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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • UK Research and Innovation

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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      https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Taylor, JSH; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen;

    Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies. Following 2 wk of training, participants read the trained words while neural activity was measured with functional MRI. Representational similarity analysis on item pairs from the same orthography revealed that right vOT and posterior regions of left vOT were sensitive to basic visual similarity. Left vOT encoded letter identity and representations became more invariant to position along a posterior-to-anterior hierarchy. Item pairs that shared sounds or meanings, but were written in different orthographies with no letters in common, evoked similar neural patterns in anterior left vOT. These results reveal a hierarchical, posterior-to-anterior gradient in vOT, in which representations of letters become increasingly invariant to position and are transformed to convey spoken language information. Significance Learning to read is the most important milestone in a child’s education. However, controversies remain regarding how readers’ brains transform written words into sounds and meanings. We address these by combining artificial language learning with neuroimaging to reveal how the brain represents written words. Participants learned to read new words written in 2 different alphabets. Following 2 wk of training, we found a hierarchy of brain areas that support reading. Letter position is represented more flexibly from lower to higher visual regions. Furthermore, higher visual regions encode information about word sounds and meanings. These findings advance our understanding of how the brain comprehends language from arbitrary visual symbols.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Apollo
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Apollo
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2019
      License: CC BY
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: de Berker, A.; Kurth-Nelson, Z.; Rutledge, R. ; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7337-5039; Bestmann, S.; +1 Authors

    How organisms learn the value of single stimuli through experience is well described. In many decisions, however, value estimates are computed “on the fly” by combining multiple stimulus attributes. The neural basis of this computation is poorly understood. Here we explore a common scenario in which decision-makers must combine information about quality and quantity to determine the best option. Using fMRI, we examined the neural representation of quality, quantity, and their integration into an integrated subjective value signal in humans of both genders. We found that activity within inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) correlated with offer quality, while activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically correlated with offer quantity. Several brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), were sensitive to an interaction of quality and quantity. However, the ACC was uniquely activated by quality, quantity, and their interaction, suggesting that this region provides a substrate for flexible computation of value from both quality and quantity. Furthermore, ACC signals across subjects correlated with the strength of quality and quantity signals in IFG and IPS, respectively. ACC tracking of subjective value also correlated with choice predictability. Finally, activity in the ACC was elevated for choice trials, suggesting that ACC provides a nexus for the computation of subjective value in multiattribute decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Would you prefer three apples or two oranges? Many choices we make each day require us to weigh up the quality and quantity of different outcomes. Using fMRI, we show that option quality is selectively represented in the inferior frontal gyrus, while option quantity correlates with areas of the intraparietal sulcus that have previously been associated with numerical processing. We show that information about the two is integrated into a value signal in the anterior cingulate cortex, and the fidelity of this integration predicts choice predictability. Our results demonstrate how on-the-fly value estimates are computed from multiple attributes in human value-based decision-making.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hatton, Sean N; Huynh, Khoa H; Bonilha, Leonardo; Abela, Eugenio; +70 Authors

    AbstractThe epilepsies are commonly accompanied by widespread abnormalities in cerebral white matter. ENIGMA-Epilepsy is a large quantitative brain imaging consortium, aggregating data to investigate patterns of neuroimaging abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, including temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal epilepsy, and genetic generalized epilepsy. Our goal was to rank the most robust white matter microstructural differences across and within syndromes in a multicentre sample of adult epilepsy patients. Diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed from 1,069 non-epileptic controls and 1,249 patients: temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (N=599), temporal lobe epilepsy with normal MRI (N=275), genetic generalized epilepsy (N=182) and nonlesional extratemporal epilepsy (N=193). A harmonized protocol using tract-based spatial statistics was used to derive skeletonized maps of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity for each participant, and fiber tracts were segmented using a diffusion MRI atlas. Data were harmonized to correct for scanner-specific variations in diffusion measures using a batch-effect correction tool (ComBat). Analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and sex, examined differences between each epilepsy syndrome and controls for each white matter tract (Bonferroni corrected at p<0.001). Across “all epilepsies” lower fractional anisotropy was observed in most fiber tracts with small to medium effect sizes, especially in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule. Less robust effects were seen with mean diffusivity. Syndrome-specific fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differences were most pronounced in patients with hippocampal sclerosis in the ipsilateral parahippocampal cingulum and external capsule, with smaller effects across most other tracts. Those with temporal lobe epilepsy and normal MRI showed a similar pattern of greater ipsilateral than contralateral abnormalities, but less marked than those in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Patients with generalized and extratemporal epilepsies had pronounced differences in fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and external capsule, and in mean diffusivity of the anterior corona radiata. Earlier age of seizure onset and longer disease duration were associated with a greater extent of microstructural abnormalities in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. We demonstrate microstructural abnormalities across major association, commissural, and projection fibers in a large multicentre study of epilepsy. Overall, epilepsy patients showed white matter abnormalities in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule, with differing severity across epilepsy syndromes. These data further define the spectrum of white matter abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, yielding new insights into pathological substrates that may be used to guide future therapeutic and genetic studies.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ullrich Bartsch; Nicholas A Donnelly; Hayley A Moulding; Christopher Eaton; +6 Authors

    Background:Young people living with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at increased risk of schizophrenia, intellectual disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In common with these conditions, 22q11.2DS is also associated with sleep problems. We investigated whether abnormal sleep or sleep-dependent network activity in 22q11.2DS reflects convergent, early signatures of neural circuit disruption also evident in associated neurodevelopmental conditions.Methods:In a cross-sectional design, we recorded high-density sleep EEG in young people (6–20 years) with 22q11.2DS (n=28) and their unaffected siblings (n=17), quantifying associations between sleep architecture, EEG oscillations (spindles and slow waves) and psychiatric symptoms. We also measured performance on a memory task before and after sleep.Results:22q11.2DS was associated with significant alterations in sleep architecture, including a greater proportion of N3 sleep and lower proportions of N1 and REM sleep than in siblings. During sleep, deletion carriers showed broadband increases in EEG power with increased slow-wave and spindle amplitudes, increased spindle frequency and density, and stronger coupling between spindles and slow-waves. Spindle and slow-wave amplitudes correlated positively with overnight memory in controls, but negatively in 22q11.2DS. Mediation analyses indicated that genotype effects on anxiety, ADHD and ASD were partially mediated by sleep EEG measures.Conclusions:This study provides a detailed description of sleep neurophysiology in 22q11.2DS, highlighting alterations in EEG signatures of sleep which have been previously linked to neurodevelopment, some of which were associated with psychiatric symptoms. Sleep EEG features may therefore reflect delayed or compromised neurodevelopmental processes in 22q11.2DS, which could inform our understanding of the neurobiology of this condition and be biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disorders.Funding:This research was funded by a Lilly Innovation Fellowship Award (UB), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 5UO1MH101724; MvdB), a Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund (ISSF) award (MvdB), the Waterloo Foundation (918-1234; MvdB), the Baily Thomas Charitable Fund (2315/1; MvdB), MRC grant Intellectual Disability and Mental Health: Assessing Genomic Impact on Neurodevelopment (IMAGINE) (MR/L011166/1; JH, MvdB and MO), MRC grant Intellectual Disability and Mental Health: Assessing Genomic Impact on Neurodevelopment 2 (IMAGINE-2) (MR/T033045/1; MvdB, JH and MO); Wellcome Trust Strategic Award ‘Defining Endophenotypes From Integrated Neurosciences’ Wellcome Trust (100202/Z/12/Z MO, JH). NAD was supported by a National Institute for Health Research Academic Clinical Fellowship in Mental Health and MWJ by a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Basic Biomedical Science (202810/Z/16/Z). CE and HAM were supported by Medical Research Council Doctoral Training Grants (C.B.E. 1644194, H.A.M MR/K501347/1). HMM and UB were employed by Eli Lilly & Co during the study; HMM is currently an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG. The views and opinions expressed are those of the author(s), and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health funders.

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    eLife
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    eLife
    Article . 2021
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      eLife
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Jerzy P, Szaflarski;

    Abnormal Temporal Lobe Morphology in Asymptomatic Relatives of Patients With Hippocampal Sclerosis: A Replication Study Yaakub SN, Barker GJ, Carr SJ, et al. Epilepsia. 2019;60(1):e1-e5. doi:10.1111/epi.14575. We investigated gray and white matter morphology in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE + HS) and first-degree asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we sought to replicate previously reported findings of structural surface abnormalities of the anterior temporal lobe in asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS in an independent cohort. We performed whole-brain MRI in 19 patients with mTLE+HS, 14 first-degree asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS, and 32 healthy control participants. Structural alterations in patients and relatives compared to controls were assessed using automated hippocampal volumetry and cortical surface-based morphometry. We replicated previously reported cortical surface area contractions in the ipsilateral anterior temporal lobe in both patients and relatives compared to healthy controls, with asymptomatic relatives showing similar but less extensive changes than patients. These findings suggest morphologic abnormality in asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS, suggesting an inherited brain structure endophenotype.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Epilepsy Currents
    Article
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    Epilepsy Currents
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Epilepsy Currents
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      Epilepsy Currents
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    Authors: Flavie Torrecillos; Emma Falato; Alek Pogosyan; Tim West; +2 Authors

    Brain oscillations involve rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal excitability and may play a crucial role in neural communication. The human corticomuscular system is characterized by beta activity and is readily probed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS inputs arriving at the excitable phase of beta oscillations in the motor cortex are known to lead to muscle responses of greater amplitude. Here we explore two other possible manifestations of rhythmic excitability in the beta band; windows of reduced response variability and shortened latency. We delivered single-pulse TMS to the motor cortex of healthy human volunteers (10 females and 7 males) during electroencephalography recordings made at rest. TMS delivered at a particular phase of the beta oscillation benefited from not only stronger, but also less variable and more rapid transmission, as evidenced by the greater amplitude, lower coefficient of variation, and shorter latency of motor evoked potentials. Thus, inputs aligned to the optimal phase of the beta EEG in the motor cortex enjoy transmission amplitude gain, but may also benefit from less variability and shortened latencies at subsequent synapses. Neuronal phase may therefore impact corticospinal communication.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTBrain oscillations involve rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal excitability. Therefore, motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation are larger when a cortical input arrives at a particular phase of the beta activity in the motor cortex. Here, we demonstrate that inputs to corticospinal neurons which coincide with windows of higher excitability also benefit from more rapid and less variable corticospinal transmission. This shortening of latency and increased reproducibility may confer additional advantage to inputs at specific phases. Moreover, these benefits are conserved despite appreciable corticospinal conduction delays.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Neuroscience
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      Journal of Neuroscience
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    Authors: Daly, I; Williams, DAH; Hwang, F; Kirke, A; +2 Authors

    AbstractThe ability of music to evoke activity changes in the core brain structures that underlie the experience of emotion suggests that it has the potential to be used in therapies for emotion disorders. A large volume of research has identified a network of sub-cortical brain regions underlying music-induced emotions. Additionally, separate evidence from electroencephalography (EEG) studies suggests that prefrontal asymmetry in the EEG reflects the approach-withdrawal response to music-induced emotion. However, fMRI and EEG measure quite different brain processes and we do not have a detailed understanding of the functional relationships between them in relation to music-induced emotion. We employ a joint EEG – fMRI paradigm to explore how EEG-based neural correlates of the approach-withdrawal response to music reflect activity changes in the sub-cortical emotional response network. The neural correlates examined are asymmetry in the prefrontal EEG, and the degree of disorder in that asymmetry over time, as measured by entropy. Participants’ EEG and fMRI were recorded simultaneously while the participants listened to music that had been specifically generated to target the elicitation of a wide range of affective states. While listening to this music, participants also continuously reported their felt affective states. Here we report on co-variations in the dynamics of these self-reports, the EEG, and the sub-cortical brain activity. We find that a set of sub-cortical brain regions in the emotional response network exhibits activity that significantly relates to prefrontal EEG asymmetry. Specifically, EEG in the pre-frontal cortex reflects not only cortical activity, but also changes in activity in the amygdala, posterior temporal cortex, and cerebellum. We also find that, while the magnitude of the asymmetry reflects activity in parts of the limbic and paralimbic systems, the entropy of that asymmetry reflects activity in parts of the autonomic response network such as the auditory cortex. This suggests that asymmetry magnitude reflects affective responses to music, while asymmetry entropy reflects autonomic responses to music. Thus, we demonstrate that it is possible to infer activity in the limbic and paralimbic systems from pre-frontal EEG asymmetry. These results show how EEG can be used to measure and monitor changes in the limbic and paralimbic systems. Specifically, they suggest that EEG asymmetry acts as an indicator of sub-cortical changes in activity induced by music. This shows that EEG may be used as a measure of the effectiveness of music therapy to evoke changes in activity in the sub-cortical emotion response network. This is also the first time that the activity of sub-cortical regions, normally considered “invisible” to EEG, has been shown to be characterisable directly from EEG dynamics measured during music listening.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2019
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vidal, Jérémie; Su, Sylvie; Cébron, David;

    Acoustic eigenmodes are often used to passively infer physical properties of the interiors of rotating planets and stars. Acoustic wave imaging has been also introduced in fluid dynamics. The experimental technique consists in observing and analysing the splitting in frequency of the acoustic modes, by solving an inverse problem. For instance, the presence of an (unknown) rotational profile disturbs the acoustic spectrum. Moreover, a topographic splitting is often superimposed on the rotational splitting. Indeed, rotating celestial objects are rather ellipsoidal than spherical at the leading order, as well as laboratory experiments which are weakly non-spherical (due to mechanical deformations). Rotation and topography should be taken into account simultaneously, but the acoustic problem does not admit exact solutions in the presence of rotation. Fully numerical solutions are often computed. However, they cannot be easily combined with inversion schemes to yield robust results. Hence, the usual approach is to consider small perturbations to non-rotating solutions. As an alternative, we present a new description of the compressible modes, relying on the method of weighted residuals. Here, we present a new spectral method to describe potential flows in triaxial ellipsoids. It relies on an explicit Galerkin expansion, made of global polynomials expressed in Cartesian coordinates. We illustrate this method by considering the canonical situation of diffusionless acoustic modes in an homogeneous, compressible and homentropic fluid ellipsoid at rest. The pressure satisfies a Dirichlet condition (sound soft boundary). We validate our results against fully numerical simulations performed with the commercial software comsol, showing a perfect quantitative agreement. This new method will be extended to include additional effects and alternative boundary conditions. Les modes acoustiques sont couramment utilisés pour déterminer les propriétés physiques de l'intérieur des planètes et des étoiles. La méthode d'imagerie par vélocimétrie acoustique a été récemment introduite en mécanique des fluides, en complément des méthodes d'imagerie existantes. Elle consiste à reconstruire l'écoulement à partir de la levée de dégénérescence des modes acoustiques, observée expérimentalement (par exemple) en présence d'un profil de rotation. Ainsi, des algorithmes d'inversion sont nécessaires pour reconstruire indirectement l'écoulement en rotation dans des expériences en géométrie quasi-sphérique. Cependant, les objets célestes et les expériences ne sont pas rigoureusement sphériques, mais plutôt ellipsoïdaux (au premier ordre). Les effets topographiques et la rotation doivent alors être pris en compte correctement dans le modèle physique. Les méthodes analytiques et numériques existantes (en géométrie déformée) ne peuvent plus alors être couplées facilement et efficacement aux algorithmes d'inversion. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous avons développé une nouvelle méthode de Galerkin semi-analytique en ellipsoïdes tri-axes. Elle repose sur une décomposition polynomiale explicite, en coordonnées cartésiennes, des écoulements potentiels en ellipsoïdes. Nous illustrons la méthode en considérant les modes acoustiques d'un fluide compressible, uniforme et homentropique, avec une condition de Dirichlet homogène à la paroi (condition isobare). Nous validons nos résultats avec des simulations numériques réalisées avec le logiciel comsol. Nous étendrons cette méthode novatrice afin de prendre en compte des effets physiques supplémentaires, afin de décrire plus précisément les conditions expérimentales.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2019
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Kettle, B.; Hollatz, D.; Gerstmayr, E.; Samarin, G.M.; +34 Authors

    We describe a laser-plasma platform for photon-photon collision experiments to measure fundamental quantum electrodynamic processes such as the linear Breit-Wheeler process with real photons. The platform has been developed using the Gemini laser facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. A laser wakefield accelerator and a bremsstrahlung convertor are used to generate a collimated beam of photons with energies of hundreds of MeV, that collide with keV x-ray photons generated by a laser heated plasma target. To detect the pairs generated by the photon-photon collisions, a magnetic transport system has been developed which directs the pairs onto scintillation-based and hybrid silicon pixel single particle detectors. We present commissioning results from an experimental campaign using this laser-plasma platform for photon-photon physics, demonstrating successful generation of both photon sources, characterisation of the magnetic transport system and calibration of the single particle detectors, and discuss the feasibility of this platform for the observation of the Breit-Wheeler process. The design of the platform will also serve as the basis for the investigation of strong-field quantum electrodynamic processes such as the nonlinear Breit-Wheeler and the Trident process, or eventually, photon-photon scattering. Comment: 28 pages, 14 figures

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    Oskar Bordeaux
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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 2021
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
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      Oskar Bordeaux
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      CERN Document Server
      Other literature type . 2021
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2019
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      https://acuresearchbank.acu.ed...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Taylor, JSH; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen;

    Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies. Following 2 wk of training, participants read the trained words while neural activity was measured with functional MRI. Representational similarity analysis on item pairs from the same orthography revealed that right vOT and posterior regions of left vOT were sensitive to basic visual similarity. Left vOT encoded letter identity and representations became more invariant to position along a posterior-to-anterior hierarchy. Item pairs that shared sounds or meanings, but were written in different orthographies with no letters in common, evoked similar neural patterns in anterior left vOT. These results reveal a hierarchical, posterior-to-anterior gradient in vOT, in which representations of letters become increasingly invariant to position and are transformed to convey spoken language information. Significance Learning to read is the most important milestone in a child’s education. However, controversies remain regarding how readers’ brains transform written words into sounds and meanings. We address these by combining artificial language learning with neuroimaging to reveal how the brain represents written words. Participants learned to read new words written in 2 different alphabets. Following 2 wk of training, we found a hierarchy of brain areas that support reading. Letter position is represented more flexibly from lower to higher visual regions. Furthermore, higher visual regions encode information about word sounds and meanings. These findings advance our understanding of how the brain comprehends language from arbitrary visual symbols.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Apollo
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref