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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Capra, Julien; Gao, Bo; Hemmery, Hélène; Thuéry, Pierre; +1 Authors

    International audience; The addition of the potassium salt of (R)-4-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone to dialkyl alkylidenemalonates under various conditions is reported. Very good diastereoselectivities (> 90% de) were obtained in several cases. Conversion of one of the adducts to the β-amino acid (S)-β-leucine was achieved in two straightforward steps.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ARKIVOCarrow_drop_down
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    ARKIVOC
    Article . 2015
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    ARKIVOC
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    Other literature type . 2015
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    ARKIVOC
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ARKIVOCarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2015
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      ARKIVOC
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      ARKIVOC
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Baunez, Christelle; Degoulet, Mickaël; Luchini, Stéphane; Pintus, Patrick A.; +1 Authors

    Even though much has been learned about the new pathogen SARS-CoV-2 since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a lot of uncertainty remains. In this paper we argue that what is important to know under uncertainty is whether harm accelerates and whether health policies achieve deceleration of harm. For this, we need to see cases in relation to diagnostic effort and not to look at indicators based on cases only, such as a number of widely used epidemiological indicators, including the reproduction number, do. To do so overlooks a crucial dimension, namely the fact that the best we can know about cases will depend on some welldefined strategy of diagnostic effort, such as testing in the case of COVID-19. We will present a newly developed indicator to observe harm, the acceleration index, which is essentially an elasticity of cases in relation to tests. We will discuss what efficiency of testing means and propose that the corresponding health policy goal should be to find ever fewer cases with an ever-greater diagnostic effort. Easy and low-threshold testing will also be a means to give back people’s sovereignty to lead their life in an “open” as opposed to “locked-down” society.

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    Other literature type . 2021
    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stéphane Legriel; Edouard Bresson; Nicolas Deye; David Grimaldi; +18 Authors

    Objectives: Cardiac arrest is a catastrophic event that may arise during the management of convulsive status epilepticus. We aimed to report the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and early predictors of convulsive status epilepticus–related cardiac arrest. Design: Retrospective multicenter study. Setting: Seventeen university or university affiliated participating ICUs in France and Belgium. Patients: Consecutive patients admitted to the participating ICUs for management of successfully resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest complicating the initial management of convulsive status epilepticus between 2000 and 2015. Patients were compared with controls without cardiac arrest identified in a single-center registry of convulsive status epilepticus patients, regarding characteristics, management, and outcome. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: We included 49 cases with convulsive status epilepticus–cardiac arrest and 235 controls. In the cases, median time from medical team arrival to cardiac arrest was 25 minutes (interquartile range, 5–85 min). First recorded rhythm was asystole in 25 patients (51%) and pulseless electrical activity in 13 patients (27%). A significantly larger proportion of patients had a favorable 1-year outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5) among controls (90/235; 38%) than among cases (10/49; 21%; p = 0.02). By multivariate analysis, independent predictors of cardiac arrest were pulse oximetry less than 97% on scene (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.03–7.26; p = 0.04), drug poisoning as the cause of convulsive status epilepticus (odds ratio, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.27–13.53; p = 0.02), and complications during early management (odds ratio, 11.98; 95% CI, 4.67–34.69; p < 0.0001). Having at least one comorbidity among cardiac, respiratory, and neurologic (other than epilepsy) conditions predicted absence of cardiac arrest (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10–0.80; p = 0.02). Conclusions: In patients managed for convulsive status epilepticus, relative hypoxemia, on-scene management complications, and drug poisoning as the cause of convulsive status epilepticus were strong early predictors of cardiac arrest, suggesting areas for improvement.

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    Critical Care Medicine
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    Critical Care Medicine
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dupont, Sophie; Duron, Emmanuelle; Samson, Séverine; Denos, Marisa; +7 Authors

    International audience; PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine whether blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can aid prediction of postoperative memory changes in epileptic patients after temporal lobe surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Data were analyzed from 25 patients (12 women, 13 men; age range, 19-52 years) with refractory epilepsy in whom temporal lobe surgery was performed after they underwent preoperative functional MR imaging, the Wada test, and neuropsychological testing. The functional MR imaging protocol included three different memory tasks (24-hour delayed recognition, encoding, and immediate recognition). Individual activations were measured in medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions of both hemispheres. The prognostic accuracy of functional MR imaging for prediction of postoperative memory changes was compared with the accuracy of the Wada test and preoperative neuropsychological testing by using a backward multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: An equation that was based on left functional MR imaging MTL activation during delayed recognition, side of the epileptic focus, and preoperative global verbal memory score was used to correctly predict worsening of verbal memory in 90% of patients. The right functional MR imaging MTL activation did not substantially correlate with the nonverbal memory outcome, which was only predicted by using the preoperative nonverbal global score. Wada test data were not good predictors of changes in either verbal or nonverbal memory. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that functional MR imaging activation during a delayed-recognition task is a better predictor of individual postoperative verbal memory outcome than is the Wada test.

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    Radiology
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    Radiology
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Radiology
    Article . 2010
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      Radiology
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      Radiology
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2010
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    Authors: Marta Milà-Alomà; Mahnaz Shekari; Gemma Salvadó; Juan Domingo Gispert; +18 Authors

    Background: Understanding the changes that occur in the transitional stage between absent and overt amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology within the Alzheimer's continuum is crucial to develop therapeutic and preventive strategies. The objective of this study is to test whether cognitively unimpaired individuals with a low burden of Aβ pathology have a distinct CSF, structural, and functional neuroimaging biomarker profile. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 318 middle-aged, cognitively unimpaired individuals from the ALFA+ cohort. We measured CSF Aβ42/40, phosphorylated tau (p-tau), total tau (t-tau), neurofilament light (NfL), neurogranin, sTREM2, YKL40, GFAP, IL6, S100B, and α-synuclein. Participants also underwent cognitive assessments, APOE genotyping, structural MRI, [18F]-FDG, and [18F]-flutemetamol PET. To ensure the robustness of our results, we used three definitions of low burden of Aβ pathology: (1) positive CSF Aβ42/40 and < 30 Centiloids in Aβ PET, (2) positive CSF Aβ42/40 and negative Aβ PET visual read, and (3) 20-40 Centiloid range in Aβ PET. We tested CSF and neuroimaging biomarker differences between the low burden group and the corresponding Aβ-negative group, adjusted by age and sex. Results: The prevalence and demographic characteristics of the low burden group differed between the three definitions. CSF p-tau and t-tau were increased in the low burden group compared to the Aβ-negative in all definitions. CSF neurogranin was increased in the low burden group definitions 1 and 3, while CSF NfL was only increased in the low burden group definition 1. None of the defined low burden groups showed signs of atrophy or glucose hypometabolism. Instead, we found slight increases in cortical thickness and metabolism in definition 2. Conclusions: There are biologically meaningful Aβ-downstream effects in individuals with a low burden of Aβ pathology, while structural and functional changes are still subtle or absent. These findings support considering individuals with a low burden of Aβ pathology for clinical trials. Trial registration: NCT02485730. The research leading to these results has received funding from “la Caixa” Foundation (LCF/PR/GN17/10300004) and the Alzheimer’s Association and an international anonymous charity foundation through the TriBEKa Imaging Platform project (TriBEKa-17-519007). Additional support has been received from the Universities and Research Secretariat, Ministry of Business and Knowledge of the Catalan Government under the grant no. 2017-SGR-892. JDG holds a “Ramón y Cajal” fellowship (RYC-2013-13054). EMA-U is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities - Spanish State Research Agency (RYC2018-026053-I). NV-T is funded by a post-doctoral grant, Juan de la Cierva Programme (FJC2018-038085-I), Ministry of Science and Innovation–Spanish State Research Agency. OG-R is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (FJCI-2017-33437), and receives funding from the Alzheimer’s Association Research Fellowship Program (2019-AARF-644568). ASV is the recipient of an Instituto de Salud Carlos III Miguel Servet II fellowship (CP II 17/00029). HZ is a Wallenberg Scholar supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council (#2018-02532), the European Research Council (#681712), Swedish State Support for Clinical Research (#ALFGBG-720931), the Alzheimer Drug Discovery Foundation (ADDF), USA (#201809-2016862), and the UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL. KB is supported by the Alzheimer Drug Discovery Foundation (ADDF), USA (#RDAPB-201809-2016615), the Swedish Alzheimer Foundation (#AF-742881), Hjärnfonden, Sweden (#FO2017-0243), the Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government and the County Councils, the ALF-agreement (#ALFGBG-715986), and European Union Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Disorders (JPND2019-466-236). MSC receives funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant agreement No. 948677). MSC also receives funding from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI19/00155) and from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (Juan de la Cierva Programme grant IJC2018-037478-I).

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    Alzheimer’s Research &amp; Therapy
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    Article . 2021
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      Alzheimer’s Research &amp; Therapy
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      UPF Digital Repository
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Iancu, M.N.; Chevalier, Y.; Popa, M.; Hamaide, T.;

    AbstractWater-in-oil emulsions having their aqueous internal phase gelled with starch were prepared and investigated. They were the primary emulsions required for the preparation of double w/o/w emulsions that could encapsulate hydrophilic materials inside the internal aqueous gel. The emulsification could be achieved at high temperature in spite of the high viscosity of the aqueous phase; the internal phase gelled upon cooling to room temperature. The high viscosity of the aqueous phase limited the possible concentration range of starch in the aqueous phase. The presence of starch made the surfactant demand larger for both the emulsification and the stabilization of the w/o emulsions. The larger the starch content, the larger the amount of required surfactant. One reason for the high surfactant demand was the high viscosity of the aqueous phase containing starch. Another cause of high surfactant demand was disclosed and it appeared that predominantly the interactions of the nonionic surfactants with starch retained the former inside the aqueous phase. The immobilized amount of surfactant had to be compensated by a supplementary concentration. Experimental evidence of the interactions between starch and the nonionic surfactants was given by interfacial tension measurements. Lastly, w/o/w double emulsions were prepared using the gelled w/o emulsions and a model hydrophilic molecule (caffeine) was encapsulated inside the internal gelled aqueous phase. The release rate of caffeine from the internally gelled double emulsions was slower than for the non-gelled emulsions, demonstrating the efficiency of the encapsulation and the possible control of the delivery.

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    e-Polymers
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2009
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      e-Polymers
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2009
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    Authors: Steve Bexton; Lidewij C. Wiersma; Sarah Getu; Peter R. van Run; +8 Authors

    A fox circovirus was identified in serum samples from foxes with unexplained neurologic signs by using viral metagenomics. Fox circovirus nucleic acid was localized in histological lesions of the cerebrum by in situ hybridization. Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic tropism more commonly than previously anticipated.

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    Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Emerging Infectious Diseases
      Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lu, Jun-Xia; Qiang, Wei; Yau, Wai-Ming; Schwieters, Charles D.; +2 Authors

    In vitro, β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides form polymorphic fibrils, with molecular structures that depend on growth conditions, plus various oligomeric and protofibrillar aggregates. Detailed structural information about Aβ assemblies in the human brain has been lacking. Here, we investigate structures of brain-derived Aβ fibrils, using seeded fibril growth from brain extract and data from solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and electron microscopy. Experiments on tissue from two Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with distinct clinical histories indicate a single predominant 40-residue Aβ (Aβ40) fibril structure in each patient, but different structures in the two patients. A molecular structural model developed for Aβ40 fibrils from one patient reveals features that distinguish in vivo from in vitro fibrils. The data suggest that fibrils in the brain may spread from a single nucleation site, that structural variations may correlate with variations in AD, and that structure-specific amyloid imaging agents may be an important future goal.

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    Structure
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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    Structure
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    Cell
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Cell
    Article
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
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      Structure
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      Cell
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cell
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Catherine McCaig; Paris Ataliotis; Anan Shtaya; Ayan S Omar; +8 Authors

    Nitrones (e.g. α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone; PBN) are cerebroprotective in experimental stroke. Free radical trapping is their proposed mechanism. As PBN has low radical trapping potency, we tested Sgk1 induction as another possible mechanism. PBN was injected (100 mg/kg, i.p.) into adult male rats and mice. Sgk1 was quantified in cerebral tissue by microarray, quantitative RT-PCR and western analyses. Sgk1+/+ and Sgk1−/− mice were randomized to receive PBN or saline immediately following transient (60 min) occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Neurological deficit was measured at 24 h and 48 h and infarct volume at 48 h post-occlusion. Following systemic PBN administration, rapid induction of Sgk1 was detected by microarray (at 4 h) and confirmed by RT-PCR and phosphorylation of the Sgk1-specific substrate NDRG1 (at 6 h). PBN-treated Sgk1+/+ mice had lower neurological deficit ( p < 0.01) and infarct volume ( p < 0.01) than saline-treated Sgk1+/+ mice. PBN-treated Sgk1−/− mice did not differ from saline-treated Sgk1−/− mice. Saline-treated Sgk1−/− and Sgk1+/+ mice did not differ. Brain Sgk3:Sgk1 mRNA ratio was 1.0:10.6 in Sgk1+/+ mice. Sgk3 was not augmented in Sgk1−/− mice. We conclude that acute systemic treatment with PBN induces Sgk1 in brain tissue. Sgk1 may play a part in PBN-dependent actions in acute brain ischemia.

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    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
    Article
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    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
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      Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
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    Authors: Abdullah, Haniah; Brankin, Brenda B; Brady, Clare; Cosby, Sara Louise;

    Small numbers of brain endothelial cells (BECs) are infected in children with neurologic complications of measles virus (MV) infection. This may provide a mechanism for virus entry into the central nervous system, but the mechanisms are unclear. Both in vitro culture systems and animal models are required to elucidate events in the endothelium. We compared the ability of wild-type (WT), vaccine, and rodent-adapted MV strains to infect, replicate, and induce apoptosis in human and murine brain endothelial cells (HBECs and MBECs, respectively). Mice also were infected intracerebrally. All MV stains productively infected HBECs and induced the MV receptor PVRL4. Efficient WT MV production also occurred in MBECs. Extensive monolayer destruction associated with activated caspase 3 staining was observed in HBECs and MBECs, most markedly with WT MV. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not Fas ligand, was induced by MV infection. Treatment of MBECs with supernatants from MV-infected MBEC cultures with an anti-TRAIL antibody blocked caspase 3 expression and monolayer destruction. TRAIL was also expressed in the endothelium and other cell types in infected murine brains. This is the first demonstration that infection of low numbers of BECs with WT MV allows efficient virus production, induction of TRAIL, and subsequent widespread apoptosis.

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    Arrow@TU Dublin
    Article . 2013
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    Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2013
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      Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Capra, Julien; Gao, Bo; Hemmery, Hélène; Thuéry, Pierre; +1 Authors

    International audience; The addition of the potassium salt of (R)-4-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone to dialkyl alkylidenemalonates under various conditions is reported. Very good diastereoselectivities (> 90% de) were obtained in several cases. Conversion of one of the adducts to the β-amino acid (S)-β-leucine was achieved in two straightforward steps.

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    ARKIVOC
    Article . 2015
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2015
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    ARKIVOC
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Baunez, Christelle; Degoulet, Mickaël; Luchini, Stéphane; Pintus, Patrick A.; +1 Authors

    Even though much has been learned about the new pathogen SARS-CoV-2 since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a lot of uncertainty remains. In this paper we argue that what is important to know under uncertainty is whether harm accelerates and whether health policies achieve deceleration of harm. For this, we need to see cases in relation to diagnostic effort and not to look at indicators based on cases only, such as a number of widely used epidemiological indicators, including the reproduction number, do. To do so overlooks a crucial dimension, namely the fact that the best we can know about cases will depend on some welldefined strategy of diagnostic effort, such as testing in the case of COVID-19. We will present a newly developed indicator to observe harm, the acceleration index, which is essentially an elasticity of cases in relation to tests. We will discuss what efficiency of testing means and propose that the corresponding health policy goal should be to find ever fewer cases with an ever-greater diagnostic effort. Easy and low-threshold testing will also be a means to give back people’s sovereignty to lead their life in an “open” as opposed to “locked-down” society.

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