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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marguerite, O'Callaghan; Tzehow, Mok; Stela, Lefter; Hugh, Harrington;

    A previously healthy 35-year-old Caucasian woman developed left body (including facial) hemianaesthesia, asymmetrical lower cranial nerve palsies and cerebellar signs after a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Serial blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures returned negative for a culprit organism. CSF examination revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and an elevated protein count. CSF cytological examination identified plasma cells. MRI of brain showed multiple ring-enhancing ‘abscess-like’ lesions in the brainstem and upper cervical cord together with abnormal meningeal enhancement. A decision was made to treat her empirically for Listeria rhombencephalitis to which she responded completely. CSF PCR eventually returned positive for Listeria monocytogenes. This case illustrates the utility of clinical features, MRI, CSF cytology and PCR in diagnosis and treatment of culture negative L monocytogenes rhombencephalitis in an immunocompetent individual.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ BMJ Case Reportsarrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2012
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    BMJ Case Reports
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ BMJ Case Reportsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      BMJ Case Reports
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ni, Ruiqing; Dean-Ben, Xose Luis; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Rudin, Markus; +9 Authors

    AbstractDeposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposits is one major histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we introduce volumetric multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (vMSOT), which covers 10×10×10 mm3 field-of-view, capable of 3D whole mouse brain imaging. We show for the first time the optoacoustic properties of oxazine-derivative AOI987 probe, which binds to Aβ, and the application of vMSOT for the quantification of brain-wide Aβ deposition. Administration of AOI987 to two common transgenic mouse strains of AD amyloidosis led to a retention of the probe in Aβ-laden brain regions. Co-registered of vMSOT data to a brain atlas revealed strain-specific pattern of AOI987 uptake. A comparison with ex vivo light-sheet microscopy in cleared mouse brains showed a good correspondence in Aβ distribution. Lastly, we demonstrate the specificity of the AOI987 probe by immunohistochemistry. vMSOT with AOI987 facilitates preclinical brain region-specific studies of Aβ spread and accumulation, and the monitoring of putative treatments targeting Aβ.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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    https://www.biorxiv.org/conten...
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    Authors: Winston, Gavin P; Cardoso, M Jorge; Williams, Elaine J; Burdett, Jane L; +5 Authors

    The hippocampus is located within the medial temporal lobe and plays a key role in learning and episodic, semantic, and spatial memory. Dysfunction has been reported in neurologic and psychiatric disorders including epilepsy (Wu et al., 2005), Alzheimer's disease (Apostolova et al., 2006), schizophrenia (Tanskanen et al., 2005), and depression (Bremner et al., 2000). Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-resistant focal epilepsy, with seizures frequently arising from the hippocampus. In surgical series of TLE, the pathology is often hippocampal sclerosis (HS) comprising neuronal loss and gliosis and marked by atrophy and signal change on magnetic resonance imaging (Van Paesschen, 2004). Atrophy of the hippocampus through HS provides a good biomarker for the laterality of the seizure focus (Bernasconi et al., 2003), and combined with concordant neurophysiology and neuropsychological data can be sufficient to recommend surgery. Hippocampal atrophy is associated with a favorable surgical outcome (Schramm & Clusmann, 2008). Visual assessment of hippocampal volumes is unreliable, as it may be compromised by head position and primarily detects hippocampal asymmetry rather than volume loss, making bilateral atrophy difficult to identify. Hippocampal segmentation and volumetry are thus important for diagnosis and surgical planning (Watson et al., 1997). The gold standard for hippocampal segmentation is manual delineation by trained raters. This is accurate, reproducible, and sensitive but is time-consuming, requires anatomic knowledge, and is subject to interrater and intrarater variability. The hippocampus is challenging to delineate as it is small and highly variable with ill-defined margins. Many protocols exist for manual segmentation depending on which structures are included and the boundary definition (Konrad et al., 2009). Automated segmentation techniques aim to ensure operator independence, high reproducibility, and reduced demand for human time and expertise. The strongest drive for automation has come from researchers working with large cohorts of patients with Alzheimer's disease patients. Hippocampal volumes are an early marker for the disease, are related to cognitive status, and may reflect disease progression in clinical trials (Frisoni & Jack, 2011). In atlas-based segmentation approaches, a template and associated manual labels are registered (matched) to the new image (Carmichael et al., 2005). Commonly used methods, including FreeSurfer (Fischl et al., 2002), rely on a single template so that subjects that differ significantly from the template, for example HS, are poorly segmented. Segmentation of hippocampi that are sclerotic is more challenging than segmenting hippocampi in Alzheimer's disease, as the latter is associated with more prominent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)–hippocampal boundaries, whereas the former is associated with signal change. The use of an atlas with multiple template images is more effective than a single template (Heckemann et al., 2006) and depends on the quality of registration and template selection strategy. Most previous atlas-based segmentation studies used small template databases of healthy subjects. Results obtained in TLE are significantly worse than in healthy subjects or Alzheimer's disease (Kim et al., 2012), as aside from atrophy, approximately 40% of patients with TLE demonstrate an atypical shape or position of the hippocampus (Bernasconi et al., 2005). In this study, we adapted our published method developed for use in Alzheimer's disease (Cardoso et al., 2013) to a large cohort of adult patients with epilepsy by employing accurate nonlinear registration (Modat et al., 2010) and a large template database that encompasses the range of pathology observed in epilepsy at a tertiary referral center. Manual segmentations of the most similar images from the template database are combined using a label fusion strategy based on local similarity to ensure accurate segmentation regardless of pathology. We demonstrate that this technique achieves reliable segmentation with no more variability than that seen between different expert raters. The algorithm is made freely available via an online Web-based service (https://hipposeg.cs.ucl.ac.uk). In addition, the software, scripts, and an anonymized version of the template database are available from this website.

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    Epilepsia
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Epilepsia
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Epilepsia
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Epilepsia
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    Authors: Nataliya, Zelisko; Dmytro, Atamanyuk; Olexandr, Vasylenko; Philippe, Grellier; +1 Authors

    A series of novel 6,6,7-trisubstituted thiopyrano[2,3-d][1,3]thiazoles-based molecules have been synthesized and evaluated as potential antitrypanosomal agents. The most active analogue 3b inhibited Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an IC50 of 0.26 and 0.42 mu M, respectively. They could be considered as potent hits for further antitrypanosomal drug discovery efforts. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aperta - TÜBİTAK Açı...arrow_drop_down
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    Aperta - TÜBİTAK Açık Arşivi
    Other literature type . 2012
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claudia R. Avalos; Celina M. Abreu; Suzanne E. Queen; Ming Li; +13 Authors

    ABSTRACT A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir. Using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for HIV encephalitis and AIDS, we evaluated whether infected cells persist in brain despite ART. Eight SIV-infected pig-tailed macaques were virally suppressed with ART, and plasma and CSF viremia levels were analyzed longitudinally. To assess whether virus persisted in brain macrophages (BrMΦ) in these macaques, we used a macrophage quantitative viral outgrowth assay (MΦ-QVOA), PCR, and in situ hybridization (ISH) to measure the frequency of infected cells and the levels of viral RNA and DNA in brain. Viral RNA in brain tissue of suppressed macaques was undetectable, although viral DNA was detected in all animals. The MΦ-QVOA demonstrated that the majority of suppressed animals contained latently infected BrMΦ. We also showed that virus produced in the MΦ-QVOAs was replication competent, suggesting that latently infected BrMΦ are capable of reestablishing productive infection upon treatment interruption. This report provides the first confirmation of the presence of replication-competent SIV in BrMΦ of ART-suppressed macaques and suggests that the highly debated issue of viral latency in macrophages, at least in brain, has been addressed in SIV-infected macaques treated with ART. IMPORTANCE Resting CD4+ T cells are currently the only cells that fit the definition of a latent reservoir. However, recent evidence suggests that HIV/SIV-infected macrophages persist despite ART. Markers of macrophage activation and neuronal damage are observed in the CSF of HIV-infected individuals and of SIV-infected macaques on suppressive ART regimens, suggesting that the CNS has continued virus infection and latent infection. A controversy exists as to whether brain macrophages represent a latent source of replication-competent virus capable of reestablishing infection upon treatment interruption. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of the latent macrophage reservoir in brains of SIV-infected ART-treated macaques and analyzed the reservoir using our established outgrowth assay to quantitate macrophages harboring replication-competent SIV genomes. Our results support the idea of the existence of other latent reservoirs in addition to resting CD4+ T cells and underscore the importance of macrophages in developing strategies to eradicate HIV.

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    mBio
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      mBio
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa; Silva, Lisbeth; Silva, Ana Maria; Moreno, António J.; +2 Authors

    Mitochondrial function and energy metabolism are affected in brains of human cocaine abusers. Cocaine is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac and hepatic tissues, but its effects on brain bioenergetics are less documented. Furthermore, the combination of cocaine and opioids (speedball) was also shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. In this work, we compared the effects of cocaine and/or morphine on the bioenergetics of isolated brain and liver mitochondria, to understand their specific effects in each tissue. Upon energization with complex I substrates, cocaine decreased state-3 respiration in brain (but not in liver) mitochondria and decreased uncoupled respiration and mitochondrial potential in both tissues, through a direct effect on complex I. Morphine presented only slight effects on brain and liver mitochondria, and the combination cocaine+morphine had similar effects to cocaine alone, except for a greater decrease in state-3 respiration. Brain and liver mitochondrial respirations were differentially affected, and liver mitochondria were more prone to proton leak caused by the drugs or their combination. This was possibly related with a different dependence on complex I in mitochondrial populations from these tissues. In summary, cocaine and cocaine+morphine induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in isolated brain and liver mitochondria, with specific effects in each tissue.

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    Toxicology Letters
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    Toxicology Letters
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Saktimayee M, Roy; Valerie L, Grum-Tokars; James P, Schavocky; Faisal, Saeed; +10 Authors

    The first kinase inhibitor drug approval in 2001 initiated a remarkable decade of tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs for oncology indications, but a void exists for serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor drugs and central nervous system indications. Stress kinases are of special interest in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders due to their involvement in synaptic dysfunction and complex disease susceptibility. Clinical and preclinical evidence implicates the stress related kinase p38αMAPK as a potential neurotherapeutic target, but isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor candidates are lacking and the mixed kinase inhibitor drugs that are promising in peripheral tissue disease indications have limitations for neurologic indications. Therefore, pursuit of the neurotherapeutic hypothesis requires kinase isoform selective inhibitors with appropriate neuropharmacology features. Synaptic dysfunction disorders offer a potential for enhanced pharmacological efficacy due to stress-induced activation of p38αMAPK in both neurons and glia, the interacting cellular components of the synaptic pathophysiological axis, to be modulated. We report a novel isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor, MW01-18-150SRM (=MW150), that is efficacious in suppression of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory deficits in two distinct synaptic dysfunction mouse models. A synthetic scheme for biocompatible product and positive outcomes from pharmacological screens are presented. The high-resolution crystallographic structure of the p38αMAPK/MW150 complex documents active site binding, reveals a potential low energy conformation of the bound inhibitor, and suggests a structural explanation for MW150’s exquisite target selectivity. As far as we are aware, MW150 is without precedent as an isoform selective p38MAPK inhibitor or as a kinase inhibitor capable of modulating in vivo stress related behavior.

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    ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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      ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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    Authors: Zhilin, Zhang; Tzyy-Ping, Jung; Scott, Makeig; Bhaskar D, Rao;

    Telemonitoring of electroencephalogram (EEG) through wireless body-area networks is an evolving direction in personalized medicine. Among various constraints in designing such a system, three important constraints are energy consumption, data compression, and device cost. Conventional data compression methodologies, although effective in data compression, consumes significant energy and cannot reduce device cost. Compressed sensing (CS), as an emerging data compression methodology, is promising in catering to these constraints. However, EEG is non-sparse in the time domain and also non-sparse in transformed domains (such as the wavelet domain). Therefore, it is extremely difficult for current CS algorithms to recover EEG with the quality that satisfies the requirements of clinical diagnosis and engineering applications. Recently, Block Sparse Bayesian Learning (BSBL) was proposed as a new method to the CS problem. This study introduces the technique to the telemonitoring of EEG. Experimental results show that its recovery quality is better than state-of-the-art CS algorithms, and sufficient for practical use. These results suggest that BSBL is very promising for telemonitoring of EEG and other non-sparse physiological signals. Comment: Matlab codes can be downloaded at: http://dsp.ucsd.edu/~zhilin/BSBL.html, or http://sites.google.com/site/researchbyzhang/bsbl

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    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
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      IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
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    Authors: Mobina Alemi; Cristiana Gaiteiro; Carlos Ribeiro; Luis Miguel Santos; +7 Authors

    AbstractTransthyretin (TTR) binds Aβ peptide, preventing its deposition and toxicity. TTR is decreased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Additionally, AD transgenic mice with only one copy of the TTR gene show increased brain and plasma Aβ levels when compared to AD mice with both copies of the gene, suggesting TTR involvement in brain Aβ efflux and/or peripheral clearance. Here we showed that TTR promotes Aβ internalization and efflux in a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3. TTR also stimulated brain-to-blood but not blood-to-brain Aβ permeability in hCMEC/D3, suggesting that TTR interacts directly with Aβ at the blood-brain-barrier. We also observed that TTR crosses the monolayer of cells only in the brain-to-blood direction, as confirmed by in vivo studies, suggesting that TTR can transport Aβ from, but not into the brain. Furthermore, TTR increased Aβ internalization by SAHep cells and by primary hepatocytes from TTR+/+ mice when compared to TTR−/− animals. We propose that TTR-mediated Aβ clearance is through LRP1, as lower receptor expression was found in brains and livers of TTR−/− mice and in cells incubated without TTR. Our results suggest that TTR acts as a carrier of Aβ at the blood-brain-barrier and liver, using LRP1.

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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Carsten Stüber; David Pitt; Yi Wang;

    Iron is considered to play a key role in the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In particular, iron that accumulates in myeloid cells after the blood-brain barrier (BBB) seals may contribute to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and eventually neurodegeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established tool for the non-invasive study of MS. In recent years, an advanced MRI method, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), has made it possible to study brain iron through in vivo imaging. Moreover, immunohistochemical investigations have helped defining the lesional and cellular distribution of iron in MS brain tissue. Imaging studies in MS patients and of brain tissue combined with histological studies have provided important insights into the role of iron in inflammation and neurodegeneration in MS.

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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marguerite, O'Callaghan; Tzehow, Mok; Stela, Lefter; Hugh, Harrington;

    A previously healthy 35-year-old Caucasian woman developed left body (including facial) hemianaesthesia, asymmetrical lower cranial nerve palsies and cerebellar signs after a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Serial blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures returned negative for a culprit organism. CSF examination revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and an elevated protein count. CSF cytological examination identified plasma cells. MRI of brain showed multiple ring-enhancing ‘abscess-like’ lesions in the brainstem and upper cervical cord together with abnormal meningeal enhancement. A decision was made to treat her empirically for Listeria rhombencephalitis to which she responded completely. CSF PCR eventually returned positive for Listeria monocytogenes. This case illustrates the utility of clinical features, MRI, CSF cytology and PCR in diagnosis and treatment of culture negative L monocytogenes rhombencephalitis in an immunocompetent individual.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ BMJ Case Reportsarrow_drop_down
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    BMJ Case Reports
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    BMJ Case Reports
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ BMJ Case Reportsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      BMJ Case Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2012
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      BMJ Case Reports
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Ni, Ruiqing; Dean-Ben, Xose Luis; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Rudin, Markus; +9 Authors

    AbstractDeposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposits is one major histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we introduce volumetric multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (vMSOT), which covers 10×10×10 mm3 field-of-view, capable of 3D whole mouse brain imaging. We show for the first time the optoacoustic properties of oxazine-derivative AOI987 probe, which binds to Aβ, and the application of vMSOT for the quantification of brain-wide Aβ deposition. Administration of AOI987 to two common transgenic mouse strains of AD amyloidosis led to a retention of the probe in Aβ-laden brain regions. Co-registered of vMSOT data to a brain atlas revealed strain-specific pattern of AOI987 uptake. A comparison with ex vivo light-sheet microscopy in cleared mouse brains showed a good correspondence in Aβ distribution. Lastly, we demonstrate the specificity of the AOI987 probe by immunohistochemistry. vMSOT with AOI987 facilitates preclinical brain region-specific studies of Aβ spread and accumulation, and the monitoring of putative treatments targeting Aβ.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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    https://www.biorxiv.org/conten...
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    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      https://www.biorxiv.org/conten...
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      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: UnpayWall