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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • Hal-Diderot

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: HALIMA, Imen;

    La sécurité des personnes âgées est un enjeu majeur de santé publique. Les travaux de cette Thèse ont porté plus particulièrement un système de détection et de prévention des chutes pouvant être utilisé en Ehpad ou au domicile des personnes autonomes. Pour cela, nous avons utilisé un dispositif à bas coût composé d'une caméra de profondeur et d'une caméra thermique. Ce dispositif fonctionne d'une façon autonome, en temps réel, de jour comme de nuit et permet de préserver l'anonymat de la personne. L'objectif de la thèse était de développer des algorithmes de suivi de la personne et d'identification de son activité afin d'extraire, à court terme, des paramètres pour la détection de la chute et, à long terme, des indices de la fragilité de la personne. Pour cette Thèse, nous avons exploré deux stratégies permettant ce suivi : 1) Une méthode classique de suivi de la personne basée sur du filtrage particulaire. Dans cette approche, les informations acquises par les deux caméras ont été fusionnées afin de suivre la tête de la personne tout au long de la séquence d'images. 2) Une méthode de reconnaissance de l'activité de la personne à partir d’un apprentissage profond sur les séquences d'images thermiques et de profondeurs. Nous avons choisi de détecter quatre postures (assis, debout, allongé sur le lit et allongé par terre) à partir de nos propres bases de données. Nous pensons qu'a terme, l'analyse de la séquence temporelle des postures extraites par nos algorithmes permettra de détecter les signes de fragilité de la personne âgés. The safety of the elderly people is a major public health issue. The work of this Thesis concerned more particularly a fall detection and prevention system that can be used in retirement homes or in the home of autonomous people. For this, we used a low-cost device composed of a depth camera and a thermal camera. This device works autonomously, in real time, day and night and allows to preserve the privacy of the person. The objective of the thesis was to develop algorithms for tracking the person and identifying his activity in order to extract, in the short term, parameters for the detection of the fall and, in the long term, indices of the person's fragility. For this Thesis, we explored two strategies allowing this monitoring: 1) A people tracking method based on particle filtering. In this approach, the information acquired by the two cameras was merged in order to follow the person's head throughout the image sequence. 2) A method of recognizing the person's activity based on deep learning applied on thermal and depth image sequences. We chose to detect four postures (sitting, standing, lying down and fall) from an own acquired dataset. We believe that in the long term, the analysis of the temporal sequence of the postures extracted by our algorithms will allow to detect signs of frailty of the elderly person.

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    Other literature type . 2021
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    Doctoral thesis . 2021
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      Other literature type . 2021
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      Doctoral thesis . 2021
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    Authors: Abdelghani Laifa; Laurent Gautier; Christophe Cruz;

    International audience; The present work aims to develop a text summarisation system for financial texts with a focus on the fluidity of the target language. Linguistic analysis shows that the process of writing summaries should take into account not only terminological and collocational extraction, but also a range of linguistic material referred to here as the "support lexicon", that plays an important role in the cognitive organisation of the field. On this basis, this paper highlights the relevance of pre-training the CamemBERT model on a French financial dataset to extend its domainspecific vocabulary and fine-tuning it on extractive summarisation. We then evaluate the impact of textual data augmentation, improving the performance of our extractive text summarisation model by up to 6%-11%.

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    https://hal.archives-ouvertes....
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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yosra Ben Slimen; Joanna Balcerzak; Albert Pages; Fernando Agraz; +6 Authors

    In order to compete for a prominent market share, network operators and service providers should retain and increase the verticals’ subscription, catering to their needs in order to differentiate themselves from competitors. In this scenario, verticals’ satisfaction arises of paramount importance. As such, user experience is becoming a reliable indicator for service providers and telecommunication operators to convey overall end-to-end system functioning. To properly estimate end user satisfaction, operators and service providers require efficient means for quality monitoring and estimation at all layers, in conjunction with mechanisms able to maintain said quality at optimum levels. Given these factors, this paper proposes a mechanism for Quality of Perception (QoP) estimation in e-Health services, enabling the QoP-aware management of network slices fulfilling the requirements of supported services. To this end, the paper proposes a cognitive-based architecture which allows for the collection and monitoring of verticals’ data to estimate QoP and provides mechanisms to re-configure the underlying network slices according to the monitored quality levels. A machine learning (ML) model is introduced that aims to forecast any future degradation in the quality perceived by vertical users. In case of a predicted degradation, the proposed architecture reacts and triggers the necessary remedial actions, referred as actuations. In order to evaluate the developed ML model and to showcase the interaction between the different components of the proposed architecture, an experimental study is presented with real data extracted from a roaming ambulance. In addition, a Proof of Concept of the actuation mechanism is demonstrated through an experimental testbed emulating e-Health services. This work has been funded in part through the European Union’s H2020 program, under grant agreement No 761913: project SliceNet. The authors would like to thank all SliceNet partners for their support in this work. Peer Reviewed

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    Authors: Mariam, Houssein; Poulichet, Patrick; Takhedmit, Hakim; Lionel, Rousseau; +4 Authors

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    Authors: Nguyen Van, Eric;

    Cette thèse étudie la possibilité d’améliorer les performances d’un avion de transport à travers un relâchement de la stabilité de route et une réduction de l’empennage vertical. L’idée principale est l’utilisation active de la poussée différentielle, rendue possible grâce au changement de paradigme apporté par la propulsion électrique distribuée. Ce moyen de contrôle supplémentaire et la réduction de l’empennage vertical sont étudiés en trois axes principaux. L’objectif de la première partie est l’évaluation de la stabilité de route ainsi que la contrôlabilité directionnelle de l’avion afin d’identifier les conditions de vol dimensionnant l’empennage vertical. Une contribution est apportée afin de prendre en compte l’aspect non-conventionnelle de la propulsion électrique distribuée. Des outils mathématiques sont développés pour trimmer l’avion utilisant la poussée différentielle comme moyen de contrôle et des outils aérodynamiques sont développés afin de modéliser un empennage vertical de taille variable ainsi que les interactions aéro-propulsives apparaissant sur une voilure soufflée par des hélices. Cette analyse permet d’isoler des conditions dimensionnantes, particulièrement en cas de pannes moteur au décollage et conduit à une réduction significative de la taille de l’empennage pour des cas statiques. De plus, il est montré que la gouverne de direction peut être remplacée par la poussée différentielle.Dans une seconde partie, les aspects dynamiques d’un avion utilisant la poussée différentielle à la place d’une gouverne de direction sont abordés. Une méthode est proposée afin de répondre au questionnement suivant : comment l’empennage vertical et les systèmes de propulsion devraient être dimensionnés afin de satisfaire un ensemble de qualités de vol imposées ? Une architecture de contrôle automatique et une méthode de co-design se basant sur la synthèse H1 structurée et sur des outils d’optimisation non convexe sont utilisés pour gérer le compromis entre la taille de l’empennage vertical et la bande passante des moteurs. Cet ensemble d’outils est ensuite mis à contribution pour étudier l’avion dans les conditions définies dans la première partie et notamment en présence de pannes moteur. Dans une dernière partie, un moyen de recherche expérimentale est développé afin de contribuer à un effort de production de donnée sur la propulsion électrique distribuée. Ce démonstrateur de vol est spécifiquement orienté vers l’étude de la mécanique de vol latérale d’un avion possédant une aile soufflée. Il a été possible d’identifier depuis les mesures réalisées en vol, les dérivées aérodynamiques de l’avion ainsi que leur dépendance à la poussée. Cela a ensuite permis d’illustrer les particularités de la dynamique de vol d’un avion à propulsion distribuée et aile soufflée. The possibility to increase the performance of a transport aircraft through a relaxation of the directional static stability, also called weathercock stability, is studied in this thesis. A change of paradigm brought by the concept of distributed electric propulsion allows the consideration of an active use of differential thrust. This additional means of flight control and the reduction of the vertical tail are the main ideas explored in this work. In a first part, the directional static stability and controllability of an aircraft are evaluated to find the sizing flight conditions for the vertical tail. The contribution here is to take into account the specificities of the unconventional propulsion system. Mathematical tools are developed to trim the aircraft using differential thrust as a mean of directional control and aerodynamic tools are constructed to describe the variable vertical tail size and the aero-propulsive interactions taking place between a propeller and a wing. This analysis isolates a sizing flight condition, particularly the case of engine failure at take-off, for the vertical tail and leads to a significant reduction in surface area. It is also shown that the rudder control surface could be removed and replaced by differential thrust. In a second part, the flight dynamic aspects of an aircraft with a small vertical tail and differential thrust as the only means of directional control are studied. A methodology is proposed to answer the question of how should the vertical tail and propulsion system be designed to satisfy a set of prescribed flight handling qualities ? An automatic control architecture and co-design methodology relying on structured H1 control design and non convex optimisation tools are utilized and developed to manage the trade off between vertical tail size and engine bandwidth. This framework is used in the flight conditions defined in the first part and notably in presence of engine failures.In a last part, a means of experimental research is developed to contribute to an effort to produce experimental data on distributed electric propulsion. This flight demonstrator is specifically oriented toward the study of the lateral flight mechanics of an aircraft having a large portion of the wing embedded in the propeller slipstream. It was possible to identify the aerodynamic derivatives and their dependence on the thrust from the flight data to illustrate the particularity of flight dynamics with distributed propulsion and blown wing.

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      Doctoral thesis . 2020
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    Authors: Tisseyre, Sandrine;

    National audience

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Dupuis, Clémence;

    International audience; L’espace commun territorial est une proposition notionnelle permettant de défaire une contre intuition aménagiste, bien répandue, suivant laquelle effacer, masquer ou travestir l’hostile dans l’espace rendrait le territoire plus habitable. Le courage d’ouvrir l’ensemble de ses valeurs à une hostilité que l’on verra relative, permettrait au contraire de traduire l’espace en territoire plus habitable avec lui. L’architecture serait langage de cette traduction ouverte et égalitaire et sensible, condition même de la naissance d’un territoire plus grand avec lui.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Conference object . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Delmas, Renaud;

    La gestion des environnements dynamiques à risques (transports, nucléaire, médecine etc.) progresse tous les jours dans notre société. Leur bonne gestion requiert une fiabilisation des systèmes techniques et organisationnels et nécessite de renforcer de la formation des opérateurs aux compétences non techniques. Notre thèse s’intéresse à ce dernier axe. Dans la littérature, le concept de compétences non techniques reste flou.Ce mémoire propose d’examiner ce concept, au travers de l’étude des situations de formation des leaders médicaux du Service de Santé des Armées (SSA) à la prise en charge d’afflux massif de victimes en médecine de l’avant. On adoptera le point de vue des formateurs, lorsque ceux-ci analysent l’activité des leadeurs.Dans une première partie (Chap. I,II et III), nous décrivons la formation des médecins du SSA, les enjeux et outils actuels de la formation à la prise en charge d’afflux massif de victimes et aux compétences non techniques, ainsi que le rôle qu’y jouent les formateurs. La partie théorique recense les travaux portant sur le concept de compétences non techniques, de son origine à sa diffusion dans divers domaines d’activité (Chap. IV, V). Nous décrivons les actuelles taxonomies NTS, dont la majorité est structurée en sept catégories NTS : leadership, travail d’équipe, communication, conscience de la situation, prise de décision, gestion de la fatigue et gestion du stress. Nous caractérisons l’activité des leaders médicaux (chap.VI.) puis positionnons le concept de compétences non techniques dans le domaine de l’ergonomie et de la didactique professionnelle (Chap. VII).La partie empirique débute par la construction d’un corpus recensant toutes les habiletés sous-jacentes à la performance du leader médical sur la base d’entretien d’alloconfrontation avec des formateurs du SSA (Chap. IX). Ce corpus est ensuite classé par les dix formateurs en trois classes : technique (T), non technique (NT), technique et non technique (T-NT).La première étude (Chap. X) analyse de la classification des formateurs, elle révèle l’importance de la classe NT, ainsi que l'existence de cinq styles représentationnels adoptés par les formateurs. La seconde étude (Chapitre XI) examine le sens conféré par les formateurs aux habiletés et souligne des écarts au sein même des styles représentationnels. Nous identifions cinq familles d’habiletés, avec une domination des familles dites faiblement-divergente (45%) et NT (41%). On constate que les formateurs ont identifié unanimement 30 habiletés comme étant non techniques qu'on appellera les habiletés NT-ONLY.Les études suivantes (Chap.XII et XIII) ont reposé sur le classement des 30 habiletés NT-ONLY par 21 formateurs CRM et 13 formateurs MED. La troisième étude (Chap. XII) a mis en évidence que tous les formateurs attribuent plus d’une catégorie par habileté. Ceci démontre que les catégories NTS ne sont pas exclusives. Par ordre décroissant, le leadership, la communication, le travail d’équipe et la conscience de la situation ont été les plus utilisées par les formateurs, sans différences intergroupes. Le groupe CRM a plus utilisé la catégorie de prise de décision, le groupe MED a favorisé la gestion du stress et de la fatigue. La quatrième étude (Chap. XIII) a examiné la possibilité de regrouper certaines des sept catégories NTS sur la base du classement des habiletés NT-ONLY. Nos résultats ont mis en évidence des proximités entre les catégories de leadership, travail d’équipe et communication, puis entre celles de conscience de la situation et prise de décision, et enfin entre celles de gestion de la fatigue et de gestion du stress. La dernière partie de cette thèse (Chap. XIV) discute de la méthodologie mise en place, des résultats obtenus et des questions qu’ils soulèvent. The high-risk dynamic environments management (transports, nuclear industry, medicine etc.) increases every day in our societies. A good management of these environments requires the reliability of technical and organization systems. It also requires the training of operators in non-technical skills. This thesis is focused on this last point. In the literature, the non-technical skills concept stays unclear.This works examines this concept, based on the training situations of medical leaders from the Army Health Service to wounded people massive influx in theatre operation. We adopt the point of view from trainers when they are analyzing activity of leaders.In a first part (Chap. I, II & III), we describe the training of the French army physicians and the current stakes and tools of the wounded people massive influx management training. This part also describes current non-technical skills training and trainer roles. The theoretical part describes works around non-technical skills, from its origins to its diffusion in various areas (Chap. IV & V). We describe the current NTS taxonomies which are mainly based on a divided into seven NTS categories: leadership, teamworking, communication, situation awareness, decision making, coping with fatigue and managing stress. Then, we characterize the activity of medical leader (Chap. VI). This theoretical part lead us to consider non-technical skills as technical or non-technical abilities (Chap. VII) and is conclude with the formulation of our research questions (Chap. VIII).The empirical part of this thesis starts with the elaboration of a corpus (Chap. IX) listing all the abilities linked to the leader performance. The construction of this corpus is based on twenty individual alloconfrontation interviews conducted with physician-trainers. Ten of them classified the abilities into three classes: technical (T), non-technical (NT), technical and non-technical (T-NT).The first study (Chap. X) analyses trainer classification. It shows the importance of NT class and identify the existence of five “representational styles” among trainers. The second study (Chap. XI) examines the meaning assigned by each participant to ability and highlight gaps between trainer representations. Then we identified five ability families with a two main families: slightly-divergent (45%) and NT (41%). We notice that there is a core of thirty abilities which are unanimously classified as non-technical only.The following studies (Chap. XII and XIII) are based on the classification of the 30 NT-only abilities by CRM trainers and MED trainers. The third study highlight that all trainers associate more than once NTS category to each ability. That shows NTS categories are not exclusive. In a descendant order leadership, communication, teamworking and situation awareness are the most used by trainers without difference between groups. The CRM group used more the leadership category. The MED group used more stress managing and coping with fatigue. The fourth study examines if it possible to gather, even to merge, some NTS categories based on the classification of NT-ONLY abilities. Our results show the proximities between the categories of leadership, teamwork and communication, then between situation awareness and decision making, and finally between managing stress and coping with stress. The last part of this thesis (Chap. XIV) discuss about the methodology used, results and questions they raise.

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    Authors: Belle Collaboration; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Adamczyk, K.; +196 Authors

    We report the first measurement of the $D^{\ast -}$ meson polarization in the decay $B^0 \to D^{*-} \tau^+\nu_{\tau}$ using the full data sample of 772$\times 10^6$ $B\bar{B}$ pairs recorded with the Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider. Our result, $F_L^{D^\ast} = 0.60 \pm 0.08 ({\rm stat}) \pm 0.04 ({\rm sys})$, where $F_L^{D^\ast}$ denotes the $D^{\ast-}$ meson longitudinal polarization fraction, agrees within about $1.7$ standard deviations of the standard model prediction. Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, CKM 2018

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    Authors: Salimi, Fatemeh;

    While the reference framework for international portfolio choice emphasizes a mean-variance framework, uncovered parity conditions only involve mean stock or bond returns. We propose to augment the empirical specification by using the relative stock market uncertainty of two countries as an extra determinant of their bilateral exchange rate returns. A rise in the relative uncertainty of one stock market will lead capital to flow to the other stock market and generate an appreciation in the currency of the latter. By focusing on the JPY/USD exchange rate returns during the most recent decade (2009-2019) and relying on a nonlinear framework, we provide evidence that the Japanese-US differential stock market uncertainty affects the JPY/USD returns both contemporaneously and with weekly lags. This finding is robust when we control for the stock returns differential and the differential changes in Japanese and US unconventional monetary policy measures.

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    Authors: HALIMA, Imen;

    La sécurité des personnes âgées est un enjeu majeur de santé publique. Les travaux de cette Thèse ont porté plus particulièrement un système de détection et de prévention des chutes pouvant être utilisé en Ehpad ou au domicile des personnes autonomes. Pour cela, nous avons utilisé un dispositif à bas coût composé d'une caméra de profondeur et d'une caméra thermique. Ce dispositif fonctionne d'une façon autonome, en temps réel, de jour comme de nuit et permet de préserver l'anonymat de la personne. L'objectif de la thèse était de développer des algorithmes de suivi de la personne et d'identification de son activité afin d'extraire, à court terme, des paramètres pour la détection de la chute et, à long terme, des indices de la fragilité de la personne. Pour cette Thèse, nous avons exploré deux stratégies permettant ce suivi : 1) Une méthode classique de suivi de la personne basée sur du filtrage particulaire. Dans cette approche, les informations acquises par les deux caméras ont été fusionnées afin de suivre la tête de la personne tout au long de la séquence d'images. 2) Une méthode de reconnaissance de l'activité de la personne à partir d’un apprentissage profond sur les séquences d'images thermiques et de profondeurs. Nous avons choisi de détecter quatre postures (assis, debout, allongé sur le lit et allongé par terre) à partir de nos propres bases de données. Nous pensons qu'a terme, l'analyse de la séquence temporelle des postures extraites par nos algorithmes permettra de détecter les signes de fragilité de la personne âgés. The safety of the elderly people is a major public health issue. The work of this Thesis concerned more particularly a fall detection and prevention system that can be used in retirement homes or in the home of autonomous people. For this, we used a low-cost device composed of a depth camera and a thermal camera. This device works autonomously, in real time, day and night and allows to preserve the privacy of the person. The objective of the thesis was to develop algorithms for tracking the person and identifying his activity in order to extract, in the short term, parameters for the detection of the fall and, in the long term, indices of the person's fragility. For this Thesis, we explored two strategies allowing this monitoring: 1) A people tracking method based on particle filtering. In this approach, the information acquired by the two cameras was merged in order to follow the person's head throughout the image sequence. 2) A method of recognizing the person's activity based on deep learning applied on thermal and depth image sequences. We chose to detect four postures (sitting, standing, lying down and fall) from an own acquired dataset. We believe that in the long term, the analysis of the temporal sequence of the postures extracted by our algorithms will allow to detect signs of frailty of the elderly person.

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    Other literature type . 2021
    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2021
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      Other literature type . 2021
      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2021
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    Authors: Abdelghani Laifa; Laurent Gautier; Christophe Cruz;

    International audience; The present work aims to develop a text summarisation system for financial texts with a focus on the fluidity of the target language. Linguistic analysis shows that the process of writing summaries should take into account not only terminological and collocational extraction, but also a range of linguistic material referred to here as the "support lexicon", that plays an important role in the cognitive organisation of the field. On this basis, this paper highlights the relevance of pre-training the CamemBERT model on a French financial dataset to extend its domainspecific vocabulary and fine-tuning it on extractive summarisation. We then evaluate the impact of textual data augmentation, improving the performance of our extractive text summarisation model by up to 6%-11%.

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Yosra Ben Slimen; Joanna Balcerzak; Albert Pages; Fernando Agraz; +6 Authors

    In order to compete for a prominent market share, network operators and service providers should retain and increase the verticals’ subscription, catering to their needs in order to differentiate themselves from competitors. In this scenario, verticals’ satisfaction arises of paramount importance. As such, user experience is becoming a reliable indicator for service providers and telecommunication operators to convey overall end-to-end system functioning. To properly estimate end user satisfaction, operators and service providers require efficient means for quality monitoring and estimation at all layers, in conjunction with mechanisms able to maintain said quality at optimum levels. Given these factors, this paper proposes a mechanism for Quality of Perception (QoP) estimation in e-Health services, enabling the QoP-aware management of network slices fulfilling the requirements of supported services. To this end, the paper proposes a cognitive-based architecture which allows for the collection and monitoring of verticals’ data to estimate QoP and provides mechanisms to re-configure the underlying network slices according to the monitored quality levels. A machine learning (ML) model is introduced that aims to forecast any future degradation in the quality perceived by vertical users. In case of a predicted degradation, the proposed architecture reacts and triggers the necessary remedial actions, referred as actuations. In order to evaluate the developed ML model and to showcase the interaction between the different components of the proposed architecture, an experimental study is presented with real data extracted from a roaming ambulance. In addition, a Proof of Concept of the actuation mechanism is demonstrated through an experimental testbed emulating e-Health services. This work has been funded in part through the European Union’s H2020 program, under grant agreement No 761913: project SliceNet. The authors would like to thank all SliceNet partners for their support in this work. Peer Reviewed

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    Authors: Mariam, Houssein; Poulichet, Patrick; Takhedmit, Hakim; Lionel, Rousseau; +4 Authors

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    Authors: Nguyen Van, Eric;

    Cette thèse étudie la possibilité d’améliorer les performances d’un avion de transport à travers un relâchement de la stabilité de route et une réduction de l’empennage vertical. L’idée principale est l’utilisation active de la poussée différentielle, rendue possible grâce au changement de paradigme apporté par la propulsion électrique distribuée. Ce moyen de contrôle supplémentaire et la réduction de l’empennage vertical sont étudiés en trois axes principaux. L’objectif de la première partie est l’évaluation de la stabilité de route ainsi que la contrôlabilité directionnelle de l’avion afin d’identifier les conditions de vol dimensionnant l’empennage vertical. Une contribution est apportée afin de prendre en compte l’aspect non-conventionnelle de la propulsion électrique distribuée. Des outils mathématiques sont développés pour trimmer l’avion utilisant la poussée différentielle comme moyen de contrôle et des outils aérodynamiques sont développés afin de modéliser un empennage vertical de taille variable ainsi que les interactions aéro-propulsives apparaissant sur une voilure soufflée par des hélices. Cette analyse permet d’isoler des conditions dimensionnantes, particulièrement en cas de pannes moteur au décollage et conduit à une réduction significative de la taille de l’empennage pour des cas statiques. De plus, il est montré que la gouverne de direction peut être remplacée par la poussée différentielle.Dans une seconde partie, les aspects dynamiques d’un avion utilisant la poussée différentielle à la place d’une gouverne de direction sont abordés. Une méthode est proposée afin de répondre au questionnement suivant : comment l’empennage vertical et les systèmes de propulsion devraient être dimensionnés afin de satisfaire un ensemble de qualités de vol imposées ? Une architecture de contrôle automatique et une méthode de co-design se basant sur la synthèse H1 structurée et sur des outils d’optimisation non convexe sont utilisés pour gérer le compromis entre la taille de l’empennage vertical et la bande passante des moteurs. Cet ensemble d’outils est ensuite mis à contribution pour étudier l’avion dans les conditions définies dans la première partie et notamment en présence de pannes moteur. Dans une dernière partie, un moyen de recherche expérimentale est développé afin de contribuer à un effort de production de donnée sur la propulsion électrique distribuée. Ce démonstrateur de vol est spécifiquement orienté vers l’étude de la mécanique de vol latérale d’un avion possédant une aile soufflée. Il a été possible d’identifier depuis les mesures réalisées en vol, les dérivées aérodynamiques de l’avion ainsi que leur dépendance à la poussée. Cela a ensuite permis d’illustrer les particularités de la dynamique de vol d’un avion à propulsion distribuée et aile soufflée. The possibility to increase the performance of a transport aircraft through a relaxation of the directional static stability, also called weathercock stability, is studied in this thesis. A change of paradigm brought by the concept of distributed electric propulsion allows the consideration of an active use of differential thrust. This additional means of flight control and the reduction of the vertical tail are the main ideas explored in this work. In a first part, the directional static stability and controllability of an aircraft are evaluated to find the sizing flight conditions for the vertical tail. The contribution here is to take into account the specificities of the unconventional propulsion system. Mathematical tools are developed to trim the aircraft using differential thrust as a mean of directional control and aerodynamic tools are constructed to describe the variable vertical tail size and the aero-propulsive interactions taking place between a propeller and a wing. This analysis isolates a sizing flight condition, particularly the case of engine failure at take-off, for the vertical tail and leads to a significant reduction in surface area. It is also shown that the rudder control surface could be removed and replaced by differential thrust. In a second part, the flight dynamic aspects of an aircraft with a small vertical tail and differential thrust as the only means of directional control are studied. A methodology is proposed to answer the question of how should the vertical tail and propulsion system be designed to satisfy a set of prescribed flight handling qualities ? An automatic control architecture and co-design methodology relying on structured H1 control design and non convex optimisation tools are utilized and developed to manage the trade off between vertical tail size and engine bandwidth. This framework is used in the flight conditions defined in the first part and notably in presence of engine failures.In a last part, a means of experimental research is developed to contribute to an effort to produce experimental data on distributed electric propulsion. This flight demonstrator is specifically oriented toward the study of the lateral flight mechanics of an aircraft having a large portion of the wing embedded in the propeller slipstream. It was possible to identify the aerodynamic derivatives and their dependence on the thrust from the flight data to illustrate the particularity of flight dynamics with distributed propulsion and blown wing.

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