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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2019-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Error processing is an important aspect of learning. The detection and online correction of an error as well as error-based adaptation of subsequent movements enables humans to improve behavior. For this improvement, it is necessary to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant errors. Behavioral adaptations are only reasonable when an error is attributed to one's own behavior and therefore regarded as relevant for subsequent adjustments, whereas irrelevant errors caused by unsystematic external influences should be disregarded. Here, we ask whether error predictions as indexed by the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) can be used to differentiate relevant and irrelevant errors in movements with a complex visuomotor mapping. Using event-related potentials, we compared the neural activation between relevant (self-induced/internal) errors and irrelevant (externally manipulated) errors in a virtual goal-oriented throwing task. Results show that the Ne/ERN responds more strongly to self-induced errors, while the feedback-related negativity (FRN) more strongly correlates with externally manipulated errors. Moreover, subsequent behavioral adjustments were larger in the relevant compared to the irrelevant error trials. We conclude that predictive processes, marked by the Ne/ERN, can subserve error attribution in naturalistic, complex visuomotor tasks like throwing.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Vision; O...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Vision; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Vision; O...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Vision; OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sam Vickery; Simon B Eickhoff; Patrick Friedrich;

    Hemispheric asymmetries can be seen as one of the evolutionary adaptations that allowed the human brain to muster more complex cognitive processes than other primates. In this vein, the study published by Cheng et al. [1] presents a pivotal investigation of both the regional and connectional asymmetries within the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in human, chimpanzee, and macaque. By investigating 4 sub-divisions of the IPL across the three species, Cheng and colleagues showed that the macroanatomical and connectional architecture of the IPL became more asymmetric throughout the primate lineage. While macaques show little to no structural asymmetries, chimpanzees display a more asymmetric architecture but with both leftward and rightward asymmetries in various connections. In contrast, the human IPL displayed the highest number of asymmetries among the three species with a clear tendency towards more lateralization. This evolutionary trend towards a more lateralized organization of the IPL may have accompanied an improved command of tool-use, stronger forelimb asymmetries, and the increasing complexity of communicative behavior.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Juelich Shared Elect...arrow_drop_down
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    Neuroscience Bulletin
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Neuroscience Bulletin
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Juelich Shared Elect...arrow_drop_down
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      Neuroscience Bulletin
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Neuroscience Bulletin
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Popov, Tzvetan; Gips, Bart; Weisz, Nathan; Jensen, Ole Alexander Askeland;

    AbstractSpatially selective modulation of alpha power (8–14 Hz) is a robust finding in electrophysiological studies of visual attention, and has been recently generalized to auditory spatial attention. This modulation pattern is interpreted as reflecting a top-down mechanism for suppressing distracting input from unattended directions of sound origin. The present study on auditory spatial attention extends this interpretation by demonstrating that alpha power modulation is closely linked to oculomotor action. We designed an auditory paradigm in which participants were required to attend to upcoming sounds from one of 24 loudspeakers arranged in a circular array around the head. Maintaining the location of an auditory cue was associated with a topographically modulated distribution of posterior alpha power resembling the findings known from visual attention. Multivariate analyses allowed the prediction of the sound location in the horizontal plane. Importantly, this prediction was also possible, when derived from signals capturing saccadic activity. A control experiment on auditory spatial attention confirmed that, in absence of any visual/auditory input, lateralization of alpha power is linked to the lateralized direction of gaze. Attending to an auditory target engages oculomotor and visual cortical areas in a topographic manner akin to the retinotopic organization associated with visual attention.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Other literature type . 2023
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Zurich Open Repository and Archive
      Other literature type . 2023
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lukas Preis; Arda Can Cetindag; Kersten Villringer; Jochen B. Fiebach; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundThe importance of vascular integrity in the context of neurodegeneration and specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is increasingly recognized. It has been shown that Blood‐brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in the hippocampus correlates with functional impairment independent of AD pathology. The aim of this study is to investigate BBB permeability in early stages of the AD continuum including subjective cognitive decline (SCD).MethodStudy participants were characterized according to the appropriate research criteria and categorized as normal controls (NC), individuals with SCD and mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI‐AD). Besides a clinical and neuropsychological assessment, the participants underwent structural magnet resonance imaging (MRI), ApoE genotyping and lumbar puncture. AD pathology was examined in accordance to the ATN‐system. Dynamic contrast‐enhanced (DCE) MRI T1 mapping and Patlak analysis using Rocketship software were employed to assess BBB permeability changes.ResultSeventy‐one participants were included (NC = 18, SCD = 36, MCI‐AD = 17). The average age of the cohort was 75 years and the sample consisted of 41% females. The median MMSE scores were 30 for NC and SCD and 27 for the MCI‐AD group. Amyloid pathology, measured in the CSF, was detected in 11% of the NC group (n = 2), 58 % of SCD (n = 21) and 29% of MCI/AD (n = 5). Bilateral BBB dysfunction was identified in 44% of NC (n = 8), in 31% of SCD (n = 11) and 24% of MCI‐AD (n = 4), additionally unilateral BBB dysfunction has been identified in 22% of NC (n = 4), 25% of SCD (n = 9) and 41% of MCI‐AD (n = 7).ConclusionBy using DCE MRI T1 mapping a surprisingly high proportion of increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus can be detected across all groups. Detailed analyzes will reveal the impact of BBB permeability on cognitive function in SCD.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Alzheimer s & Dement...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Alzheimer s & Dementia
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Alzheimer s & Dement...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Alzheimer s & Dementia
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rebecca J. Williams; Elliot C. Brown; Darren L. Clark; G. Bruce Pike; +1 Authors

    Abstract Introduction Pre‐treatment blood oxygenation level‐dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used for the early identification of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who later respond or fail to respond to medication. However, BOLD responses early after treatment initiation may offer insight into early neural changes associated with later clinical response. The present study evaluated both pre‐treatment and early post‐treatment fMRI responses to an emotion processing task, to further our understanding of neural changes associated with a successful response to pharmacological intervention. Methods MDD patients who responded (n = 22) and failed to respond (n = 12) after 8 weeks of treatment with either citalopram or quetiapine extended release, and healthy controls (n = 18) underwent two fMRI scans, baseline (pre‐treatment), and early post‐treatment (one week after treatment commencement). Participants completed an emotional face matching task at both scans. Results Using threshold‐free cluster enhancement (TFCE) and non‐parametric permutation testing, fMRI activation maps showed that after one week of treatment, responders demonstrated increased activation in the left parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, and bilateral insula (all P < 0.05 threshold‐free cluster enhancement (TFCE) family‐wise error‐corrected) to negative facial expressions. Non‐responders showed some small increases in the precentral gyrus, while controls showed no differences between scans. Compared to non‐responders, responders showed some increased activation in the superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus at the post‐treatment scan. There were no group differences between responders, non‐responders, and controls at baseline. Conclusions One week after treatment commencement, BOLD signal changes in the parietal lobules, insula, and middle temporal gyrus were related to clinical response to pharmacological treatment. Patients diagnosed MDD who later went on to respond to medication showed robust BOLD increases after one week of treatment to an emotion processing task. There were no differences between responders, non‐responders and healthy controls at baseline, indicating that BOLD fMRI can be used to identify mediating markers of treatment response.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2021
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    Brain and Behavior
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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2021
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      Brain and Behavior
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      Brain and Behavior
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Savary, E.; Rojas, K.; Maus, M.; Clement, B.; +15 Authors

    We present a search for galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses in the initial 2 500 square degrees of the Canada-France Imaging Survey (CFIS). We designed a convolutional neural network (CNN) committee that we applied to a selection of 2 344 002 exquisite-seeing $r$-band images of color-selected luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Our classification uses a realistic training set where the lensing galaxies and the lensed sources are both taken from real data, namely the CFIS $r$-band images themselves and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A total of 9 460 candidates obtain a score above 0.5 with the CNN committee. After a visual inspection of the candidates, we find a total of 133 lens candidates, of which 104 are completely new. The set of false positives mainly contains ring, spiral, and merger galaxies, and to a lesser extent galaxies with nearby companions. We classify 32 of the lens candidates as secure lenses and 101 as maybe lenses. For the 32 highest quality lenses, we also fit a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass profile with external shear along with an elliptical Sersic profile for the lens and source light. This automated modeling step provides distributions of properties for both sources and lenses that have Einstein radii in the range $0.5\arcsec<θ_E<2.5\arcsec$. Finally, we introduce a new lens and/or source single-band deblending algorithm based on auto-encoder representation of our candidates. This is the first time an end-to-end lens-finding and modeling pipeline is assembled together, in view of future lens searches in a single band, as will be possible with Euclid. 29 pages, 21 figures, accepted by A&A, in press

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2021
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Authors: Benjamin H. Brinkmann; Philippa J. Karoly; Ewan S. Nurse; Ewan S. Nurse; +10 Authors

    It is a major challenge in clinical epilepsy to diagnose and treat a disease characterized by infrequent seizures based on patient or caregiver reports and limited duration clinical testing. The poor reliability of self-reported seizure diaries for many people with epilepsy is well-established, but these records remain necessary in clinical care and therapeutic studies. A number of wearable devices have emerged, which may be capable of detecting seizures, recording seizure data, and alerting caregivers. Developments in non-invasive wearable sensors to measure accelerometry, photoplethysmography (PPG), electrodermal activity (EDA), electromyography (EMG), and other signals outside of the traditional clinical environment may be able to identify seizure-related changes. Non-invasive scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and minimally invasive subscalp EEG may allow direct measurement of seizure activity. However, significant network and computational infrastructure is needed for continuous, secure transmission of data. The large volume of data acquired by these devices necessitates computer-assisted review and detection to reduce the burden on human reviewers. Furthermore, user acceptability of such devices must be a paramount consideration to ensure adherence with long-term device use. Such devices can identify tonic-clonic seizures, but identification of other seizure semiologies with non-EEG wearables is an ongoing challenge. Identification of electrographic seizures with subscalp EEG systems has recently been demonstrated over long (>6 month) durations, and this shows promise for accurate, objective seizure records. While the ability to detect and forecast seizures from ambulatory intracranial EEG is established, invasive devices may not be acceptable for many individuals with epilepsy. Recent studies show promising results for probabilistic forecasts of seizure risk from long-term wearable devices and electronic diaries of self-reported seizures. There may also be predictive value in individuals' symptoms, mood, and cognitive performance. However, seizure forecasting requires perpetual use of a device for monitoring, increasing the importance of the system's acceptability to users. Furthermore, long-term studies with concurrent EEG confirmation are lacking currently. This review describes the current evidence and challenges in the use of minimally and non-invasive devices for long-term epilepsy monitoring, the essential components in remote monitoring systems, and explores the feasibility to detect and forecast impending seizures via long-term use of these systems. Copyright © 2021 Brinkmann, Karoly, Nurse, Dumanis, Nasseri, Viana, Schulze-Bonhage, Freestone, Worrell, Richardson and Cook. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Wiramon Rungratanawanich; Giovanna Cenini; Andrea Mastinu; Marc Sylvester; +9 Authors

    -oryzanol 100 mg/kg or vehicle (control) once a day for 21 consecutive days following which cognitive behavior and hippocampal proteome were investigated. Cognitive tests using novel object recognition and Y-maze showed that long-term consumption of &gamma -oryzanol modulates quantitative changes of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal trafficking, neuroprotection and antioxidant activity, and mitochondria and energy metabolism. These findings suggested &gamma -oryzanol as a putative dietary phytochemical for preserving brain reserve, the ability to tolerate age-related changes, thereby preventing clinical symptoms or signs of neurodegenerative diseases. -Oryzanol has been demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier in intact form and exert beneficial effects on brain function. This study aimed to clarify the effects of &gamma -oryzanol as a natural compound able to maintain and reinforce brain function. Although more intensive studies are needed, we propose &gamma -oryzanol in the hippocampus in terms of cognitive function and protein expression. Adult mice were administered with &gamma -oryzanol improves cognitive function in mice. To investigate the hippocampal proteome modulated by &gamma -oryzanol, 2D-difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was performed. Interestingly, we found that &gamma -oryzanol, a compound endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. &gamma Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the richest source of &gamma

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    Nutrients
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Nutrients
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    Authors: Khan, Asad; Antonakakis, Marios; Suntrup, Sonja; Lencer, Rebekka; +4 Authors

    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has emerged as a non-invasive neuro-modulation technique. Most studies show that anodal tDCS increases cortical excitability, however, withvariable outcomes. Previously, we have shown in computer simulations that our multi-channel tDCS (mc-tDCS) approach, the distributed constrained maximum intensity (D-CMI) method can potentially lead to better controlled tDCS results due to the improved directionality of the injected current at the target side for individually optimized D-CMI montages. Objective: In this study, we test the application of the D-CMI approach in an experimental study to stimulate the somatosensory P20/N20 target source in Brodmann area 3b and compare it with standard bipolar tDCS and sham onditions. Methods: We applied anodal D-CMI, the standard bipolar and D-CMI based Sham tDCS for 10 min to target the 20 ms post-stimulus somatosensory P20/N20 target brain source in Brodmann area 3b reconstructed using combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) source analysis in realistic head models with calibrated skull conductivity in a group-study with 13 subjects. Finger-stimulated somatosensory evoked fields (SEF) were recorded and the component at 20 ms post-stimulus (M20) was analyzed before and after the application of the three tDCS conditions in order to read out the stimulation effect on Brodmann area 3b. Results: Analysis of the finger stimulated SEF M20 peak before (baseline) and after tDCS shows a significant increase in source amplitude in Brodmann area 3b for D-CMI (6-16 min after tDCS), while no significant effects are found for standard bipolar (6-16 min after tDCS) and sham (6-16 min after tDCS) stimulation conditions. For the later time courses (16-26 and 27-37 min post-stimulation), we found a significant decrease in M20 peak source amplitude for standard bipolar and sham tDCS, while there was no effect for D-CMI. Conclusion: Our results indicate that targeted and optimized, and thereby highly individualized, mc-tDCS can outperform standard bipolar stimulation and lead to better control over stimulation outcomes with, however, a considerable amount of additional work compared to standard bipolar tDCS. Finanziert durch den Open-Access-Publikationsfonds der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU Münster).

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    Brain Stimulation
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      Brain Stimulation
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.17879/31029...
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Brand, Rosa Margareta; Friedrich, Verena; Diddens, Jolien; Pfaller, Monika; +5 Authors

    Objective Therapies targeting B cells have been used in the clinic for multiple sclerosis (MS). In patients with relapsing MS, anti-CD20 therapy often suppresses relapse activity; yet, their effect on disease progression has been disappointing. Most anti-CD20 therapeutic antibodies are type I, but within the unique microenvironment of the brain, type II antibodies may be more beneficial, as type II antibodies exhibit reduced complement-dependent cytotoxicity and they have an increased capacity to induce direct cell death that is independent of the host immune response. Methods We compared the effect of type I with type II anti-CD20 therapy in a new rodent model of secondary progressive MS (SPMS), which recapitulates the principal histopathologic features of MS including meningeal B-cell aggregates. Focal MS-like lesions were induced by injecting heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the piriform cortex of MOG-immunized mice. Groups of mice were treated with anti-CD20 antibodies (type I [rituxumab, 10 mg/kg] or type II [GA101, 10 mg/kg]) 4 weeks after lesion initiation, and outcomes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Anti-CD20 therapy decreased the extent of glial activation, significantly decreased the number of B and T lymphocytes in the lesion, and resulted in disruption of the meningeal aggregates. Moreover, at the given dose, the type II anti-CD20 therapy was more efficacious than the type I and also protected against neuronal death. Conclusions These results indicate that anti-CD20 may be an effective therapy for SPMS with B-cell aggregates and that the elimination of CD20+ B cells alone is sufficient to cause disruption of aggregates in the brain.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Neurology: Neuroimmunology &amp; Neuroinflammation
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Neurology: Neuroimmunology &amp; Neuroinflammation
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2021
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Neurology: Neuroimmunology &amp; Neuroinflammation
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neurology: Neuroimmunology &amp; Neuroinflammation
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Error processing is an important aspect of learning. The detection and online correction of an error as well as error-based adaptation of subsequent movements enables humans to improve behavior. For this improvement, it is necessary to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant errors. Behavioral adaptations are only reasonable when an error is attributed to one's own behavior and therefore regarded as relevant for subsequent adjustments, whereas irrelevant errors caused by unsystematic external influences should be disregarded. Here, we ask whether error predictions as indexed by the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) can be used to differentiate relevant and irrelevant errors in movements with a complex visuomotor mapping. Using event-related potentials, we compared the neural activation between relevant (self-induced/internal) errors and irrelevant (externally manipulated) errors in a virtual goal-oriented throwing task. Results show that the Ne/ERN responds more strongly to self-induced errors, while the feedback-related negativity (FRN) more strongly correlates with externally manipulated errors. Moreover, subsequent behavioral adjustments were larger in the relevant compared to the irrelevant error trials. We conclude that predictive processes, marked by the Ne/ERN, can subserve error attribution in naturalistic, complex visuomotor tasks like throwing.

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    Journal of Vision; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Vision; OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sam Vickery; Simon B Eickhoff; Patrick Friedrich;

    Hemispheric asymmetries can be seen as one of the evolutionary adaptations that allowed the human brain to muster more complex cognitive processes than other primates. In this vein, the study published by Cheng et al. [1] presents a pivotal investigation of both the regional and connectional asymmetries within the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in human, chimpanzee, and macaque. By investigating 4 sub-divisions of the IPL across the three species, Cheng and colleagues showed that the macroanatomical and connectional architecture of the IPL became more asymmetric throughout the primate lineage. While macaques show little to no structural asymmetries, chimpanzees display a more asymmetric architecture but with both leftward and rightward asymmetries in various connections. In contrast, the human IPL displayed the highest number of asymmetries among the three species with a clear tendency towards more lateralization. This evolutionary trend towards a more lateralized organization of the IPL may have accompanied an improved command of tool-use, stronger forelimb asymmetries, and the increasing complexity of communicative behavior.

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    Neuroscience Bulletin
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Neuroscience Bulletin
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