as mysid crustaceans, caridean shrimps, or even gobiid fishes. This small suction bottle derived and improved from the original "Sket bottle" design considerably reduces the risks of disturbing the cave's bottom sediment and can be easily operated using a single hand. The described sampling device can also be easily used outside caves, in a variety of particular habitats, e.g., rubble filled bottoms, branching coral reefs, cracks, and small holes on rocky surfaces, in which small motile organisms usually escape from traditional sampling gears, e.g., fishnets and traps, or simply go unnoticed by researchers during sampling. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Crustacean Biology
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2007
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicolas Puillandre; Philippe Bouchet; Thomas F. Duda; S. Kauferstein; +4 Authors

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15 years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Cade; the others are divided between the Small Major Cade (similar to 12%), the Conus califomicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (similar to 3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2014
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Chanussot, Jocelyn; Maussang, Frederic; Hétet, Alain;

    High resolution images provided by synthetic aperture sonar sensors (SAS) are of great interest, especially for the detection, location and classification of mines lying on the sea bed. But these data obtained by an active imagery system are highly corrupted by a noise called the speckle. To reduce this noise and suppress the spurious reflections it generates on the images, we propose to use different algorithms based on image processing techniques. Several image processing filters are tested and discussed. A comparative study of the results obtained on real SAS data is presented. The different filters are evaluated both visually and in terms of variance reduction.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/oceans...
    Conference object . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ http://www.gipsa-lab...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2002
      https://doi.org/10.1109/oceans...
      Conference object . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Striberny, Anja; Jørgensen, Even H.; Klopp, Christophe; Magnanou, Elodie;

    Source at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5874-z. © The Author(s). 2019 Background: The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) has a highly seasonal feeding cycle that comprises long periods of voluntary fasting and a short but intense feeding period during summer. Therefore, the charr represents an interesting species for studying appetite-regulating mechanisms in fish. Results: In this study, we compared the brain transcriptomes of fed and feed deprived charr over a 4 weeks trial during their summer feeding season. Despite prominent differences in body condition between fed and feed deprived charr at the end of the trial, feed deprivation affected the brain transcriptome only slightly. In contrast, the transcriptome differed markedly over time in both fed and feed deprived charr, indicating strong shifts in basic cell metabolic processes possibly due to season, growth, temperature, or combinations thereof. The GO enrichment analysis revealed that many biological processes appeared to change in the same direction in both fed and feed deprived fish. In the feed deprived charr processes linked to oxygen transport and apoptosis were down- and up-regulated, respectively. Known genes encoding for appetite regulators did not respond to feed deprivation. Gene expression of Deiodinase 2 (DIO2), an enzyme implicated in the regulation of seasonal processes in mammals, was lower in response to season and feed deprivation. We further found a higher expression of VGF (non-acronymic) in the feed deprived than in the fed fish. This gene encodes for a neuropeptide associated with the control of energy metabolism in mammals, and has not been studied in relation to regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis in fish. Conclusions: In the Arctic charr, external and endogenous seasonal factors for example the increase in temperature and their circannual growth cycle, respectively, evoke much stronger responses in the brain than 4 weeks feed deprivation. The absence of a central hunger response in feed deprived charr give support for a strong resilience to the lack of food in this high Arctic species. DIO2 and VGF may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and need to be further studied in seasonal fish.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Genomics
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Genomics
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    BMC Genomics
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      BMC Genomics
      Article . 2019
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      BMC Genomics
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Biwei Jiang; Alain Omont; Shashikiran Ganesh; Grégory Simon; +1 Authors

    A 0.35\degr $\times$ 0.29\degr field centered at $l$=--18.63\degr, $b$=0.35\degr was observed during the ISOGAL survey by ISOCAM imaging at 7$\mu$m and 15{\rm $\mu$m}. 648 objects were detected and their brightness are measured. By combining with the DENIS data in the near-infrared J and K$_{\rm S}$ bands, one derives the extinction at 7{\rm $\mu$m} through ${\rm A_{K_{\rm S}}-A_7= 0.35 (A_J-A_{K_{\rm S}})}$ which yields A$_{7}$/A$_{\it V}$ $\sim$0.03 from the near-IR extinction values of van de Hulst--Glass (Glass 1999). The extinction structure along the line of sight is then determined from the values of J--K$_{\rm S}$ or K$_{\rm S}$--[7] of the ISOGAL sources identified as RGB or early AGB stars with mild mass-loss. The distribution of A$_{\it V}$ ranges from 0 to $\sim$45 and it reflects the concentration of the extinction in the spiral arms. Based on their locations in color-magnitude diagrams and a few cross-identifications with IRAS and MSX sources, the nature of objects is discussed in comparison with the case of a low extinction field in Baade's Window. Most of the objects are either AGB stars with moderate mass loss rate or luminous RGB stars. Some of them may be AGB stars with high mass loss rate. In addition, a few young stellar objects (YSOs) are present. Comment: 14 pages, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2003
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Other literature type . Article . 2003
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2003
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
      Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . Article . 2003
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    Authors: Samadi, Sarah; Corbari, Laure; Lorion, Julien; Hourdez, Stéphane; +4 Authors

    4th International Symposium on Chemosynthesis-Based Ecosystems - Hydrothermal Vents, Seeps and Other Reducing Habitats, Nago, JAPAN, JUN 29-JUL 03, 2009; International audience; Since 80's, fauna associated to sunken woods has been collected during exploration cruises of the Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos cruises program (TDSB). In 2004 we started a specific program of cruises devoted to the exploration of sunken-wood habitats. Seven cruises provided sunken-wood organisms in depth ranging from 100-1 500 metres, at three locations corresponding to large basins of sunken-wood accumulation in the south west Pacific: (i) Philippines, (ii) Salomon islands and (iii) Vanuatu. Extra-samples from other TDSB cruises are also available. Indeed, far from these basins, pieces of woods are unevenly catch by trawling and dredging and these erratic substrata, found for example on seamounts, are usually colonized by a typical sunken wood fauna. To enhance the collection of species associated to organic substrata that are difficult to catch at the deep sea floor, we also immersed down traps containing different kinds of baits: pieces of wood, blue whale bones, green turtle shell, and stag horn. These experiments deployed between 12-30 months off New Caledionia and Vanuatu. Samples yielded an abundant and original fauna, notably Bathymodiolinae and Galatheids. Specific diversity of collected zoological groups with taxa specific to this habitat was explored using molecular tools. Here this paper, we report the preliminary finding about the biodiversity of major zoological groups but also fungi found during this program of cruises.

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2010
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    Authors: Eichinger, Marie; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; van Wambeke, France; Lefèvre, Dominique; +1 Authors

    A Monod (1942) model was used to describe the interaction and dynamics between marine bacteria and labile-dissolved organic carbon (l-DOC) using data obtained from 36 biodegra- dation experiments. This model is governed by 2 state variables, DOC and bacterial biomass (BB), and 3 parameters, specific maximum assimilation rate (Vmax), half-saturation constant (KS) and bac- terial growth efficiency (BGE). The calibrations were obtained from biodegradation experiments carried out in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean over different seasons and at different depths. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine (1) which parameter had the greatest influence on the model, and (2) whether the model was robust with regard to experimental errors. Our results indicate that BGE is greater in surface layers than in deeper waters, with minimum values observed during winter. In contrast, the Vmax/KS ratio is inversely dependent on depth and does not show any seasonal trend. This reflects an increase in bacterial affinity for substrate with increasing depth (decrease of KS) and/or better specific maximum assimilation rates (increase of Vmax). The sensitivity and robust- ness analyses demonstrate that the model is more sensitive to the Vmax/KS ratio than to BGE, and that the parameters estimated are reliable. However, although the BGE values are close to those esti- mated experimentally, the use of a constant Vmax/KS ratio and BGE in a 1-dimensional model is not appropriate as these parameters should be described as variables that take depth and season into account.

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    Aquatic Microbial Ecology
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: López-Barneo, J; Nurse, C A; Nilsson, G E; Buck, L T; +2 Authors

    Survival success under conditions of acute oxygen deprivation depends on efficiency of the central and peripheral chemoreception, optimization of oxygen extraction from the hypoxic environment and its delivery to the periphery, and adjustments of energy production and consumption. This article uses a comparative approach to assess the efficiency of adaptive strategies used by anoxia-tolerant and hypoxia-sensitive species to support survival during the first minutes to 1 h of oxygen deprivation. An aquatic environment is much more demanding in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of the ambient oxygen availability from anoxia to hyperoxia than is an air environment. Therefore, fishes and aquatic turtles have developed a number of adaptive responses, which are lacking in most of the terrestrial mammals, to cope with these extreme conditions. These include efficient central and peripheral chemoreception, acute changes in respiratory rate and amplitude, and acute increase of the gas-exchange interface. A special set of adaptive mechanisms are engaged in reduction of the energy expenditure of the major oxygen-consuming organs: the brain and the heart. Both reduction of ATP consumption and a switch to alterative energy sources contribute to the maintenance of ATP and ion balance in hypoxia-tolerant animals. Hypoxia and hyperoxia are conditions favoring development of oxidative stress. Efficient protection from oxidation in anoxia-tolerant species includes reduction in the glutamate levels in the brain, stabilization of the mitochondrial function, and maintenance of nitric oxide production under conditions of oxygen deprivation. We give an overview of the current state of knowledge on some selected molecular and cellular acute adaptive mechanisms. These include the mechanisms of chemoreception in adult and neonatal mammals and in fishes, acute metabolic adaptive responses in the brain, and the role of nitrite in the preservation of heart function under hypoxic conditions.

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    Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
    Article
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    https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-43...
    Other literature type . 2010
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      Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
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      https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-43...
      Other literature type . 2010
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    Authors: Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud; Cushla J. Metcalfe; Jacob Pollack; Isabelle Germon; +5 Authors

    International audience; Background: The Dlx gene family encodes transcription factors involved in the development of a wide variety of morphological innovations that first evolved at the origins of vertebrates or of the jawed vertebrates. This gene family expanded with the two rounds of genome duplications that occurred before jawed vertebrates diversified. It includes at least three bigene pairs sharing conserved regulatory sequences in tetrapods and teleost fish, but has been only partially characterized in chondrichthyans, the third major group of jawed vertebrates. Here we take advantage of developmental and molecular tools applied to the shark Scyliorhinus canicula to fill in the gap and provide an overview of the evolution of the Dlx family in the jawed vertebrates. These results are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the DDC (Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation) model.Results: The genomic organisation of the catshark Dlx genes is similar to that previously described for tetrapods. Conserved non-coding elements identified in bony fish were also identified in catshark Dlx clusters and showed regulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish. Gene expression patterns in the catshark showed that there are some expression sites with high conservation of the expressed paralog(s) and other expression sites with events of paralog sub-functionalization during jawed vertebrate diversification, resulting in a wide variety of evolutionary scenarios within this gene family.Conclusion: Dlx gene expression patterns in the catshark show that there has been little neo-functionalization in Dlx genes over gnathostome evolution. In most cases, one tandem duplication and two rounds of vertebrate genome duplication have led to at least six Dlx coding sequences with redundant expression patterns followed by some instances of paralog sub-functionalization. Regulatory constraints such as shared enhancers, and functional constraints including gene pleiotropy, may have contributed to the evolutionary inertia leading to high redundancy between gene expression patterns.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    PLoS ONE
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    Article . 2013
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sophie Lafon;

    La conservation marine est devenue un enjeu mondial. Les aires marines protégées sont maintenant un instrument au coeur des débats. Dans cette étude, est analysé le dialogue qui prit place durant la création du parc naturel marin de l’estuaire de la Gironde et de la mer des Pertuis dans le sud-ouest de la France en avril 2015. Cette étude analyse les différentes étapes de la concertation réalisée en amont de la création du parc marin et observe l’appropriation des enjeux (notamment environnementaux) par les participants. Cette étude montre que cette concertation permet l’appropriation des enjeux environnementaux grâce à la co-construction de connaissances socio-économiques et environnementales notamment autour de la question des ressources halieutiques. L’analyse des entretiens auprès des participants permet d’identifier également comment les différentes tensions advenues pendant le processus ont contribué à préparer la décision. Marine conservation is now an international issue. Protected marine areas are now a tool strongly discussed. In this study, the process of dialogue which took place during the creation of a recent park, the Pertuis and Gironde natural park in southwest France is analysed, in April 2015. Our research analyzes the different steps in the talk relating to the implementation of the marine park, and observes the appropriation of issues (especially environmental issues) by participants. This paper demonstrates that the dialogue process allows the co-construction of knowledge socio-économic and environnemental, especially for fish resources. The research identifies how the different sources of friction throughout the process contributed to the decision.

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