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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paynel, Florence; Lesuffleur, Fabien; Bigot, Jacques; Diquélou, Sylvain; +1 Authors

    The overuse of classical N fertilisers contributes substantially to environmental degradation by pollution of groundwater by nitrates. This leaching of N in waters is also an economic flaw for farmers because only a part of the fertiliser is used by the plants. Here, systems involving mixtures of legumes and grasses represent a sustainable alternative because legumes can fix atmospheric N2 using symbiotic microbes. N transfer in those mixtures has been thoroughly investigated but little is known concerning the effect of N fertiliser on N transfer between N-fixing legumes and companion grasses. In white clover (Trifolium repens L.) — perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) associations, N is transferred mostly through rhizodeposition into the soil by clover followed by re-uptake by ryegrass. Rhizodeposition of N occurs through senescence and decomposition of legume tissue or through exudation of N compounds by living cells. Ammonium and amino acids are the main compounds exuded and their exudation is thought to occur by passive diffusion attributed to a concentration gradient from root to soil. In this study, we test the hypothesis that greater N transfer from clover to grass, as seen in N-rich soils or nutrient solutions, is due to greater N rhizodeposition brought about by higher ammonium and amino acid content of roots. The relations between N input, root N content, N net exudation and N transfer between legumes and grasses were investigated using 15N by growing white clover and perennial ryegrass with increasing N application in axenic microlysimeters or in pots. Ammonium and amino acid concentrations were measured in root tissues, in root bathing solutions and in soils. We found that mineral N application strongly reduced atmospheric N fixation by clover, from 3.0 to 0.9 mg per plant, and root amino acid content, from 164 to 49 nmoles per g dry weight, but had no effect on ammonium and amino acid concentrations in sterile exudates, showing for the first time that amino acid net exudation is independent of root content. In contrast, ammonium and amino acid concentrations in clover soils increased with N fixation, showing the link between N fixation and N rhizodeposition in soils. Nitrate application increased ryegrass root growth by 7–8 times, and transfer of N between clover and ryegrass (by 3 times). It is concluded that N fertiliser does not modify N exudation but decreases N fixation and ammonium rhizodeposition in soil by clover. N fertiliser increases N transfer between clover and ryegrass by increasing soil exploration by ryegrass and giving a better access to different available N sources, including the N compounds exuded from clover.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hal-Diderotarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 2008
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2008
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Agronomy for Sustainable Development
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    Agronomy for Sustainable Development
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hal-Diderotarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 2008
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2008
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Agronomy for Sustainable Development
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2008
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      Agronomy for Sustainable Development
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wilbert P. Vermeij; M.E.T. Dollé; Erwin Reiling; Dick Jaarsma; +20 Authors

    Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1?/-) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing response induced by dietary restriction (also known as caloric restriction). Here we report that a dietary restriction of 30% tripled the median and maximal remaining lifespans of these progeroid mice, strongly retarding numerous aspects of accelerated ageing. Mice undergoing dietary restriction retained 50% more neurons and maintained full motor function far beyond the lifespan of mice fed ad libitum. Other DNA-repair-deficient, progeroid Xpg-/- (also known as Ercc5-/-) mice, a model of Cockayne syndrome, responded similarly. The dietary restriction response in Ercc1?/- mice closely resembled the effects of dietary restriction in wild-type animals. Notably, liver tissue from Ercc1?/- mice fed ad libitum showed preferential extinction of the expression of long genes, a phenomenon we also observed in several tissues ageing normally. This is consistent with the accumulation of stochastic, transcription-blocking lesions that affect long genes more than short ones. Dietary restriction largely prevented this declining transcriptional output and reduced the number of ?H2AX DNA damage foci, indicating that dietary restriction preserves genome function by alleviating DNA damage. Our findings establish the Ercc1?/- mouse as a powerful model organism for health-sustaining interventions, reveal potential for reducing endogenous DNA damage, facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of dietary restriction and suggest a role for counterintuitive dietary-restriction-like therapy for human progeroid genome instability syndromes and possibly neurodegeneration in general. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Nature
    Article
    License: implied-oa
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    LUMC Scholarly Publications; NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2016
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    Nature
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Nature
      Article
      License: implied-oa
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      LUMC Scholarly Publications; NARCIS
      Other literature type . Article . 2016
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      Nature
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brunetti, Dario; Dusi, Sabrina; Giordano, Carla; Lamperti, Costanza; +8 Authors

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, pigmentary retinal degeneration and brain iron accumulation. PANK2 encodes the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase type 2, responsible for the phosphorylation of pantothenate or vitamin B5 in the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A. A Pank2 knockout (Pank2(-/-)) mouse model did not recapitulate the human disease but showed azoospermia and mitochondrial dysfunctions. We challenged this mouse model with a low glucose and high lipid content diet (ketogenic diet) to stimulate lipid use by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In the presence of a shortage of co-enzyme A, this diet could evoke a general impairment of bioenergetic metabolism. Only Pank2(-/-) mice fed with a ketogenic diet developed a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like syndrome characterized by severe motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration and severely altered mitochondria in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These mice also showed structural alteration of muscle morphology, which was comparable with that observed in a patient with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain
    Article
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Brain
    Other literature type . Article . 2013 . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Brain
    Article . 2013
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain
      Article
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Brain
      Other literature type . Article . 2013 . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      Brain
      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: de Jong Jj; Jacobus F.A. Jansen; Laura W. M. Vergoossen; Miranda T. Schram; +4 Authors

    AbstractIn large population-based cohort studies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to study the structure and function of the brain. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion-tensor (dMRI) or resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) can be used to study connections between distinct brain regions. However, brain connectivity measures are likely affected by biases introduced during MRI data acquisition and/or processing.We identified three sources that may lead to bias, i.e. signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), head motion, and spatial mismatch between MRI-based anatomy and a brain atlas. After quantifying these sources, we determined the associations between the image quality metrics and brain connectivity measures derived from dMRI and rs-fMRI in 5,110 participants of the population-based Maastricht Study.More head motion and low SNR were negatively associated with structural and functional brain connectivity, respectively, and these metrics substantially affected (>10%) associations of brain connectivity with age, sex and body mass index (BMI), whereas associations with diabetes status, educational level, history of cardiovascular disease, and white matter hyperintensities were less or not affected. In addition, age, sex, and BMI were associated with head motion, SNR, and atlas mismatch (all p < 0.001). Based on our results, we strongly advise that, in large population-based cohort neuroimaging studies, statistical analyses on structural and functional brain connectivity should adjust for potentially confounding effects of image quality.HighlightsLow MR image quality compromises brain connectivity measuresMR image quality is negatively associated with age, body mass index, and male sexStatistical analyses in large neuroimaging studies should account for image quality

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    bioRxiv
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    Authors: Felix R. Day; Tugce Karaderi; Matthew Jones; Cindy Meun; +45 Authors

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of PCOS related traits. We identified 3 novel loci (near PLGRKT, ZBTB16 and MAPRE1), and provide replication of 11 previously reported loci. Only one locus differed significantly in its association by diagnostic criteria; otherwise the genetic architecture was similar between PCOS diagnosed by self-report and PCOS diagnosed by NIH or non-NIH Rotterdam criteria across common variants at 13 loci. Identified variants were associated with hyperandrogenism, gonadotropin regulation and testosterone levels in affected women. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis revealed genetic correlations with obesity, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels and coronary artery disease, indicating shared genetic architecture between metabolic traits and PCOS. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested variants associated with body mass index, fasting insulin, menopause timing, depression and male-pattern balding play a causal role in PCOS. The data thus demonstrate 3 novel loci associated with PCOS and similar genetic architecture for all diagnostic criteria. The data also provide the first genetic evidence for a male phenotype for PCOS and a causal link to depression, a previously hypothesized comorbid disease. Thus, the genetics provide a comprehensive view of PCOS that encompasses multiple diagnostic criteria, gender, reproductive potential and mental health. This work has been supported by MRC grant MC_U106179472 (FD, KO, JRBP), Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute Developmental Funds, Center for Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics and Department of Biomedical Sciences Developmental Funds (MRJ), NCI P30CA177558 (CH), NCI UM1CA186107 (PK), European Regional Development Fund (Project No. 2014-2020.4.01.15-0012) and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreements No 692065 (TL, RM, AS) and 692145 (RM), NICHD R01HD065029 (RS), Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant IUT34-16 to TL), NICHD R01HD057450 (MU), NICHD P50HD044405 (AD), NICHD R01HD057223 (AD), R01HD085227 (MGH, AD), deCode Genetics (GT, UT, KS, US), Raine Medical Research Foundation Priming Grant (BHM), SCGOPHCG RAC 2015-16/034 (SGW, BGAS), 2016-17/018 (BGAS), NIHR BRC, Wellcome Trust, MRC (TDS), Eris M. Field Chair in Diabetes Research (MOG), NIDDK P30 DK063491 (MOG), NIDDK U01DK094431, U01DK048381 (DE), NICHD U10HD38992 (RL), Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant IUT34-16), Enterprise Estonia (grant EU48695); the EU-FP7 Marie Curie Industry-Academia Partnerships and Pathways (IAPP, grant SARM, EU324509 to AS), Wellcome (090532, 098381, 203141); European Commission (ENGAGE: HEALTH-F4-2007-201413 to MIM), MRC G0802782, MR/M012638/1 (SF), Li Ka Shing Foundation, WT-SSI/John Fell Funds, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, Widenlife and NICHD 5P50HD028138-27 (CML), NICHD R01HD065029, ADA 1-10-CT-57, Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, from the National Center for Research Resources 1UL1 RR025758 (CKW). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Publisher's version (útgefin grein) Peer Reviewed

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    Article . 2019
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    Gynecological Endocrinology
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      PLoS Genetics
      Article . 2018
      Gynecological Endocrinology
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    Authors: Trébuil, Guy; Castella, Jean Christophe; Boissau, Stanislas; Kam, Suan Pheng; +2 Authors

    International audience; This paper describes research using multi-agent systems as a companion modelling tool to address key issues related to agroecosystem management in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam. The authors illustrate an approach for the use of complex models for the accompaniment of adaptive management experiences. First, some considerations on the shifts of paradigm that underlie the research are discussed. Then two case studies are presented. The first one illustrates the iterative process of problem solving with local stakeholders, while the second emphasizes the emergence of local institutions in the context of land reforms. In both cases, the research started with an analysis of the agrarian system, which integrated multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic knowledge by means of a model. The research process then evolved towards the use of such models in participatory approaches for community-based natural resource management. Regular interactions between researchers and local stakeholders mediated by the companion modelling tools were helpful in progressing local development.

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
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    Outlook on Agriculture
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    Authors: Cyrus A, Mallon; Franck, Poly; Xavier, Le Roux; Irene, Marring; +2 Authors

    International audience; The roles of species richness, resource use, and resource availability are central to many hypotheses explaining the diversity-invasion phenomenon but are generally not investigated together. Here, we created a large diversity gradient of soil microbial communities by either assembling communities of pure bacterial strains or removing the diversity of a natural soil. Using data on the resource-use capacities of the soil communities and an invader that were gathered from 71 carbon sources, we quantified the niches available to both constituents by using the metrics community niche and remaining niche available to the invader. A strong positive relationship between species richness and community niche across both experiments indicated the presence of resource complementarity. Moreover, community niche and the remaining niche available to the invader predicted invader abundance well. This suggested that increased competition in communities of higher diversity limits community invasibility and underscored the importance of resource availability as a key mechanism through which diversity hinders invasions. As a proof of principle, we subjected selected invaded communities to a resource pulse, which progressively uncoupled the link between soil microbial diversity and invasion and allowed the invader to rebound after nearly being eliminated in some communities. Our results thus show that (1) resource competition suppresses invasion, (2) biodiversity increases resource competition and decreases invasion through niche preemption, and (3) resource pulses that cannot be fully used, even by diverse communities, are favorable to invasion.

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    Ecology
    Article
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    Ecology
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ecology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
    Ecology
    Article . 2015
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      Ecology
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      Ecology
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ecology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Ecology
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Anne-Loes Opperhuizen; Dirk Jan Stenvers; Remi Jansen; Ewout Foppen; +2 Authors

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse health effects with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. It is well-known that acute exposure to LAN affects biological clock function, hormone secretion and the activity of the autonomic nervous system, but data on the effects of LAN on glucose homeostasis are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of LAN on glucose metabolism.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to i.v. glucose or insulin tolerance tests while exposed to 2 h of LAN in the early or late dark phase. In subsequent experiments, different light intensities and wavelengths were used.RESULTS: LAN exposure early in the dark phase at ZT15 caused increased glucose responses during the first 20 min after glucose infusion (p < 0.001), whereas LAN exposure at the end of the dark phase, at ZT21, caused increased insulin responses during the first 10 min (p < 0.01), indicating that LAN immediately induces glucose intolerance in rats. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that the effect of LAN was both intensity- and wavelength-dependent. White light of 50 and 150 lx induced greater glucose responses than 5 and 20 lx, whereas all intensities other than 5 lx reduced locomotor activity. Green light induced glucose intolerance, but red and blue light did not, suggesting the involvement of a specific retina-brain pathway.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Together, these data show that exposure to LAN has acute adverse effects on glucose metabolism in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Diabetologia
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Diabetologia
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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      Diabetologia
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Terlouw, E.M. Claudia; Lawrence, Alistair B.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Cockram, M.;

    Previous work has shown that stereotypies, such as chain manipulation and excessive drinking, only develop in food-restricted sows. Furthermore, once stereotypies have been developed, ingestion of a small meal specifically stimulates the performance of stereotypies. These results suggest that the occurrence of stereotypies may strongly depend on the individual's nutritional status. As glucose is one of the main metabolic fuels, the present experiment investigated whether individual differences and/or daily variations in levels of chain manipulation and excessive drinking are correlated to individual differences and/or daily variations in pre- or postfeeding glucose concentrations. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals prior to, during, and after feeding, from sows that had developed stereotypies to different degrees over a period of 110 days of restrictive housing and feeding conditions. Glucose concentrations were low prior to and high after feeding. Levels of stereotypies showed similar variations, suggesting that the performance of stereotypies is not related to low glucose concentrations. Furthermore, whilst sows differed consistently in glucose concentrations, no correlations were found between individual glucose concentrations and stereotypies. Similarly, no correlations were found between glucose concentrations and chain manipulation or drinking on a sample to sample basis. These data show that although performance of stereotypies is strongly dependent on feeding regime, it is not related to plasma glucose concentrations.

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    Physiology & Behavior
    Article . 1993
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Physiology & Behavior
    Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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      Physiology & Behavior
      Article . 1993
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      Physiology & Behavior
      Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Malam Issa, Oumarou; Stal, Lucas J.; Défarge, Christian; Trichet, Jean; +1 Authors

    Cyanobacterial crusts developing on the sandy and loamy soils of fallow lands in the Sahel (Niger) were investigated for their potential to fix nitrogen. Three sites were selected in this and environment, differing in sediment type and species composition. In the sandy sites heterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria were present, whereas the loamy site did not contain such species. All sites showed light-dependent nitrogenase activity, starting within 2 h after re-wetting of the desiccated crust samples. Inhibition of photosystem II caused a decrease of nitrogenase activity in the samples with heterocystous cyanobacteria, but was stimulatory in the non- heterocystous crust. The results suggest that cyanobacterial crusts may be important for the improvement of the soil by enriching it with nitrogen. [KEYWORDS: nitrogen fixations; cyanobacteria; microbiotic crusts; arid and semi-arid environments Western negev desert; cyanobacteria; photosynthesis; mats]

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