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38 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
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  • 15. Life on land
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cienciala, E.; Exnerová, Z.; Schelhaas, M.J.;

    This study describes the scenarios of likely development of carbon pools in managed forest ecosystems of the Czech Republic. The analysis was based on a matrix scenario model (EFISCEN), adopting a novel parameterization based on forest stand site types and forest typology. The model was constrained by practical management rules as prescribed by the Czech Forestry Act and used to assess production potential for the next five decades under three management and three climate scenarios. The analysis provided data on carbon pool development, including both tree biomass and soil compartments. $\bullet$ For the tested scenarios of sustainable forest management (wood removals not exceeding increment) the model indicated a slight increase of soil carbon pool. For the possibly largest removals (maximum sustainable felling scenario), soil carbon stabilized within two or three decades reaching a mean value of about 8.1 kg/m2 for. At the same time, the mean carbon stock held in biomass reached about 10.2 kg/m2 including belowground parts. No decline of soil carbon was observed for any of the tested scenarios. $\bullet$ We conclude that it is reasonable to assume that soil carbon is not a source of carbon under the current management constraints as implemented in the Czech forestry practice.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research@WUR; Annals of Forest Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2008
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research@WUR; Annals of Forest Science
      Other literature type . Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2008
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2008
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Trébuil, Guy; Castella, Jean Christophe; Boissau, Stanislas; Kam, Suan Pheng; +2 Authors

    International audience; This paper describes research using multi-agent systems as a companion modelling tool to address key issues related to agroecosystem management in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam. The authors illustrate an approach for the use of complex models for the accompaniment of adaptive management experiences. First, some considerations on the shifts of paradigm that underlie the research are discussed. Then two case studies are presented. The first one illustrates the iterative process of problem solving with local stakeholders, while the second emphasizes the emergence of local institutions in the context of land reforms. In both cases, the research started with an analysis of the agrarian system, which integrated multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic knowledge by means of a model. The research process then evolved towards the use of such models in participatory approaches for community-based natural resource management. Regular interactions between researchers and local stakeholders mediated by the companion modelling tools were helpful in progressing local development.

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2007
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Agritrop
    Article . 2007
    Data sources: Agritrop
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2007
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Outlook on Agriculture
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    License: SAGE TDM
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cyrus A, Mallon; Franck, Poly; Xavier, Le Roux; Irene, Marring; +2 Authors

    International audience; The roles of species richness, resource use, and resource availability are central to many hypotheses explaining the diversity-invasion phenomenon but are generally not investigated together. Here, we created a large diversity gradient of soil microbial communities by either assembling communities of pure bacterial strains or removing the diversity of a natural soil. Using data on the resource-use capacities of the soil communities and an invader that were gathered from 71 carbon sources, we quantified the niches available to both constituents by using the metrics community niche and remaining niche available to the invader. A strong positive relationship between species richness and community niche across both experiments indicated the presence of resource complementarity. Moreover, community niche and the remaining niche available to the invader predicted invader abundance well. This suggested that increased competition in communities of higher diversity limits community invasibility and underscored the importance of resource availability as a key mechanism through which diversity hinders invasions. As a proof of principle, we subjected selected invaded communities to a resource pulse, which progressively uncoupled the link between soil microbial diversity and invasion and allowed the invader to rebound after nearly being eliminated in some communities. Our results thus show that (1) resource competition suppresses invasion, (2) biodiversity increases resource competition and decreases invasion through niche preemption, and (3) resource pulses that cannot be fully used, even by diverse communities, are favorable to invasion.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Ecologyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Ecology
    Article
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Ecology
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ecology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
    Ecology
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Ecologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Ecology
      Article
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      Ecology
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ecology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Ecology
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lefèvre, Francois; Kajba, D.; Heinze, B.; Rotach, P.; +2 Authors

    Conservation of genetic resources of forest trees has become a major objective for the management of forests. Much theoretical work has been devoted to the subject, and implementation has already started at the local, national, or international scales. Poplars are probably the most representative and threatened forest tree species of old natural floodplain forests in the temperate zone. Gene conservation needs to be integrated with intensive breeding activities, habitat conservation and restoration. For Populus nigra, while research in genetics and ecology is reinforced, a combined conservation strategy is applied at the European scale; simultaneously, the conservation of riparian ecosystems is also a priority. Research and application benefit from each other. The question now is the evaluation of such an integrated strategy. Criteria and indicators for the follow-up of gene resource management are progressively developed, but still need to be tested on the operational scale. Key words: Populus nigra, poplar, gene resources, in situ conservation, ex situconservation, riparian ecosystem, sustainable management

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Forestry Chronic...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Research@WUR; The Forestry Chronicle
    Other literature type . Article . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Forestry Chronic...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Research@WUR; The Forestry Chronicle
      Other literature type . Article . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Arias, Leonardo; Barbieri, Chiara; Barreto, Guillermo; Stoneking, Mark; +1 Authors

    AbstractObjectivesNorthwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high‐resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups.MethodsWe collected saliva samples from individuals representing 40 different NWA ethnolinguistic groups and sequenced 439 complete mitochondrial genomes to an average coverage of 1,030×.ResultsThe mtDNA data revealed that NWA populations have high genetic diversity with extensive sharing of haplotypes among groups. Moreover, groups who practice linguistic exogamy have higher genetic diversity, while the foraging Nukak have lower genetic diversity. We also find that rivers play a more important role than either geography or language affiliation in structuring the genetic relationships of populations.DiscussionContrary to the view of NWA as a pristine area inhabited by small human populations living in isolation, our data support a view of high diversity and contact among different ethnolinguistic groups, with movement along rivers probably facilitating this contact. Additionally, we provide evidence for the impact of cultural practices, such as linguistic exogamy, on patterns of genetic variation. Overall, this study provides new data and insights into a remote and little‐studied region of the world.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2017
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    American Journal of Physical Anthropology; NARCIS
    Article . 2017 . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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    American Journal of Physical Anthropology
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2017
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      NARCIS
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: NARCIS
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      American Journal of Physical Anthropology; NARCIS
      Article . 2017 . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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    Authors: Saskia Keesstra; Jesús Rodrigo-Comino; Agata Novara; Antonio Giménez-Morera; +3 Authors

    [EN] In many Mediterranean areas, citrus orchards exhibit high soil loss rates because of the expansion of drip irrigation that allows cultivation on sloping terrain and the widespread use of glyphosate. To mitigate these non-sustainable soil losses, straw mulch could be applied as an efficient solution but this has been poorly studied. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to assess the use of straw mulch as a tool to reduce soil losses in clementine plantations, which can be considered representative of a typical Mediterranean citrus orchard. A total of 40 rainfall simulation experiments were carried out on 20 pairs of neighbouring bare and mulched plots. Each experiment involved applying 38.8 mm of rain at a constant rate over 1 h to a circular plot of 0.28 m(2) circular plots. The results showed that a cover of 50% of straw (60 g m(-2)) was able to delay the time to ponding from 32 to 52 s and the time to runoff initiation from 57 to 129 s. Also, the mulching reduced the runoff coefficient from 65.6 to 50.5%. The effect on sediment transport was even more pronounced, as the straw mulch reduced the sediment concentration from 16.7 g l(-1) to 3.6 g l(-1) and the soil erosion rates from 439 g to 73 g. Our results indicated that mulching can be used as a useful management practice to control soil erosion rates due to the immediate effect on high soil detachment rate and runoff initiation reduction in conventional clementine orchards on sloping land, by slowing down runoff initiation and by reducing runoff generation and, especially, sediment losses. We indirectly concluded that straw mulch is also a sustainable solution in glyphosate-treated citrus plantations. This paper is part of the results of research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE-FP7 (ENV.2013.6.2-4).

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Malam Issa, Oumarou; Stal, Lucas J.; Défarge, Christian; Trichet, Jean; +1 Authors

    Cyanobacterial crusts developing on the sandy and loamy soils of fallow lands in the Sahel (Niger) were investigated for their potential to fix nitrogen. Three sites were selected in this and environment, differing in sediment type and species composition. In the sandy sites heterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria were present, whereas the loamy site did not contain such species. All sites showed light-dependent nitrogenase activity, starting within 2 h after re-wetting of the desiccated crust samples. Inhibition of photosystem II caused a decrease of nitrogenase activity in the samples with heterocystous cyanobacteria, but was stimulatory in the non- heterocystous crust. The results suggest that cyanobacterial crusts may be important for the improvement of the soil by enriching it with nitrogen. [KEYWORDS: nitrogen fixations; cyanobacteria; microbiotic crusts; arid and semi-arid environments Western negev desert; cyanobacteria; photosynthesis; mats]

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    Soil Biology and Biochemistry
    Article . 2001
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    Soil Biology and Biochemistry
    Article . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
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      Soil Biology and Biochemistry
      Article . 2001
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      Soil Biology and Biochemistry
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    Authors: Flores Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.; +1 Authors

    International audience; Soil fertility depletion is one of the main concerns of the farmers in the Costa Chica, Mexico. The current crop management exacerbates nutrient cycling unbalances and threatens the sustainability of the common maize production systems. It is necessary to supply the soil with organic sources. Field experiments were established in farmers’ fields to estimate the decomposition rate and N release of organic materials: aboveground and belowground plant residues, and vermicompost. Decomposition was monitored using the litterbag method, and decomposition patterns were fitted by means of a dynamic mono-component mineralization model. To calculate the effects of crop residues retention and vermicompost on OM balance, five scenarios were evaluated with farm DESIGN model. The decomposition rate was greater during the first 4 months. After that period the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground residues varied between 45 and 67%. In case of root residues, the dry weight loss ranged between 20 and 47% after the first month. For both types of residues, N released within the first month was 37%, on average. At the end of the sampling period 9 months, the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground and belowground residues ranged from 30 to 55%, whereas more than 80% of their total N was released. After 6.5 months only 35% of the vermicompost mass was decomposed, but about 65% of its N was mineralized. Besides, around 70% of the vermicompost N was released during the first 30 days. In fields with vermicompost maize was responsible for 70% of total N uptake, on average. The N balance was 93% higher than maize fields without vermicompost. In scenario with 30% of crop residue retention along with vermicompost, OM balance was 86% higher than under current management. Vermicompost can be regarded as an attractive amendment for both crop N supply and soil organic matter build-up.

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Article . 2016
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    Research@WUR; Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition
    Other literature type . Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition
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    Authors: Peter Lehmann; Christoph Hinz; Gavan McGrath; H. J. Tromp-van Meerveld; +1 Authors

    Nonlinear relations between rain input and hillslope outflow are common observations in hillslope hydrology field studies. In this paper we use percolation theory to model the threshold relationship between rainfall amount and outflow and show that this nonlinear relationship may arise from simple linear processes at the smaller scale. When the rainfall amount exceeds a threshold value, the underlying elements become connected and water flows out of the base of the hillslope. The percolation approach shows how random variations in storage capacity and connectivity at the small spatial scale cause a threshold relationship between rainstorm amount and hillslope outflow. As a test case, we applied percolation theory to the well characterized experimental hillslope at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed. Analysing the measured rainstorm events and the subsurface stormflow with percolation theory, we could determine the effect of bedrock permeability, spatial distribution of soil properties and initial water content within the hillslope. The measured variation in the relationship between rainstorm amount and subsurface flow could be reproduced by modelling the initial moisture deficit, the loss of free water to the bedrock, the limited size of the system and the connectivity that is a function of bedrock topography and existence of macropores. The values of the model parameters were in agreement with measured values of soil depth distribution and water saturation. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11 (2) ISSN:1027-5606 ISSN:1607-7938

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    Article . 2007
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-...
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    Authors: Raat, K.J.; Draaijers, G.P.J.; Schaap, M.G.; Tietema, Albert; +1 Authors

    International audience; This study focuses on spatial variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content within a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Franco L.) forest plot. Spatial patterns of water and chemistry (NH4+, NO3?, SO42-, Cl?, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and K+) were compared and tested for stability over time. The spatial coefficient of variation (CV) was between 18 and 26% for amounts of throughfall water and ions, and 17% for forest floor water content. Concentrations and amounts of all ions were correlated significantly. Ion concentrations were negatively correlated with throughfall water amounts, but, except for NH4+, there was no such relation between throughfall water and ion amounts. Spatial patterns of throughfall water fluxes and forest floor water contents were consistent over time; patterns of ion fluxes were somewhat less stable. Because of the spatial variability of forest floor thickness and drainage, it was not possible to relate patterns in throughfall water directly to patterns in water content. The spatial variability of throughfall nitrogen and forest floor water contents can cause significant variability in NO3? production within the plot studied. Keywords: nutrient throughfall, forest floor water, spatial variability, time-stability, nitrogen

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Hydrology an...arrow_drop_down
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