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3,188 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • French National Research Agency (ANR)

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Salimi, Fatemeh;

    While the reference framework for international portfolio choice emphasizes a mean-variance framework, uncovered parity conditions only involve mean stock or bond returns. We propose to augment the empirical specification by using the relative stock market uncertainty of two countries as an extra determinant of their bilateral exchange rate returns. A rise in the relative uncertainty of one stock market will lead capital to flow to the other stock market and generate an appreciation in the currency of the latter. By focusing on the JPY/USD exchange rate returns during the most recent decade (2009-2019) and relying on a nonlinear framework, we provide evidence that the Japanese-US differential stock market uncertainty affects the JPY/USD returns both contemporaneously and with weekly lags. This finding is robust when we control for the stock returns differential and the differential changes in Japanese and US unconventional monetary policy measures.

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    Authors: Bayram, Mariam; Palluel-Germain, Richard; Lebon, Florent; Durand, Edith; +2 Authors

    International audience; Studies showed that motor expertise was found to induce improvement in language processing. Grounded and situated approaches attributed this effect to an underlying automatic simulation of the motor experience elicited by action words, similar to motor imagery (MI), and suggest shared representations of action conceptualization. Interestingly, recent results also suggest that the mental simulation of action by MI training induces motor-system modifications and improves motor performance. Consequently, we hypothesize that, since MI training can induce motor-system modifications, it could be used to reinforce the functional connections between motor and language system, and could thus lead to improved language performance. Here, we explore these potential interactions by reviewing recent fundamental and clinical literature in the action-language and MI domains. We suggested that exploiting the link between action language and MI could open new avenues for complementary language improvement programs. We summarize the current literature to evaluate the rationale behind this novel training and to explore the mechanisms underlying MI and its impact on language performance.

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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Human N...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Lim, Soon Hoe; Wan, Yijun; Şimşekli, Umut;

    Recent studies have shown that gradient descent (GD) can achieve improved generalization when its dynamics exhibits a chaotic behavior. However, to obtain the desired effect, the step-size should be chosen sufficiently large, a task which is problem dependent and can be difficult in practice. In this study, we incorporate a chaotic component to GD in a controlled manner, and introduce multiscale perturbed GD (MPGD), a novel optimization framework where the GD recursion is augmented with chaotic perturbations that evolve via an independent dynamical system. We analyze MPGD from three different angles: (i) By building up on recent advances in rough paths theory, we show that, under appropriate assumptions, as the step-size decreases, the MPGD recursion converges weakly to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) driven by a heavy-tailed L\'evy-stable process. (ii) By making connections to recently developed generalization bounds for heavy-tailed processes, we derive a generalization bound for the limiting SDE and relate the worst-case generalization error over the trajectories of the process to the parameters of MPGD. (iii) We analyze the implicit regularization effect brought by the dynamical regularization and show that, in the weak perturbation regime, MPGD introduces terms that penalize the Hessian of the loss function. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate the advantages of MPGD. Comment: 24 pages, accepted at NeurIPS 2022

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: Lindamulage de Silva, Olivier; Lasaulce, Samson; Morarescu, Irinel-Constantin;

    National audience; Dans cet article, nous introduisons un modèle de jeu qui permet d'évaluer la potentielle perte d'efficacité induite par un contrôle décentralisé d'une épidémie. Chaque joueur représente une région ou un pays qui est supposé choisir son action de contrôle pour mettre en oeuvre un compromis local entre les aspects socio-économiques et l'aspect sanitaire. Nous effectuons l'analyse de l'équilibre de Nash de ce jeu. Nous quantifions ensuite par des résultats numériques la perte induite par une prise de décision décentralisé en termes de prix de l'anarchie (PoA). Ces résultats permettent d'identifier clairement les scénarios où la décentralisation est acceptable ou non au regard des mesures d'efficacité globale retenues.

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    Authors: Alain Durmus; Andreas Eberle; Arnaud Guillin; Katharina Schuh;

    We develop a new approach to study the long time behaviour of solutions to nonlinear stochastic differential equations in the sense of McKean, as well as propagation of chaos for the corresponding mean-field particle system approximations. Our approach is based on a sticky coupling between two solutions to the equation. We show that the distance process between the two copies is dominated by a solution to a one-dimensional nonlinear stochastic differential equation with a sticky boundary at zero. This new class of equations is then analyzed carefully. In particular, we show that the dominating equation has a phase transition. In the regime where the Dirac measure at zero is the only invariant probability measure, we prove exponential convergence to equilibrium both for the one-dimensional equation, and for the original nonlinear SDE. Similarly, propagation of chaos is shown by a componentwise sticky coupling and comparison with a system of one dimensional nonlinear SDEs with sticky boundaries at zero. The approach applies to equations without confinement potential and to interaction terms that are not of gradient type. 46 pages

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Stochastic Partial D...arrow_drop_down
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    Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Analysis and Computations
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    License: CC BY
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Stochastic Partial D...arrow_drop_down
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      Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Analysis and Computations
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Le Deuff, Olivier; Perret, Arthur; Borel, Clément; David, Jean;

    Nous présentons dans cet article les outils que nous avons mis en place afin d'étudier le réseau d'acteurs qui gravitent autour la figure du père de la documentation : Paul Otlet. À travers la réalisation de l'Otletosphère, nous portons une réflexion sur la visualisation des relations interpersonnelles. Nous détaillons également l'approche sémantique que nous avons envisagée afin de rendre notre modèle interopérable et faciliter l'interrogation de ce graphe de relations grâce à SPARQL. The aim of this paper is to describe the tools we've set up in order to study Paul Otlet's relationship network. Through designing an application called "otletosphere" we attempt to think about how to display and represent interpersonal relationships. We also explain the semantic approach that we have considered in order to make our model interoperable and facilitate SPARQL queries on this relationship graph.

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    Authors: Couturier, E; Vella, D; Boudaoud, A;

    International audience; Measuring the mechanical properties of cells and tissues often involves indentation with a sphere, or compression between two plates. Different theoretical approaches have been developed to retrieve material parameters (e.g. elastic modulus) or state variables (e.g. pressure) from such experiments. Here, we extend previous theoretical work on indentation of a spherical pressurized shell by a point force to cover indentation by a spherical probe or a plate. We provide formulae that enable the modulus or pressure to be deduced from experimental results with realistic contact geometries, giving different results that are applicable depending on pressure level. We expect our results to be broadly useful when investigating biomechanics or mechanobiology of cells and tissues.

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    Oxford University Research Archive; The European Physical Journal E
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Chiappori, Alessandro; Cazabet, Rémy;

    One of the most common approaches to the analysis of dynamic networks is through time-window aggregation. The resulting representation is a sequence of static networks, i.e. the snapshot graph. Despite this representation being widely used in the literature, a general framework to evaluate the soundness of snapshot graphs is still missing. In this article, we propose two scores to quantify conflicting objectives: Stability measures how much stable the sequence of snapshots is, while Fidelity measures the loss of information compared to the original data. We also develop a technique of targeted filtering of the links, to simplify the original temporal network. Our framework is tested on datasets of proximity and face-to-face interactions. Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures. To be published in "Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Complex Networks and Their Applications" Replacement edits: corrected a misspelled address, improved image quality (the content was not modified)

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    Other literature type . 2021
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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/2110.1346...
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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
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    Authors: Elena Longo; Elena Longo; Lucie Sancey; Alessia Cedola; +14 Authors

    Characterizing nanoparticles (NPs) distribution in multiple and complex metastases is of fundamental relevance for the development of radiological protocols based on NPs administration. In the literature, there have been advances in monitoring NPs in tissues. However, the lack of 3D information is still an issue. X-ray phase-contrast tomography (XPCT) is a 3D label-free, non-invasive and multi-scale approach allowing imaging anatomical details with high spatial and contrast resolutions. Here an XPCT qualitative study on NPs distribution in a mouse brain model of melanoma metastases injected with gadolinium-based NPs for theranostics is presented. For the first time, XPCT images show the NPs uptake at micrometer resolution over the full brain. Our results revealed a heterogeneous distribution of the NPs inside the melanoma metastases, bridging the gap in spatial resolution between magnetic resonance imaging and histology. Our findings demonstrated that XPCT is a reliable technique for NPs detection and can be considered as an emerging method for the study of NPs distribution in organs.

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    Authors: Ricardo J. Alonso; Bertrand Lods; Isabelle Tristani;

    In this paper, we give an overview of the results established in [3] which provides the first rigorous derivation of hydrodynamic equations from the Boltzmann equation for inelastic hard spheres in 3D. In particular, we obtain a new system of hydrodynamic equations describing granular flows and prove existence of classical solutions to the aforementioned system. One of the main issue is to identify the correct relation between the restitution coefficient (which quantifies the rate of energy loss at the microscopic level) and the Knudsen number which allows us to obtain non trivial hydrodynamic behavior. In such a regime, we construct strong solutions to the inelastic Boltzmann equation, near thermal equilibrium whose role is played by the so-called homogeneous cooling state. We prove then the uniform exponential stability with respect to the Knudsen number of such solutions, using a spectral analysis of the linearized problem combined with technical a priori nonlinear estimates. Finally, we prove that such solutions converge, in a specific weak sense, towards some hydrodynamic limit that depends on time and space variables only through macroscopic quantities that satisfy a suitable modification of the incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2008.05173

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    Journal of Statistical Physics
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    Authors: Salimi, Fatemeh;

    While the reference framework for international portfolio choice emphasizes a mean-variance framework, uncovered parity conditions only involve mean stock or bond returns. We propose to augment the empirical specification by using the relative stock market uncertainty of two countries as an extra determinant of their bilateral exchange rate returns. A rise in the relative uncertainty of one stock market will lead capital to flow to the other stock market and generate an appreciation in the currency of the latter. By focusing on the JPY/USD exchange rate returns during the most recent decade (2009-2019) and relying on a nonlinear framework, we provide evidence that the Japanese-US differential stock market uncertainty affects the JPY/USD returns both contemporaneously and with weekly lags. This finding is robust when we control for the stock returns differential and the differential changes in Japanese and US unconventional monetary policy measures.

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    Authors: Bayram, Mariam; Palluel-Germain, Richard; Lebon, Florent; Durand, Edith; +2 Authors

    International audience; Studies showed that motor expertise was found to induce improvement in language processing. Grounded and situated approaches attributed this effect to an underlying automatic simulation of the motor experience elicited by action words, similar to motor imagery (MI), and suggest shared representations of action conceptualization. Interestingly, recent results also suggest that the mental simulation of action by MI training induces motor-system modifications and improves motor performance. Consequently, we hypothesize that, since MI training can induce motor-system modifications, it could be used to reinforce the functional connections between motor and language system, and could thus lead to improved language performance. Here, we explore these potential interactions by reviewing recent fundamental and clinical literature in the action-language and MI domains. We suggested that exploiting the link between action language and MI could open new avenues for complementary language improvement programs. We summarize the current literature to evaluate the rationale behind this novel training and to explore the mechanisms underlying MI and its impact on language performance.

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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    Authors: Lim, Soon Hoe; Wan, Yijun; Şimşekli, Umut;

    Recent studies have shown that gradient descent (GD) can achieve improved generalization when its dynamics exhibits a chaotic behavior. However, to obtain the desired effect, the step-size should be chosen sufficiently large, a task which is problem dependent and can be difficult in practice. In this study, we incorporate a chaotic component to GD in a controlled manner, and introduce multiscale perturbed GD (MPGD), a novel optimization framework where the GD recursion is augmented with chaotic perturbations that evolve via an independent dynamical system. We analyze MPGD from three different angles: (i) By building up on recent advances in rough paths theory, we show that, under appropriate assumptions, as the step-size decreases, the MPGD recursion converges weakly to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) driven by a heavy-tailed L\'evy-stable process. (ii) By making connections to recently developed generalization bounds for heavy-tailed processes, we derive a generalization bound for the limiting SDE and relate the worst-case generalization error over the trajectories of the process to the parameters of MPGD. (iii) We analyze the implicit regularization effect brought by the dynamical regularization and show that, in the weak perturbation regime, MPGD introduces terms that penalize the Hessian of the loss function. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate the advantages of MPGD. Comment: 24 pages, accepted at NeurIPS 2022

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Lindamulage de Silva, Olivier; Lasaulce, Samson; Morarescu, Irinel-Constantin;

    National audience; Dans cet article, nous introduisons un modèle de jeu qui permet d'évaluer la potentielle perte d'efficacité induite par un contrôle décentralisé d'une épidémie. Chaque joueur représente une région ou un pays qui est supposé choisir son action de contrôle pour mettre en oeuvre un compromis local entre les aspects socio-économiques et l'aspect sanitaire. Nous effectuons l'analyse de l'équilibre de Nash de ce jeu. Nous quantifions ensuite par des résultats numériques la perte induite par une prise de décision décentralisé en termes de prix de l'anarchie (PoA). Ces résultats permettent d'identifier clairement les scénarios où la décentralisation est acceptable ou non au regard des mesures d'efficacité globale retenues.

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